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X RADESCANT (John), a contributor to the stlidy of 
natural history in this country in the seventeenth century, 
was by birth a Dutchman, as we are informed by Anthony 
Wood* On what occasion, and at what period be came 
into England, is not precisely ascertained, but it may be 
supposed to have been about the end of queen Elizabeth^s 
reign, or the beginning of that of James I. as Hoilar^s 
print of biro, engraved in 1656, represents him as a per* 
ison very far advanced in years. He- i^L^id to have been 
for a considerable time in the service of ford treasurer Sa- 
lisbury and lord Wooton. He tVrfvelled several years, and 
into various parts of Europe; as far eastward as into Russia. 
In 1620 he was in a fleet that was s^nt again^^ Ihe Algerines ; 
and mention is made of hjs collectiu|; plants in Barbary, 
and in the isles of the Mediterranean. He is said to have 
brought, the trifolium stellatum of Linnaeus from the isle of 
Fermentera; and hb name frequently occurs in the second 
edition of Gerard, by Johnson ; in Parkinson*s "Theatre 
of Plants," and in his ," Garden of Flowers," printed in 
1656. But Dr. Pulteney conjectures that Tradescant was 
not resident in England in the time of Gerard himself, or 
known to him. 

He appears, however, to have been established in Eng- 
land, and his garden founded at Lambeth ; and about 1629 
he obtained the title of gardener to Charles I. Tradescant 
was a man of extraordinary curiosity, and the first in this 
country who made any considerable collection of the sub- 
jects of natural history. He had a son of the same name, 
who took a voyage to Virginia, whence he returned with 
many new plants. They were the means of introducing a 

Vol. XXX. B 


variety of curious species into this kingdom, several of 
which bore their name. Tradescant's spiderwort^ Trades* 
cant's aster J are well known to this day; and Linn»us hat 
immortalized them among the botanists by making a new 
genus, under their name, of the spiderwort^ which had 
been before cd\\e& ephemeron. His museum, called " Tra- 
descant's Ark," attracted the curiosity of the age, and was 
much frequented by the great, by whose means it was also 
considerably enlarged, as appears by the list of his bene- 
factors, printed at the end of his ^' Museum Tradescantia- 
num ;" among whom, after the names of the king and 
queen, are found those of many of the Brst nobility, the 
duke and duchess of Buckingham, archbishop Laud, the 
earls of Salisbury and Carlisle, &c. &c. 

This small 12mo volume the author entitled '' Museum 
Tradescantianum, or a collection of rarities, preserved at 
South Lambeth, near London, by John Tradescant," 1656, 
dedicated to the college of physicians. It contains lists of 
his birds, quadrupeds, fish, shells, insects, minerals, fruits, 
artificial and miscellaneous curiosities, war instruments, 
habits, utensils, coins, and medals. These are followed 
by a catalogue, in English and Latin, of the plants of bis 
garden, and a list of his benefactors. The reader may see 
a curious account of the remains of this garden, drawn up 
in 1749, by the late sir William Watson, and printed in 
the' 46th volume of the Philosophical Transactions, and 
many other particulars in our authorities. Preiixed to the 
** Museum Tradescantianum'' were the prints of both father 
and son, which, from the circumstance of being engraved 
by Hollar, has unfortunately rendered the book well known 
to the collectors of prints, by whom most of the copies have 
been plundered of the impressions. 

In what year the elder Tradescant died is uncertain, 
though it seems to have happened most probably in 1652, 
The son inherited the museum, and bequeathed it by a 
deed of gift to Mr. Ashmole, who lodged in Tradescant's 
house* (See Ashmole.) It afterwards becoming part of 
the Ashmolean museum, the name of Tradescant was sunk. 
John, the son, died in 1662, and was buried April 25 of 
that year. Besides the prints prefixed to the '^ Museum 
Tradescantianum," there are several portraits of the Tra- 
descant family in the Ashmolean Museum, both male and 
female, esteemed good ; but there are no dates to the pic- 
tures, nor any painter's name or mark. John's widow 


erected a monument to the family in Lambeth church-yard, 
in 1662, which was much injured by time; but two fine 
drawings of it, happily preserved in the Pepysian library, 
came in aid of the mutilated parts, and in 1773 tt was re* 
paired by a public subscription. ^ 

TRAHERON (Bartholomew), a learned divine at the 
period of the reformation, was supposed by Wood to have 
been born in Cornwall, or originally descended from an 
ancient family of his name in that county. This supposi- 
tion seems to have been suggested to Wood by Fuller, who 
in his "Worthies" of Cornwall says, "The first sylla,ble 
of his name, and what is added thereto by my author (Bale) 
parentum stemmate clanis^ and the sameness of bis name 
with an ancient family in this country, are a three-fold 
cable to draw my belief that he was this countryman.*' He 
was educated at Oxford, either in Exeter college, or Hart 
hall, where he attained some eminence in the Latin and 
Greek tongues. He afterwards, as was usual with scholars 
desirous of extensive improvement, travelled into Germany 
and Italy, and heard the lectures of the eminent men of. 
that time.' On his return to England he entered into holy 
orders, and was made keeper of the king's library, which 
Leiand's researches had greatly enriched in the time of 
Henry VHI. King Edward VI. who gave Traheron this 
appointment with a salary of twenty marks, finding him 
otherwise a man' of great merit, conferred on him the 
deanery of Chichester in 1551, as Wood sayj, but accord-^ 
ing to Le Neve, in 1553. This, on the accession of queen 
Mary in the same year, he lost, as well as his other pre- 
ferments, and joined the other English exiles in Germany^ 
where, atFrancfort, he became their divinity-reader, par- 
ticularly on the beginning of the Gospel of St. John, against 
the Arians, or, as Strype says, ** against the wicked enter-* 
prises of the new start-up Arians in England." While here 
he appears to have written all his works ; 1. " Paraeresis, 
lib. 1.". addressed to his brother Thomas, persuading him 
to embrace the reformed religion. 2. " Carmina in mor- 
tem Henrici Dudlasi." 3. ^^ Analysis Scoparum Johannis 
Cocblaei." 4. " Exposition of a part of St. John's Gospel 
made in sundry readings in the English congregation against 
the Arians," 1558, 8vo, 2d edition. 5. "Exposition on 

1 Pttlteney'8 Skctcbes.— Appendix to the ** History and Antiquities of Lani- 
betb.''— AshmoleU Piarjr. 

B 2 

4 T R A H E R O N. • 

the fourth chapter of St. John's RevelationSi which treate^h 
of the provideoce of God, made before his countrymen in 
Germany,'* 1557, 8vo, reprinted 1577 and 1583. 6. " An 
answer made by Bar. Traheron to a private Papist," &c. 
1558, 8vo. 7. " Treatise of Repentance," &c. .Wood 
says he also published a translation of Vigo's " Surgery," 
and Vigo's " Little practice." When be died U uncertain* 
Wood, in his first edition, says he returned after qu^en 
Mary's death, and was restored to all be bad lost, and was 
Uving in 1662 ; but in his second edition he Omits this, and 
quotes Hoiinshed, who gives it as a report that he died 
abroad in the latter end of Mary's reign. ' 

TRAILL (Robert), an eminent divine pf the church of 
Scotland, was descended of an ancient family that had 
been in possession of the estate of Blebo, in the coujity of 
Fife, from the time of Walter Traill, archbishop of St. An- 
drew's, 1385, who, as sopfie say, purchased it; but Keith 
calls him ^' a son of the laird of Blebo," by which it would 
appear that the estate bad been in the family before the 
archbishop's time. This prelate had been a canon of St. 
Andrew's, and pursued his studies on the continent^ where 
be was honoured with the degree of doctor both of civil and 
canon law, and when at Rome became referendary to pope 
Clement VIL This pontiff had a very high opinion of 
him, and when the see of St. Andrew's became vacant, pre- 
ferred him to it by his s^uthority, without any election. 
So excellent indeed was his character in that comparatively 
dark age, that even Buchanan speaks in his praise. He 
built the castle of St. A-ndi;^w^$, the scene afterwards of 
many remarkable transaeii^i^ i'^tbe history of the church 
of Scotland,r and died in 1401-. - /He was buried in the ca- 
thedral, near . to the high .d,)itq[r» with an inscription cha- 
racteristic of the encomi)Bistic. genius of the times : 

'^ Hie fuit Ecclesiae directa columna, fenestra 
Lucida> thuribuluni redolens^ campana sonora.** 

He is said to have given the estate of Blebo to a nephew, 
but we are unable to trace his descendants until we arrive 
at the sixteenth century, when we meet with Andrew Traill, 
the great grandfather of our author, w^o was a younger 
brother of the family of Blebo. Following the profession 
of a soldier, he rose to the rank of a colonel, * and was for 
some time in the service, of the city of Bruges, and other 

» Tanner. — Bale.— Aih. Ox. vol. I. — Strype'ef Cranmer; p, 358^ • 

T R A I L L. 5 

towns- ia Flanders^ in the wars which they carried on in 
defence of tbeir liberties^ against Philip II. of Spain. When 
he left this service bis arrears amounted to 2,700/. for 
which he received a bond secured upon the property of 
the States. ; He- then served' under the king of Navarre, 
afterwards Henry IV". of France, in the civil wars of that 
kingdom, and bad occasion to do that prince considerable 
service in taking a town by stratagem. Upon his return to 
Britain he was made a gentleman of prince Henry's privy- 
clK^mber. When he died is not known ; but he had a son, 
Jamest Traill, who endeavoured to recover the sum due to 
him by the. cities of Flanders; and, upon a petition to 
king James; which was referred to sir Harry Martin, judge 
of the admiralty, lie obtained a warrant to arrest a ship 
belonging to the city of Bruges, which was done accord- 
ingly. But the duke of Buckingham being gained by the 
adverse; party, the ship was soon released ; nor could he 
ever aftenwards recover miy part of the debt. This cir- 
cumstance, together with the e^pence of the prosecution, 
obliged him Co dispose of a' small estate in the parish of 
Deniuno, in the county of Fife. 

. The son of this James Traill, Robert, the father of the 
iounediate subject of this article, was minister, first of Ely, 
in the county. of Fife, and afterwards of the Grey Friars 
church, in Edinburgh, and vi^as much distinguished for bis 
iidelity and zeal in discharging the duties of bis function, 
until after the restoration, whe«i being prosecuted for non* 
conformity before the Scotch council, he was imprisoned 
seven months in Edinburgh, and bat)isbed from the king*^ 
dom. He then went to Holland, whence he wrote a letter 
of advice to his wife and children, the only piece of his 
which has been ^pq^lisbed. He returned afterwards, and 
died in Scotland, but at what time is unqertain. Up 
was on^ of the ministers who attended the marquis of Mont* 
rose on the scaffold. While jn HolUnd, a very character- 
istic portrait of him was painted there, which is now in the 
possession of the earl of Buchan, and from which there is 
an. engraving in Mr. Pinkerton's " Scotish Gallery.*' 

His son, Robert, the subject of this memoir, was born 
at Ely in May 1642. After the usual course of education 
at. home, he was sent to the university of Edinburgh, where 
he recommended himself to the several professors by his 
capacity and diligent application to his studies. Having 
determined to devote himself to the church, be pursued 


the study of divinity with great ardour for several years. 
Partaking with his father .in zeal for the principles and 
discipline of the presbyterian church, he became a sufferer 
in its cause, unusual severity being exercised against these 
who would not accede to the introduction of episcopacy. 
In 1666 he was obliged to secrete himself, together with 
his mother and elder brother, because some copies of a 
book entitled ^* An apologetic Relation,^* &c. which the 
privy council had ordered to be publicly burnt, were found 
in Mrs. Traill's house ; and in the following year, being 
suspected as having been one of those who took up arms 
and resisted the king's forces, or of being a favourer of 
their cause, a proclamation was issued for apprehending 
him. This obliged him to join his father in Holland, where 
he resumed his divinity studies, and assisted Nethenus, 
professor of divinity at Utrecht, in the republication of 
Rutherford's *^ Examination of Arminianism." In the pre- 
face to his edition of that book, Nethenus speaks of Mr. 
Robert Traill as a pious, prudent, learned, and industrious 
young man. % 

In 1670 he ventured to come over to England, where he 
was at least free from the sanguinary tyranny which dis-^ 
graced his own country about this time, and was ordained 
by some presbyterian divines in London. Seven years 
afterwards, however, he was at Edinbgrgh, and for preach* 
ing privately, was apprehended, and brought before the 
privy council. Before them he acknowledged he had kept 
house-conventicles, but as to field-conventicles, which was 
-a criminal ofFetice, he left them to prove that, and pe- 
remptorily refused to answer upon oath any interrogatorie* 
that might affect himself. On this he was sent to prison, 
but released by order of government in October of the same 
year, 1677* He then returned to England, and preached 
tn a meeting at Cranbrook, in Kent, but was afterwards for 
many years pastor to a Scotch congregation in London, 
and at one time was colleague with the Rev. Nathaniel 
Mather in a meeting in Lime-street. 

As he. was warmly attached to the doctrines usually called 
Calvinistic, he took a zealous concern in the controversy 
that followed the publics^tion of Dr* Crisp's works. In 1692 
he published bis " Vindication of the Protestant doctrine 
of Justification, and of its first preachers and professors, 
from the unjust charge of Antinomianism." In this he dis- 
covers great zeal against Arminianism, and is not a little 


displeased with those divines who. were for adopting wbut 
they called a middle way, and who wrote against Dr. Crisp. 

Mr. Traill lived to see the revolution establisbed, and to 
rejoice in the settlement of the protestant succe^ision in 
the illustrious bouse of Hanover. He died in May 1716, 
aged seventy*fouf. His works, principally sermons, which 
have long been popular, particularly in Scotland, were 
printed for many years separately, but in 1776 were pub- 
lished together at Glasgow in 3 vols. 8vo. In 1810a more 
complete edition appeared at Edinburgh in 4 vols. 8vOy 
with a life prefixed, of which we have partly availed our- 
selves. It is not mentioned in any account we have seeni 
where Mr. Traill died, but it is probabke that he bad re- 
turned to Scotland bel^bre that event, as all bis descendants 
were settled there. His son, Robert, was minister of Pan- 
bride, in the county of Angus, and was the faihef of Dr. 
James Traill, who, conforming to the English church, was 
presented to the living of West Ham, Essex, in 1762. He 
accompanied the earl of Hertford as chaplain to that no- 
bleman when ambassador in France, and was afterwards his 
chaplain when he became lord lieutenant of Ireland. In 
1765 be was appointed bishop of Down and Connor, and 
died in Dublin in 1783. ^ 


TRAPEZUNTIUS (George), a learned modern Greek, 
was born in 1395, in the island of Crete, but took the 
name of Trapezuntius^ or *^ of Trebisond/' because bis 
family were originally of that city. ■ In bis youth he went 
to Venice, where Francis Barbaro, who bad invited him, 
became his patron. Having been instructed in the Latin 
language he went to Padua, and afterwards to Vicenzai 
where in 1420 bis patron obtained for him the professor- 
ship of the Greek, but be did not remain long in this situa- 
tion. Finding himself harassed by the intrigues of Gua* 
rino, of Verona, who regarded him with sentiments of de- 
termined hostility, he gave up his professorship, on which 
Barbaro recalled him to Venice, where by the interest of 
this steady friend he was appointed to teach rhetoric, and 
was enrolled among the citizens of Venice. Barbaro af* 
terwards recommended him to the court of Rome, where 
we find Trapezuntius in 1442, in the pontificate of Euge* 

^ life prefixed to hif Workf.— Wilson's Httt. of Dtticnting Churches.— iPrirat^ 
information, the Editor beinf materoallj descended from this fatniiy. 

8 T R A P E Z U N T 1 U S. 

nius, teaching the belles lettres and the Aristotelian phi*, 
losophy. During the same time he was employed in traus<>. 
lating several Greek authors into Latin, which induced 
Nicholas V. the successor of Eugenius, to make him apas* 
tolic secretary. These translations he was thought to have 
executed well, but his reputation declined so far on one 
occasion as to end in his disgrace., He had received orders 
from the pope to translate the Almagest of Ftoleihy, and 
to add a commentary, or notes. This he performed in 
1451, and the following year was banished from Rome on 
account of this work. What there was so offensive as to 
bring upon him this punishment is not known, or at least 
not clearly expressed by his biographers ; but it seems 
not improbable, that bis general temper, which was irri-i 
table, had disgusted some of his contemporaries, and that 
the pope had listened to the insinuations of his enemies. 
Many errors had been detected in his translations by some 
of those able scholars whom Nicholas V. had assembled at 
his court, and this probably rendered Trapezuntius more 
apt to take offence. It was probably while in this temper, 
that a disgraceful quarrel took place between him and the 
celebrated Poggio, in Pompey's theatre, where the ponti- 
fical secretaries were assembled, for the purpose of cor* 
recting certain official papers. It was occasioned by some 
satiric remarks of Poggio, which proroked Trapezuntius to 
give him a blow on the face. Poggio returned it, and 
continued the battle until, as we n^ay suppose, the comba-f 
tants were (!)arted. 

Trapezuntius now retired to Naples with his family, and 
wrote to his old protector Barbaro, but found he had been 
dead about a month. The good offices of Philelphus, how* 
ever, made his peace with the pope, and Philelphus wrote 
to him, that he might not only return to Rome by permis- 
sion, but that the pope even wished it ; and he was acc6r<r 
dingly reinstated in his former office. He had always de- 
fended the peripatetic philosophy against the Platonists 
with great vehemence and acrimony, and now wrote bis 
** Comparison of Aristotle and Plato," full of bitter invec- 
tive. This involved him in a controversy with Gaza, and 
particularly with Bessarion; the particulars of which we 
have already given in our account of the latter. His first 
quarrel with Ga^sa was owing to their having jointly nn- 
deriakep the translation of Aristotle, *VOn Animals,*' each 
claiming to himself the exclqsive merit of havin^^ overcome 


the dtQicultiea which aroAe from the great number of names 
of animals which are found in that work. , , 

TrapezuQtius appears to have met with some reverse 
after .this controversy, for in 1549 he was again at Venice, 
supplicating. the aid of the State^ and was in consequence 
appointed professor of .the belles-lettres. While in this 
office be wrot^ his Art of Rhetoric, dedicated to the Ve- 
netians, which appeared under the title of <' Khetorica 
Trapezuntina," but w^s not printed until 1470, at Venice, 
in folio, and then only the first book. In 1464 and 14,65, 
be took a voyage to Crete, and another to Constantiupple. 
Oh his return, being informed that one of his scholars, was 
Vkom pope, under the name of Paul IL he went to Rome, 
in hopes. of being well received; but all he received was 
an ord^r to be imprisoned in the castle of St. Angelo, 
where he remained for four. months, and was afterwards 
under confinement in his house. . The most probable cause 
of this treatment was bis having returned to Rome without 
leave ; but this is merely conjecture ; the pope, how^, 
atiength condescended to forgive him, and he remained 
at Rome much respected. In his latter years his faculties 
began to decay, and before his death, which took place in 
1484, in the ninetieth year of his age, all traces of memory 
and understanding were gone. 

Among the transjations executed by Trapezuntius, are 
several parts of the works of Eusebius, Cyril of Alexan- 
dria> Grregory Nyssen, Nazianzen, Chrysostom, , Aristotle, 
Plato, Ptolemy, &o., but in many of these he is neither 
accurate nor. faithful, having made unpardonable variations, 
omissions, or additions. ^ 

•■ TRAPP (Joseph), an English divine, and vo1>iminou9 
Iranslatoir, was the grandson of the rev. John Trapp, vicar 
of Weston-upon-Avon, and schoolmaster at. Stratford in 
Warwickshire, who wrote large commentaries upon alniost 
all. the books of the Old and New Testament, , published in 
several quarto volumes, 164£, &c. and other tracts on 
subjects of divinity. He never had, nor wished to have, 
any preferment .besides his vicarage, which lay at the con- 
venient distance of two miles from bis school. His char 
racter, as a roan and as a preacher, would have recom- 
mended him to higher. promotion.; but he s^lways refused 

1 Body de Graecis lUustribus. — ^Tiraboschi. — Bullart's Academie des Scien- 
ces. — Lahdi Hist, de la Litt. d'ltalte.-^Shepherd'i :LHe of Poggio.'^Fabririi 
Bibt. Lat« Mtd. .^«— 'Saxii Onomast. . 

10 T R A P P. 

to accept it, as bis condition was equal to bis wishes. He 
died Oct. 17y 1669, aged sixty-eight. 

Our aathor^s father, the rev. Joseph Trapp, rector of 
Chertington in Gloucestershire, was a master of arts, and 
had formerly been student of Christ*church, Oxford, and 
was inducted into Cherrington in 1662, where he was bu-* 
ried Sept. 24, I6!^S, with a Latin inscription, immediately 
over his grave, in the North chancel. His son, the sub- 
ject of the present account, was born, probably in Novem-* 
ber, as he was baptised on the sixteenth of that month, 
1679. After some education at home under his father, he 
was removed to the care of the master of New-college- 
school, Oxford, and became so good a scholar, that in 
16.95, at sixteen years of age, he was entered a commoner 
of Wadham-college, and, in 1696, was admitted a scholar 
of the same bouse. In 1702, he proceeded master of arts^ 
and in 1704, was chosen a fellow. In 170S, he was ap* 
pointed the first professor of poetry, on the foundation of 
Dr. Birkhead, sometime fellow of AlUSouls-coUege, and 
continued in the same for ten years, the period allotted by 
the founder. In 1709-10, he -acted as a manager for Dr. 
Sacheverell on his memorable trial ; and in 1711, was ap- 
pointed chaplain to sir Constantino Pbipps, lord chancellor 
of Ireland, and one of the lordsjusttces of that kingdom. 

In 1720, Mr. Trapp was, by the favour of the earl of 
Peterborough, presented to the rectory of Dauntzey, in 
Wiltshire, which be resigned in 1721 for t lie vicarage of 
the united parishes of Christ-church, Newgate-street, and 
8t. Leonard^ Foster-Ian^. ' In February 1727, in con<* 
sequence of the merit and usefulness of his two books, en^ 
titled " Popery truly stated,'* and ** Answer to England's 
Conversion,*' both printed in that year, he was presented 
by the university of Oxford with a doctor of divinity's de- 
gree by diploma. In 1733, be was, on the demise of Ro- 
bert Cooper, M. A. and archdeacon of Dorset, preferred 
to the rectory of Harlington, Middlesex, on the presen- 
tation of the celebrated lord Bolingbroke, to whom he had 
i>eeu appointed chaplain by the recommendation of dean 
Swift, and in defence of whose administration be had wiit- 
ten a number of papers in the ^^ Examiner,'^ during 1711 
and two following years. In 17S4, be was elected one of 
the joint-lecturers of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields : and dying 
at Harlington of a pleurisy, Nov. 22, .1747, aged sixty- 
seven, was interred on the North side of the entrance iBCo 

T R A P p. 11 

the chancel of Harlitigton-church. He desired in h's will^ 
that each of his parishionen in Cbrist^cburch and St. Lep« 
iiard*8 Foster*lane, and in Harlington, Middlesex, who 
were boasekeepers, might, from the highest to the lowest, 
^^ have a copy of his little book, entitled * The Four last 
Things,* beseeching them, for the sake of their immortal 
louls, to read it, and practise it^ and recommend it to 
their children and servants, and all others committed to 
their charge." His parishioners of Christ-church had so 
gratefttl a sense of his memory, as to erect a monument 
by subscription in tfaeif church, with an inscription ap- 
parently taken from soqie lines in the poem which he be- 
queathed them. 

Dr. Trapp was in person of a middle stature, slender ha- 
bit, olive complexion, and a countenance of uncommon 
openness and animation, arising from the concurrence of 
an arched high forehead, fine eyebrows, and expressive 
vivid eyes, which, accompanied with an erect attitude, 
gave bim an- air of consequence and dignity, prepossessing 
bis audience, at his first appearance in the pulpit, with a 
favourable ex)>ectation of what be was about to deliver. 
The portrait of faim in the Oxford picture-gallery is a 
striking resemblance. In bis temper, he was somewhat im- 
patient and basty, but in general bad a considerable com* 
mand over it, where professional decorum was necessary. 
Being a man of wit, he could unbend agreeably among his 
intimate friends, and had seen much of the world, and con* 
versed witb men of all parties in an age strongly marked 
with party-spirit. Like most divines about the commence- 
ment of the last century, he was challenged to personal 
controversies witli those of the popish persuasion, but al- 
ways resisted tbem. ^^ Disputes by word of mouth,*' be 
says, in the preface to Popery truly stated, *^ I alwaya de- 
clined, and always will : I never ^new any good come of 
them : much harm, I am sure, may, and I believe often does : 
much empty wrangjiiig at the time of the debate, and much 
misreport and misrepresentation after it. And therefore I 
chose. writing rather than talking." 

He was so much addicted to books, that it was the late 
bishop Pearce's opinion tbat be studied harder than any 
man in England. In conseqxtence of this he was liable to 
absence of mind, as it is called, and frequently ordinary 
matters and occurrences passed unheeded before bim« 
When at college, according to' the imperfect account of 

li T R A P p. 

bim in the Supplement to the *^ Biographia Britannicaj'' he 
was somewhat dissipated, and was led to pursuits not be- 
coming his intended profession. When he applied to Br* 
BrObinson^ bishop of London, for orders, that prelate cen* 
sured him, with much warmth/ for having written a piaj* 
(" Abramuie") ; but, after taking on him the sacred profes-' 
sion, he was uniform in a conduct wbicb'dtd credit. to* 
it. And his consistency in this respect for a series of years, 
cluring the most turbulent times, both in church and state>: 
procured him the greatest honours and respect from per-* 
SODS of the first order and character. The university of 
Oxford, who confers her honours only by the test of merit, 
and the rules of propriety, could not express her opinion 
©f his merit more significantly than by presenting him with 
a doctor of divinity's degree, by diploma, in full convoca- 
tion.. When he preached his assize sermon- at Oxford, 
1739, it was observed, that the late rev. Dr.' Theophilus 
Leigh, master of Baliol- college, and then vice-chancellor 
of Oxford, stood up all the time of his preaching, to ma-» 
nifest his high sense of so respectable a character. Nor 
was he regarded only by those of his own church and coun- 
try, for he was much esteemed by foreigners, and even by 
those of the Homish communion, against whom he stood 
foremost in controversy, and that with some acrimonyi 
When, in 1742, his son was at Rome, be was asked by 
oi)e of the cardinals, whether he was related to the great 
Dr. Trapp, and the cardinal being informed that he was 
bis son, he immediately requested, that on his return to 
England, he would not fail to make his particular respects 
to the doctor. 

' Dr. T^apP acquired fame in his day by a great variety of 
writings, theological, critical, controversial, political, and 
poetical. He seems to have valued himself as a translator, in 
which he was confessedly unsuccessful. When appointed poe-*' 
try professor, he gave a regular course of lectures in very 
^legaut Latin, which were published in 17 1&, in three vols, 
octavo, under the title of " PreleciSones Poeticae." A 
translation appeared afterwards : but, although he s\cquitted 
himself in these lectures as a good critic, be was not able 
to exemplify his own rules, and his translation of Virgil 
bears no reaemblance to the original, owing to an impru« 
dent choice of words and figures, and a total want of har^ 
mony. He had most succ4^ss in a Latin translation of 
^' Anacreon,*' for Latin poetry was his forte; but failed 


T R A P p. 13 

when he attempted to transfuse the spirit of Milton into 
that language. 

As his numerous publications form a sort of diary of bis 
employments, we shall give a chronological list of them, 
which seems to have been drawn up with great care^ 
omitting only some of his occasional sermons, as we be- 
lieve the;y were afterwards collected. His earliest pro- 
duction^ wa^, 1. ^' Fraiis nummi Anglicani/' in the ^'Musse 
Angli^anse/' 1699; 2. ^' A poem on Badminton -house, 
Gloucestershire." 1 700 ; 3. " Verses, on the death of the 
duke of Gloucester/' Oxon. 1700; 4. ^^ On the deaths of 
king William, prince George, and queen Anne,'' 1702, &c« 
5. "Verses on baron Spanheim," 170$ ; 6. " Miscellany 
verses," in vol. VI. of Dry den's Miscellany, 1709; 7. 
*' Odes on the Oxford Act," 1713; 8. " Preservative 
against unsettled notions," vol. I. 1715, vol. II. 1722; 9. 
A controversial "Sermon" against bishop Hoadly, from 
John xviii. 36, 1717; 10. "Virgil translated into blank 
verse," 1717, 2 vols. 4tQ ; 11. " Prelectiones Poet^cae, 
1718, 3 vols. 8vo; 12. "Treatise on Popery truly stated 
and briefly confuted," 1727; 13. "Answer to England's 
eonversion," ,1727 ; 14. " Sermons on Righteousness over- 
much, four in one," Ecclesiastes vii. 16, ^ Be not righteous 
over-much, neither make thyself over-wise ; why shouldst 
thou destroy thyself;' * 15. " Sermon at Oxford Assizes,'* 
^But it is good to be zealoqsly affected always in a good 
thing,* ,1739; 16. "Answer to the Seven Pamphlets against 
the said Sermon," 1740; 17. " Reply to Mr. Law's answer 
to I^igt^teousness over-much," 1740; 18. " Miltoni Para- 
disus Amissus, 2 vols. ; 19. " Concio ad Clerum Londinen- 
sem.SioD Coll. Matt. s. Comm. 16," 1743 ; 20. " Sermons, 
No. III. from Matt. xvi. 22, 23, * Now all this was done,' 
&c. ; A^alacbi.Ui. 1, /Behold I will send my messenger,' 
&c. ; and.from.Matt. xvi. 27, 28, * For the Son of Man shall 
eome in the glory of the Father,' &c. — prefixed to Expla- 
natory Notes; on .the first of the Four Gospels," 1 747 ; 2 1. 
'^ Continuation of Explanatory Notes on the Four Gos- 
pels," finished and published by Mr. Trapp, his son, 1752 ; 
22, " Sermons on Moral and Practical subjects," 2 vols. 
jBvo, published by Mr. Trapp, and printed at Reading, in 

* Dr. Trapp "was rather tenacious Gentleman** Magazine ; which pro- 
M literary property, and vauld not duced an excellent paper on the sub- 
suffer Mr. Cave to give a kind of ject by Dr. Johnson, printed in the 
abridgment of these sermons in the. Gent. Mag. for 1787. 


H T R A P R 

1752. His Sermons at Lady Moyer^s Lecture were pub- ' 
lished in 1731, 8vo. ^Besides the above he published, with- 
QOt his name, 23. *^ A Prologue to the University of Ox- 
ford," 1703 ; 24. " Abramule,'* a Tragedy, 1703 ; 25. "An 
ordinary Journey no Progress," in defence of Dr. Sache-* 
vereU, 1710 ; 26. «The true genuine Whig and Tory Ad- 
dress," in answer to a Libel of DnB. .Hoadly, 1710; 27. 
*< Examiners" in Vol. L Nos. 8, 9, 26, 33, 45, 46, 48, 50, 
1711 ; Vol. n. Nos. 6, 12, 26, 27, 37, 45, 50, 1712; Vol. 
in. Nos. 1, 2, 5, 13, 20, 21, 26, 29, 34, 1713 ; 28. " The 
Age of Riddles," 1710; 29. " Character and principles of 
the present set of Whigs," Wl 1 ; 30. **Most Faults on one 
Side," against a sly Whig pamphlet, entitled, * Faults on 
both Sides,' 1710; 31. " Verses on Garth's Verses to Go- 
dolphin," 1710; 32. <^ Votes^ without Doors, occasioned by 
Votes within Doors," 1710; S3. ** Preface to an Answer to 
Priestcraft," 1710; 34. "Verses on Harley's being stabbed 
by Guiscardj" 1711 ; 35. **Poem to the duke of Ornwnd,'* 
17 H ; 36. <* Character of a certain Whig," 1 7 1 1 ; 37. " Hei' 
Majesty's prerogative in Ireland," 1711; 38. "Peace," a 
poem, 1713 ; 39. " A short answer to the bishop of Ban- 
gor's great book against the Committee," 1717 ; 40. ^*Th« 
Case of the Rector of St. Andrew, Holborn," 1722; 41: 
" Several Pieces in the Grub-street Journal," vi«, upon^ 
Impudence, upon Henley's Grammars, Answering, and not 
answering, Books, 1726; 42. "On Budget's Philosopher's 
Prayer," 1726 ; 43. " Prologue tod Epilogue for Mr.Hem- 
mings's . Scholars at Tbistleworth," 1728; 44. ** Grub- 
street verses. Bowman," 1731 ; 45. *♦ Anacreon translated 
into Elegiacs," 1732 ; 46. <* Four last Things," a poem, 
1734 ; 47. " Bribery and Perjury ;'* 48. " Letter about the 
Quakers Tithe Bill," 1736. 

Dr. Trapp's library, consisting of his own original col- 
lection and Dr. Sacheverell's added, at his town house in 
Warwick-lane, and his country living at Harlington, toge-^ 
ther with his manuscript papers, devolved, in course, to bis 
son, Mr. Trapp, who dying, the books, now much increased 
by Mr. Trapp's elegant collection of classic authors, va<» 
luable prints, and medals, were sold altogether to Lowndes 
of London, and from him the library passed to Gov. Palk. 
The manuscripts were excepted for Mr. Awbery, at whose 
death they passed into the possession of some friend, com- 
mon to Messrs. Trapp and Awbery. 

Dr. Trapp married, in 1712, Miss White> daughter of 

T R A P P- ■ IS 

Mr. Aiderman White of Oxford, by whom be had two soas^ 
Henry, so barptised after his godfather lord Bolingbroke^. 
who died in infancy, and Joseph, who became in 1734 fel«- 
low of New college Oxford, and in 1751 was presented by 
George Piu, esq. afterwards lord Rivers, to the living of 
Stratfield, near Hertford Bridge, Hampshire. H^ died in 
1769. " 

TllE^Y (George), a learned judge, was bom, as Wood 
thinks, at or near Ply mp ton in Devonshire in 1644, and was 
admitted a commoner of Exeter college, Oxford, in 1660. 
After studying some time here, he left college without 
taking a degree, as, we have repeatedly had occasion to- 
observe, was usual with young gentlemen intended for ttie ^ 
law ; and went to the Inner Temple. After being admitted 
to tlie bar, he had much practice, and was accounted a 
good common lawyer. In 1678 and 1679, he sat in par- 
liai|ietit as representative for Plympton, and in the last- 
mentioned year was appointed chairman of the committee 
of secrecy for the investigation of the popish plot, and was 
in 1680 one of the managers in the impeachment of lord 
Stafford. In December of the same year, when sir George 
Jeffries was dismissed from the recordership of London, Mr. 
Treby was elected in his room, and in January 1684 the ' 
^iag conferred on him the honour of knighthood : but whea 
the fK^ warranto issued, and the city charter, for which he 
pleaded aloug with Pollexfeu, was withheld, he was de« 
prived of the recordership in Oct. 1685. On the revolit- 
tion^ king William restored him to this office, and he bad 
the honour of addressing his majesty, in the absence of the 
lofd ioayor, sir John Chapman, who was confined by sick- 
ness. His very able speech on this occasion was published 
in the *^ Fourth collection of papers relating to tlie present 
juncture of af& England,'" 1683, 4to, and in Bofaan^s 
<' History of the Desertion," 1689, 4to. In March 1688 
be was made solicitor* general, and the following year 
attorney-general. In April 1692 he was called to the rank' 
of seijeant, and in May following was promoted to be chief 
justice of the Common Pleas, on which be resigned the 
office of recorder. This learned and upright lawyer died 
in March 1701-2,. aged fifty-six. His son and grandson^ 
of the same names^ represented Plympton and Dartmouth^ 

* Biog. Brit. Sup[)tement. — Life in Gent. Mag. vol. LVI. — Swift's Works. 
See Index.— -Nichols'K Bowyer. 

16 T R E B Y. ^ 

and the latter was master of the household to George IL 
and a lord of the treasury. 

Sir George Treby published " A collection of Letters 
and other writings relating to the horrid Popish Plot, print- 
ed from the originals,^' Lond. 1681, fol. in two parts, and 
is supposed to have written ^^ Truth vindicated; or, a de-* 
tection of the aspersions and scandals ca^ upon sir Robert 
Clayton and sir George Treby, justices, &c. in a paper 
published in the name of Dr. Francis Hawkins, minister of 
the Tower, entitled * The confession of Edward Fitzharrisi 
&c.*'' Lond. 1681. His pleadings and arguments in the 
King^s-bench on the quo warranto^ are printed with those 
of Finch, Sawyer, and PoHexfen, Lond. 1690, fol. * 

TREMBLEY (Abraham), an eminent naturalist, was 
born at Geneva in 1710, and was intended by his father 
for the church, for which reason he sent him tu pursue his 
studies in Holland. There he became tutor to the children 
of M. Bentinck, and coming afterwards to London, had 
the young duke of Richmond for bis pupil. On bis re- 
turn to Geneva in 1757, he settled there, and became most 
esteemed for learning and private character^ He bad early 
devoted his leisure to some branches of natural history, and 
when appointed one of the commissioners for providing 
Geneva with a granary of corn, be wa6 enabled by hia 
knowledge of the insects which infest grain, to prevent 
their ravages in a great measure. But his reputation as a 
naturalist was first promoted throughout Europe by bis 
discoveries on the nature of the polypes. These animals 
were first discovered by Leeuwenhoek, who gave some 
account of them in the Philosophical Transactions for 
1703; but their wonderful properties were not thoroughly 
known until 1740, when Mr. Trembley began to investi-* 
gate them ; and when he published the result of his expe« 
riments in his ** Memoires sur les Polypes,*' Leyden, 1744> 
4to, all naturalists became interested in the surprising facts 
which were disclosed. Previous to this, indeed, Leibnitz 
and Boerhaave, by reasonings a prioriy had concluded that 
animals might be found which would propagate by slips 
like plants; and their conjecture was soon verified 1>y the 
observations of Mr. Trembley. At first, however, he was 
uncertain whether he should reckon these creatures ani-^ 
mals or plants : and while thus uncertain, he wrote a letter 

> Atb. Ox. vol. II. — Burnet's Own Times. — ^Noble's Continuation. of Granger. 

^^ T R E M B L E Y. 17 

.on the subject to Mr. Bonnet in January 1741; but in 
March the same year, he had satisfied himself that they 
were real animals. He also made several comimtknications 
to the Royal Society, of which he was elected a member in 
1743, on the same subject. There are other papers on 
subjects of natural history by him in the Philosophical 
Transactions. Mr. Trembley also acquired no small fame 
by the publication of some valuable books for young per- 
sons, particularly his " Instructions d'un pere a ses enfans 
sur la nature et la religion,'* 1775 and 1779, 2 vols. 8vo ; 
" Instructions sur la religion naturelle," 1779, 3 vols. 8vo; 
and ** Ilecherches sjur le principe de la vertu et du bon- 
heur," 8vo, works in which philosophy and piety are united. 
Mr. Trembley died in 1784. ' 

TREMELLIUS (Immanuel), a protestant divine of 
great learning, and the editor of a Latin translation of the 
Bible, was born at Fjerrara in 1510. He was th0 son of a 
Jew, and was educated with such care as to become a great 
master in the Hebrew tongue ; but was converted to Chrisr 
tianity,' first as a Roman catholic, by cardinal Pole, and 
secondly as a protestant by the celebrated Peter Martyr, 
and. went with him' to Lucca. Afterwards, leaving Italy 
altogether, he went into Germany, and settled at Stras- 
burgh ; whence he proceeded to England in the reign of 
Edward VI. where he lived in intimacy with the arch- 
bishops Cranmer and Parker, particularly .the latter, and 
also taught Hebrew at Cambridge; but after the death of 
the king, he returned to Germany, and taught Hebrew in 
the school of Hornbach. Thence he was invited to Hei» 
delberg, under the elector palatine Frederic III. where he 
was professor of the Hebrew tongue, and. translated the 
Syriac Testament into Latin. There also he undertook a 
Latin* translation of the Bible out of Hebrew, and associated 
Fraticis Junius to him in that work. His next remove was 
to Sedan, at the request of the duke of Builloin, to be 
the Hebrew professor in his new university, where he died, 
1580, in his seventieth year. 

His translation of the Bible was first published in 1575, 
and afterwards corrected by Junius in 1587. The Protes- 
tant churches received it with great approbation ; and our 
learned Matthew Poole, in the preface to his *' Synopsis 
Criticorum,'* reckons it among the best versions ; but po- 

^ Diet. Hist.— Eocyclopedie ia art. Polypus. 

Vol. XXX. C 


pish writers h^ve not spoken so favourably of it, but repre- 
sent it as very faulty : " As Tremellius," says father Simon^ 
^' was a Jew, before he was a Protestant, be has retaioed 
sotpetbiog peculiar to himself in his translation, and devi* 
ates often from the true sense. His Latin is affected, and 
full of faults." ' 

TREN^HARD (John), an English political writer, of 
the democratic cast, was descended of an ancient family, 
the son of sir Johu Treochard, secretary of state to king 
William III. and was born in 1669. He had a liberal edu- 
cation, and was bred to the law, in which he was well 
skilled ; but politics, and his place of commissioner of the 
forfeited estates in Irelapd, which he had enjoyed in the 
reign of king William, took him from the bar, whither he 
had never any inclination to return. He was also rendered 
independent by the death of an uncle, and by his marriage, 
and determined to employ his time in palitical discussions. 
^is first publication of this kind^ in conjunction with Mr. 
Moyle» appeared in 1698, entitled ^^ Ao Argument, sbew^ 
iqg thata standing army is uiconsistent with a free govern? 
mQnt> and absolutely destructive to the constitutioQ. of the 
Englisljl mociarchy ;" and, in 1698, ^^ A short history oi 
Staodiug Armies in England ;" which two pamphlets pro- 
duced several answers. In November 1720, in conjunctipn 
With Mr. Thomaa Gordon, he began to publish, in the 
*^ Loudon,'' and afterwards in tb^ ^^ British JournaV a 
series of letters^ under the name of ^^ Cato," upon various 
apd important $ubj>ects relating to. the public. These were 
continued for almost three years with very great reputa? 
tiou among those who were not very closely attached to 
the government or the church y but there were some paper^t 
among them, written by Mr. Trencbard, under the Bjsune 
of '^ Diogenes,'' upon several points of religion, which 
were thought exceptionable, and animadverted upon, par«- 
ticularly by Mr. John Jackson, in a *^ Defence of bumaa 
Liberty." Dr. Clarke also wrote some animadversions vpan 
Trenchard's principles, but which were never published. 
They are inserted in the General Dictionary. Mr. Gor- , 
don afterwards collected the papers written by Mr. Tren« 
chard and himself, and published them in four volam^ 
12mo, uader the title of ** Cato's Letters^, or Essays on 

* Melchior Adam.—- Tiraboschi.i— Blouni'tf Censura. — Fuller*! " Abel Redi- 
▼iva!.''-^axii Onomast. 

T R E N C H A R D. 19 

Liberty, civil or religioi^s, and other important subjects ;'' 
the fourth edition of which, corrected, was printed in 
1737. It was imagined at the time, that lord Molesworth 
had a chief, at least a considerable, hand in those letters; 
but Mr. Gordon assures us, in the dedication of them to 
John Milner, esq. that this noble person iiever wrote a line 
in them, nor contributed a thought towards them. As to 
the purport and design of them, Mr. Gordon says, that ^^ as 
they were the work of no faction or cabal, nor calculated 
for any lucrative or ambitious ends, or to serve the pur- 
poses of any party whatsoever, but attacked :&lsehopd and 
dishonesty in all shapes and parties, without temporising 
with ahy, doing justice to all, even to the weakest and most 
unfashionable, and maintaining the principles of liberty 
against the practices of both parties ;.so they were dropped 
without any sordid composition, and without any conside- 
ration, save that it was judged that the piiblic, after all itis 
terrible convulsions, was become calm and safe. They had 
treated of most of the subjects important to the world, and 
meddled with public measures and public men only in great 
instances." He wrote also in " The Independent Whig," 
another paper hostile to the hierarchy. 

Mr. Trenchard was member of parliament for Tauntoti 
in Somersetshire, and died Dec. 17, 1723, of an ulcer in 
his kidneys. He is said to have thought too much, and 
with too much solicitude, to have done what he did too 
intensely and with too much vigour and activity of the 
head, which caused him many bodily disorders, and is sup- 
posed at last to hate worn out the springs of life. He left 
no writings at all behind him, but two or three loose pa* 
pers, once intended for Cato's Letters. Mr. Anthony 
Collins, in the manuscript catalogue of his library, ascribes 
to him the following pieces : " Th6 naturial history of Su- 
perstition," 1709. " Considerations on the public debts," 
1709. " Comparison of the proposals of the Bank and 
South-Sea Company," 1719. "Letter of thanks, &c." 
1719. " Thoughts on the Peerage-bill," 1719. And "Re^ 
flections on the Old Whig," 1719. Mr. Gordon^ who has 
drawn bis character at large in the preface above cited, tells 
us iti his dedication, that ^^he has set him no higher than 
his own great abilities and many virtues set him ; that his 
failings were small, his talents extraordinary, his probity 
equal; and that he was one of the worthiest^ one of the 

c 2 

20 ' T ft E S H A M. 

ablest, one of the most useful, men that, ever any country 
wfas blessed withal. * 

TRESHAM (Henry), an excellent artist of the English 
school, and a member of the Royal Academy of London, 
and of the academies of Rome and Bologna, was a native of 
Ireland,. which country he left at an early age ; and having 
devoted himself to the arts, repaired to Italy, at a time 
when an acquaintance with the master-pieifes of the arts 
which that countiy possessed, was considered as an essential 
requisite for completing the education of a gentleman. 
The friendships and' acquaintance formed by Mr. Tresham 
while abroad, were aot a little conducive to the promo- 
tion of his interests on his return to this country ; and their 
advantages were experienced by him to the last moment of 
his life. As an artist, Mr. Tresham possessed very con- 
siderable talents ; and, while his health permitted him to 
exert them, they were honourably directed to the higher 
departments of his art. A long residence in Italy, together 
with a diligent study of the antique, had given him a last- 
ing predilection for the Roman school ; and his works dis- 
play many of the powers and peculiarities which distinguish 
the productions of those great masters whose taste he had 
Adopted. He had much facility of composition, and bii 
£»ncy was well stored with materials ; but his oil pictures 
are. deficient in that richness of colouring and spirit of ex- 
ecution which characterize the Venetian pencil, and which 
have been displayed, in many instances, with rival excel- 
lence in this country. His drawings with pen and ink, and 
in black chalk, evince uncommon ability ; the latter, in 
particular, are executed with a spirit, boldness, andbreadth 
•which are not often to be found in such productions. In 
that which may be termed the erudition of taste, Mr. 
Tresham was deeply skilled : a long^acquaintance with the 
most eminent masters of the Italian schools made him fa- 
miliar with their merits and defects; he could discrimi- 
nate between all their varieties of style and manner; and 
as to every estimable quality of a picture, he was consi- 
dered one of the ablest cri ticks of his day: in the just 
appreciation, also, of those various remains ef antiquity 
which come under the different classifications of vtr/t{, his 
opinion was sought, with eagerness, by the connoisseur as 

1 Gen. Diet.— Biog. Brit Supplement.^-Toulmm's Hift. of Taiwtoii, p.8l.— 
See ottraocoont (tf Thomas Gordon, 

T R E S-H A M. 31 

well as the arti$t, and held as an authority, from which few 
would venture lightly to dissent. This kind of knowledge 
proved not a little beneficial to him. Some years since, 
Mr. Thomas Hope, whose choice collections of every kind 
are well known, had given to one of his servants a number 
of Etruscan vases, as the refuse of a quantity which he had 
purchased. Accident made Mr.Tresbam acquainted with 
the circumstance ; and the whole lot was bought by him of 
the new owner for 100/. It was not long before he re- 
ceived 800/. from Mr. Samuel Rogers, for one moiety ; and 
the other, increased by subsequent acquisitions, he trans- 
ferred a few years ago to the eafl of Carlisle. That noble- 
man, with a munificence and liberality which have invari- 
ably marked all his transactions, settled on* the artist an 
annuity of 300/. for life, as the price of this collection. 
With such honour was this engagement fulfilled, that the 
amount of the last quarter, though due only a few days 
before Mr. Tresham's death, was found to have been punc- 
tually paid. When Messrs. Longman and Cq. commenced 
their splendid publication of engi^vings from the works of 
the ancient masters, in the collections of the British nobi<* 
lity, and others who have distinguished themselves by their 
patronage of the fine arts, they» with a discernment which 
does them credit, deputed Mr. Tresham to superintend the 
undertaking. To the honour of the owners of those mas- 
ter-pieces it must be recorded, that every facility was af- 
forded to this artist, not only in the loan of pictures, but 
in the communication of such facts^relating to the respec- 
tive works as they were able to furnish. The salary paid 
him by these spirited publishers, contributed materially to 
the comfort of his declining years. We should not omit to 
mention, to the credit of Mr. Tresham/ that, regardless as 
he had been in early life of providing those resourses for 
old age which prudence would suggest, yet so High were 
hb principles, that the most celebrated dealers in virtu^ 
auctioneers^ and others, never hesitated to deliver lots to 
any amount purchased by him ; and we may venture to as- 
sert, that he never abused their confidence. But the talents 
of Tresham were not confined to objects immediately 
connected with his profession ; he had considerable taste 
for poetry, and his published performances in that art dis- 
play a lively fancy, and powers of versification, of no 
<>rdinary kind. In society, which he loved and enjoyed to 
the last, he was always considered as an acquisition by 

?2 T R E S H A M. 


his friends ; and amongst tbpse friends were included many 
Vf ttie most elevated and esua)able characters of tl^e tirpe. 
Jxi conversation^ be was (luent^ humourous, and animated, 
libounding in anecdote, and ready of reply. Puring the 
latter years of his life, the contrast exhibited between the 
playful vivacity of his manners and the <^ccasional excla* 
mations of agony, produced by the spasmodic affection^ 
with which be was so long afflicted, gave an interest to bi$ 
appearance that enhanced the entertainment which his col-, 
loquial powers afforded. His existence seemed to hang 
upon so slight a thread that those who enjoyed hjs society 
were commonly under an impression that the pleasure de- 
rived from it might not be again renewed, and that a, frame 
so feeble could scarcely survive the exertion which the vi«, 
goi;r of his spirit for a moment sustained. The principle 
of life, however, was in him so strong, as to contradict all 
ordinary indications; and he lived on, through many years 
of infirmity^ as much to the surprise as the gratification 
of his friends : his spirit^ unsubdued by pain., and his mind 
uninfluenced by the decay of his body. Though partaking, 
in some degree, of ^he proverbial irritability of the poet 
and the painter, no man was more free froip envious and 
malignant feelings, or could be more ready to do justice to 
^ the claims of his competitors. So true a relish .had he for 
the sallies of wit and humour, that he could enjoy them 
^ven at his own expense : and he has been frequently 
known to repeat, with unaffected glee, the jest that has 
been pointed against himself. By his death, which took 
place June 17, 1814, the Royal Academy was deprived of 
pne of its most enlightened members, and his profession of 
a liberal and accomplished artist. 

Mr. Tresbam^s poetical publications, all which be made 
in some measure the vehicle of his sentiments on subjects 
of art, wer^, I. " The sea-sick Minstrel, pr Maritime Sor- 
rows," in six cantos, 1796, 4to, an extraordinary, but, 
perhaps, irregular, effusion of real genius. 2. ^' Rome at 
close of the eighteenth century," 1799, 4to, the subject, 
the plunder of that city by the French, 3. " Bri,taQni- 
cus to Bonaparte, an heroic epistle, with noies," 1803, 


TREW (Christophe^i James), an eminent naturalist, 
and liberal patroii of that science, was the son simd grand- 

1 G€nt. Mag. vol. LXX3^1V. 

T R E W. 33 

son of two men of considerable note in the medical pro- 
fession, and was born at Lauffen in Franconia in 169^. 
He studied medicine at Nuremberg with so much reputa- 
tion, that he was appointed director of the academy of tht 
** Naturse Curiosorum/' and, in conjunction with some of 
the members of the society, began a periodical work at 
Nuremberg in 1731, called ^< Commercium Litterarium ad 
rei Medicse et Sciential naturalis incrementum institutum.*' 
In this he inserted many useful papers, as far as the 
fifteenth volume, which appeared in 1745, and published 
from time to time some splendid botanical works. He 
died in 1769. 

His principal works are> 1. << De vasis lingus salivali- 
bus,*' in a letter addressed to Haller, Nuremberg, 1734^ 
4to. 2. ^* Dissertatio de differentiis quibusdam intet 
bominem natum et nascendum intercedentibus," ibid. 1736, 
4to. 3. *f Icones posthumsB Gesnerianse," ibid. 1748, fol. 
These plates of Gesner came to him by purchase, as we 
have already noticed in our account of that celebrated bo- 
tanist. 4. <' Selectarum Plantarum Decades,^' Vienna, 1750, 
fol. ' 5. ^^ Librorum Botanicorum libri duo, quorum priof 
recentiores quosdam, posterior plerosque antiquos ad an* 
num 1550 usque excusos recenset," Nuremberg, 1752, 
fol. 6. ** PlantdB seiectcB quarum imagines ad exemplaria 
naturalia Londini in hortis curiosorum nutrita, maiiu arli- 
ficiosa pinxit Georgius Dionysius Ehret, &c.'^ 1754, fol: 
His liberality to Eliret we have already recorded. (See 
Ehret.) 7. ** Cedrorum Libani historia," Nuremberg, 
1757, 4to. In 1750 be engaged an artist to copy Mrs. 
Blackwell's plates, and himself supplied several defects in 
the drawings. He also substituted some entirely new 
figures in the room of the originals, very considerably re-^ 
formed and amplified the text, translated it into German 
and Latin ; and planned the addition of a sixth century of 
plates, but he did not live to finish this. The fifth cei>- 
tury was published in 1765, and Dr. Trew dying in 1769, 
the supplemental volume, exhibiting plants omitted by 
Mrs. Blackwell, articles newly introduced into practice, 
and figures of the poisonous species, was conducted by 
Ludwig, Bose, and Boehmer, and printed in 1773. Thus 
reformed, Trew*s edition surpasses any other work of the 
same design. ^ 

1 Eloy, Diet Hi8t«cle Medecine.— Pulteney's Sketches,— Haller*B Bibl. Bot. 

24 T R I B O N I A N U S. 

TRIBONIANUS, an eminent Roman lawyer, and the 
object of equal praise and censure,: was a native of Side in 
Pampbylia, and esteemed a man of extensive learning. He 
is said to have written, both in prose and verse, on many 
subjects of philosophy, politics, astronomy, &c. but none 
of his writings have descended to us. From the bar of the 
priBtorian praefects, he raised himself to the honours of 
questor, consul, and master of the offices. His knowledge 
of the Roman law induced Justinian the emperor to place 
him at the head of a committee of seventeen lawyers, who 
were to exercise an absolute jurisdiction over the works of 
their predecessors, from which they compiled the Digest 
or Pandects, which go by that emperor's name. Tribo- 
nianus has been represented by some writers as an infidel, 
aad by others as extremely avaricious, and tampering with 
the laws to gratify this propensity. The former pf these 
charges Mr. Gibbon very naturally wishes to impute to bi- 
gotry, but the latter is generally admitted. His oppres- 
sions were at one time so much the subject of complaint 
as to procure a sentence of banishment, but he was soon 
recalled, and remained in favour with Justinian for above 
twenty years. Tribonianus is supposed to have died about 
the year 546.' 

TRIGLAND (James), a learned divine, was born May 
8, 1652, at Harlem. He acquired great skill in the Ori- 
ental languages, and the Holy Scriptures, of which he was 
professor at Leyden, in the place of Anthony Hulsius, and 
died in .that city, September 22, 1705, aged fifty-four, 
after having been twice rector of the university there. He 
left several works and '^ Dissertations on the sect of the 
Caraites," and other curious and important subjects. He 
also published the " Tribus Jud«orum" of Serarius, Dru- 
-sius, and Scaliger, or a dissertation on the three remarkable 
sects, the Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes, Delphis, 
1703, 2 vols. 4to.' 

TRIMMER (Sarah), a very ingenious lady, and a zea- 
lous promoter of religious education, was the daughter of 
Joshua and Sarah Kirby, and was born at Ipswich, Jan. 6, 
1741. Her father, known in the literary world as the 
author of Taylor's " Method of Perspective made easy," 
and *.* The Perspective of Architecture,'- was a man of kii 

^ Oibbon^s Hist, and references. — Saxii OBomast. 
* Moreri. — Diet, Hist, de L'Avocat. 


excellent understanding, and of great piety : and so high 
was his reputation for knowledge of divinity, and so ex- 
emplary bis moral conduct, that, as an exception to their 
general rule, which admitted no layman, he was chosen 
member of a clerical club in the town in which he resided. 
Under the care of such a parent it may be supposed she 
was early instructed in those principles of Christianity, 
upon which her future life and labours were formed. She 
was educated in English and French, and other customary 
accomplishments, at a boarding-school near Ipswich ; but 
at the age of fourteen she left Ipswich, with her father and 
mother, to settle in London, where Mr. Kirby had the 
honour of teaching perspective to the present king, then 
prince of Wales, and afterwards to her majesty. 

Miss Kirby, being removed from the companions of her 
childhood, passed her time during her residence in Lon- 
don in the. society, of people more advanced in life, and 
some qi th«m persons of eminence in the literary world. 
Among these may be numbered, Dr. Johnson, Dr. Gre« 
gory Sharpe, Mr. Gainsborough, Mr. Hogarth, &c. By 
Dr. Johnson she was favoured with particular notice. The 
circumstance which first attracted his attention, v^s a lite* 
rary dispute at the house of sir Joshua Reynolds,^ respect- 
ing a passage in the ^^ Paradise Lost,*' which could not be 
decided. Mr. Kirby, who, .as well as his daughter, was 
present, inquired if she had not the book in her.pocket, it 
being a great favourite of hers, and he probably knowing 
that it then made a part of her daily studies. The book 
was accordingly produced, and opened at the disputed 
part. Dr. Johnson was so struck with a girl of that age 
making this work her pocket companion, and likewise with 
the modesty of her behaviour upon the occasion, that he 
invited her the next day to. his house, presented her with a 
copy of bis . ^^ Rambler,'' and afterwards treated.her with 
great consideration. 

As 'the society in which she lived whilst in London was 
of rather too grave a cast for so young a person, she na- 
turally had recourse to her favourite employn^nt for recre- 
ation, and spent much time in reading. In this pursuit 
she was directed by her father, and from his conversation 
and instruction her mind acquired a thirst after knowledge, 
and was gradually opened and enlarged. Drawing was 
another occupation of lier leisure hours : to this, however, 
she applied rather in compliance with the withes of her 


father, than to gratify any inclination she felt for it At 
lu9 desire she went pccasionally, under the care of a female 
friend, with other young people, to the society for pro- 
moting Arts, and once obtained a prize for the second-best 
drawing. Two or three miniatures, copies from larger 
pictures, are remaining of her painting, which, though not 
in the first style, are sufficiently good to show, that in this 
art she might have excelled, had her taste prompted her ' 
to pursue it» The knowledge of drawing, which she had 
acquired while young, became very useful to her when 
she was a mother^ as it enabled her to amuse her children 
when in their infancy, and likewise to direct them after- 
wards in the exercise of their talents in that way. 

About 1759, Mr. Kirby removed to Kew, upon being 
appointed clerk of the works in that palace, and there his 
daughter became acquainted with Mr. Trimmer, and at the 
age of twenty-one, she was united to him, with the appro- 
bation of the friends on both sides. Mr. Trimmer was a 
man of an agreeable person, pleasing manners, and exem- 
plary virtues ; and was about two years older than herself. 
In the course of their union, she had tweWe children, six 
sons and six daughters. From the time of her marriage 
till she became an author, she was almost constantly oqisu- 
pied with domestic duties ; devoting herself to th^ nursing 
and educating of her children. She used to isay, that as 
soon' as she became q mother, her thoughts were turned so 
entirely to the subject of education, that she scarcely read 
a book upon any other topic, and believed she almost wearied 
her friends by making it so frequently the subject of con- 
versation. Having experienced the greatest success in* her 
plan of educating her own family, she naturally wished to 
extend that blessing to others, and this probably first in- 
duced her to become an author. Soon after' the publica- 
tion . of Mrs. Barbauld's ** Easy Lessons for Children,'' 
about 1780, Mrs. Trimmer was very much urged by a . 
friend to write something of the same kind, from an opi- 
nion that she would be successful in that style of composi- 
tion. Encouraged by this opinion, she began her ^^ Easy 
Introduction to the knowledge of Nature,** which was seen 
completed, printed, became very popular, and still keeps 
its place in schools and private families. The desigtiof it 
was to open the minds of cbildren to a variety of informa- 
tion, to induce them to make observations on the woAs of 
natuire, and to lead them up to the unitersal parent, the 


creator of ibis world and of all things in it. Tbil was fol- 
Jo\ye<i by a very valuable series of publications^ soipe of 
the higher order, which met with the cordial approbation 
of that part of the public who considered religion as the 
only basis of morality. Into the notions of a lax educa- 
tion, independent of the history and truths of revelation, 
whether imported from the French or German writers, or 
the production of some of our own authors, misled by 
the vanity of being thought philosophers, Mrs. Trimmer 
could not for a moment enter; and therefore in some of 
her later publications, endeavoured with great zeal to stop 
that torrent of infidelity which at one time threatened to 
sweep away every vestige of Christianity, She was also an 
early supporter and promoter of Sunday-schools, and at 
one time had a long conference with her majesty, who 
wished to be made acquainted with the history, nature, and 
probable utility of those schools. But the fame she de- 
rived from her meritorious writings was not confirmed to 
schools. She had the happiness of hearing that her books 
were approved by many of our ablest divines, and that 
some of them were admitted on the list of publications dis- 
persed by the Society for promoting Christian knowledge. 
One of her best performances was rendered very necessary 
by the circumstances of the times. It was a periodical 
work, which she continued for some years, under the title 
of '^ The Guardian of Education." She was led to this by 
observing the mischief th^t had crept into various publtca* 
tiqhs for the use of children, which occasioned her much 
alarm, and she feared, if something were not done to open 
the eyes of the public to this growing evil, the minds of 
, youth would be poisoned, and ^rrepa^rable injury be sus-* 
taioed- There was indeed just c^use for alarm, when it 
.was known that the two principal iparts for insidious pub^ 
llcations of this kind^^ wer^ under the njianagement of m^n 
who had only avarice to p/oo;ipt them, and were notorious 
for their avowed contempt for religion. 

This es^im^ble woman died suddenly, in t^e siicty«ninth 
y^ar of b^r age, Dec. 1$, 13 iO. As she was sitting in ber 
study,, in the chair in which she wa^ accu&tomed to write, 
she b^M^red. h|sr h^d upon ber bosom, and expired. Her 
children, wh<^ were accustomed tp> see b^r ocQ^ionally 
take res^9fe ia thi^ ms^ni^er, (^oi^d soa^cely persua|d# tb^ra- 
selves^ that she was npt sunk in sleep : and it ws^ not till 
after some time that they CQuld be made to believe that it 


was the sleep of death. Her remains were deposited at the 
family vault at Ealing. She had survived her husband some 

The following, we believe, is a correct list of her various 
publications, although we are not certain if in strict chro* 
nological order. 1. " A little Spelling-book for young 
Children ;" 2. " Easy Lessons ; a Sequel to the above ;'* 
3. " LXIV Prints taken from the Old Testament; with a 
Description, in a Set of easy Lessons ;" 4. " LXIV Prints 
from the New Testament, and Description ;" 5. " LXIV 
Prints of Roman History, with Descriptibn ;" 6. " LXIV 
Prints of English History, with Description ;" 7. " A Com- 
ment on Dr. Watts's Divine Songs for Children ;" 8. " An 
easy Introduction to the Knowledge of Nature, stnd Read- 
ing the Holy Scriptures;" 9. " An Abridgment of Scrfp- 
ture History; consisting of Lessons from the Old Testa- 
ment;" 10. "An Abridgment of the New Testament ; con- 
sisting of Lessons composed chiefly from the Gospels;" 11. 
" A Scripture Catechism ; containing an Explanation of 
the above Lessons in the Style of Familiar Conversation," 
in 2 vdls. The four last articles were written originally for 
children in the lower classes of life ; but they have been 
adopted into many schools and families, for the instruction 
of those of superior condition. 12. ^' An Attempt to fa- 
miliarise the Catechism of the Church of England;" 13. 
"An Explanation of the Office of Baptism, and of the 
Order of Confirmation in the Common Prayer-book;" 14. 
The same, with " Questions for the Use of Teachers ;" 15. 
^^ A Companion to the Book of Common Prayer; contain- 
ing a Practical Comment on the Liturgy, Epistles, and 
Gospels." This work, though principally intended for 
young persons, has proved satisfactory to persons of ma- 
turer years. 16. The same in 2 vols, with ^^ Questions for 
the Use of Teachers ;" 17. " Sacred History, selected from 
the Scriptures, with Annotations and Reflections." This 
work is executed upon a peculiar plan, and was composed 
with a view^ of exciting in young minds an early taste for 
divine subjects, and of furnishing persons of maturer years, 
who have not leisure for the works of more voluminous com- 
mentators, with assistance in the study of the Scriptures. 
The historical events are collected from the various books 
of which the Sacred Volume is composed, and arranged in 
fr regular series ; many passages of the Prophetic writings^ 
and of the Psalms, are interwoven with the respective parts 


of the history to which they relate ; and the whole illus- 
trated by annotations and reflections, founded on the b^st 
authorities.. 18. '' Fabulous Histories; designed to teach 
the proper Treatment of Animals;" 19. ** The . Guardian 
of Education ;" in 5 vols. 20. *^ Sermons for Family- 
reading, abridged from the works of eminent divines ;" 21. 
"The Family Magazine," 3 vols. 12mo. Her character, 
her train of study and occupations, and her sentiments on 
many interesting topics, are amply illustrated in a work pub- 
lished since her death, and to which we are indebted for 
the above particulars, entitled " Some Account of the Life 
and Writings of Mrs. Trimmer, with Original Letters, and 
Meditations and Prayers, selected from her Journal," 2 
vols. 1814.' 

TRIMNELL (Charles), successively bishop of Nor-, 
wich and Winchester, was the son of the rev. Charles 
Trimnell, sometime fellow of 5Jew college, Oxford, whence 
he was ejected in 1648 by the parliamentary visitors, and 
was afterwards rector of Ripton Abbots in Huntingdon- 
shire, where he died in 1702. Of a family of fourteen 
children, there survived him, 1. Charles, bishop of Win- 
chester; 2. William, dean of Winchester; 3. Hugh, apo- 
thecary to the king^s household ; 4. DaWd, archdeacon of 
Leicester, and^ chantor of Lincoln ; 5. Mary, married to 
Mr. John Sturges, archdeacon of Huntingdon; 6. Anne^ 
married to Mr.Alured Clarke of Godmanchester, in the 
county, of Huntingdon ; 7. Elizabeth, married to Dr. Henry 
Downes, bishop of D.erry in Ireland ; and 8. Catherine, 
married to Dr. Thomas Green, bishop of Ely. 

Charles, the subject of this memoir, was born at Ripton- 
Abbots, Dec. 27, 1663, and in 1675 was admitted on the 
foundation at Winchester college, where his learning, mo- 
rals, and respectful behaviour, recommended him to the 
notice of his superiors. In 1681 he removed from Win- 
chester to New college, Oxford, to which, as the preacher 
of his funeral sermon says, he ^^ brought more meekness 
and patience in the study of philosophy, than the genera- 
lity of philosophers carry from it.^' In Jan. 1688 he was 
admitted master of arts, and in the same year appointed 
preacher at the Rolls chapel by sir John Trevor, master of 
the Rolls. In August 1689, he attended the earl of Sun- 
derland and his lady in their journey to Holland ; and, 

' Life as abore. 

30 T R I M N E L L. 


after their return home, continued with them at Althorp, 
as their domestic chaplain. In Dec. 1691 he was installed 
prebendary of Norwich. lit 1694, he was presented by 
the earl of Sunderland to the rectory of Bodington in Nor- 
thamptonshire, which he resigned two years after on being 
instituted to Brington, in which parish Althorp stands, a 
living of no greater value thah Bodington, although he was 
desired to keep both. In 1698 he was installed archdeacon 
of Norfolk, and procured leave of his noble patron to resign 
the rectory of Brington (tit a time, when the remainder of 
his income did not exceed two hundred pounds p6r ann.) 
in favotrr of Mr. DoWnes (afterwards bishop of Derry in 
Ireland) who had married one of his sisters. On July the 
4tb, 1699, he was admitted doctor in divinity. In 1701 
and 1*702, during the controversy that was carried on in 
the Lower House of Convocation, he wrote some pieces iri 
defence of the rights of the crown, and the archbishop; 
as, 1. *' A Vindication of the Proceedings of some Mem- 
bers ef the Lower House of Convocation," 1701, 4to. 2. 
" The Pretence to enter the Parliament- Writ considered," 
1701, 4to. 3. ^^ An Answer to a third Letter to a Clergy- 
man in defence of the entry of the Parliament- Writ," 1702, 
4to. 4. «* Partiality detected," &c. a large pamphlet. 

About this time he wa6 made chaplain in ordinary to 
queen Anne. In 1703 he was invited to appear as a can- 
didate for the wardenship of New college in Oxford, by a 
great number of the fellmvs, who looked upon hirti as the 
fittest person to keep up that spirit of discipline and learn- 
ing, which had been exerted, with the greatest credit and 
advantage to the college, under their late excellent warden 
Dt. Traflles. But, contrary to the hopes atrd expectations 
of his friends, the rfection was determined in favour of Mr. 
Brathwait. On this occasion, thirty -one voted for Mr. 
Brathwait, and twenty - nine for Dr. Trimnell ; on which 
the scrutators declared Mr. Brathwait duly elected. But, 
according to the canon law, no roan can vote for himself in 
an election per scrutinium ; arid it being found, that Mr. 
Brathwait's own vote had been given for himself, it was 
insisted upon, that Mr. Brathwait could not be duly elected, 
because he had but thirty good votes, which was not the 
major pars prasentium required by the statutes, therebeing 
sixty electors' present. Upon this ground an appeal was 
made to the visitor, Dr. Mews, bishop of Winchester, ag?iinst 
the validity of the election. One of the bishop's assessors 

T R I M N E L L. 31 

gave no opinion ; and the other, sir John Cooke (dean of 
the Arcbe$), was qlearly of opinioD»< that the .election was 
void^ and thereby a dev6lution made to tlve bishop, who, in 
consequence of such devolution, might nominate whom he 
pleased ; but he chose rather to pronounce the election va- 
lid, and Mr. Brathwait duly elected. 

In 1705, having had n6 parochial duty for some years, 
be undertook the charge of St. Gileses parish, in the city 
of Norwich; and in October 1706 was instituted to St. 
James's, Westminster, on the promotion of Dr. William 
Wake to the bisrhopric of Lincoln. In January 1707, he. 
was elected bishop of Norwich in the room of Dr. John 
Moore, translated to Ely, and was permitted to keep the 
rectory of St. James's with bis bishopric for one year. In 
170.9 be published a charge to the clergy at hia primary 
visitation, in which he spoke with great freedom against 
some prevailing opinions and practices, which he thoagbt 
prejudicial to the true interest of the church of England in 
particular, and of religion in general. These opinions 
Wjere, the ^^ independence of the church upon the state ; 
the ^* power of offering sacrifice," properly so called ; and 
tlie ** power of forgiving sins : " all of them," he says, " I 
am persuaded, erroneous, in the manner they have been 
urged, and no'way agreeable to the doctrine of the church 
of England about them. The making more things follow 
ottr saeyed function^ than can fairly and plainly be grounded 
u|»on it,, will never advance our character with wise an4 
coi»sidering men, such as we should desire all men to be; 
but must be a real prejudice to us. Out pretending to an 
ii^dependeRt power in things within the compass of human 
aiAthority ; and a right to offer sacrifice properly speaking; 
and a commission to forgive sins directly and immediately ; 
m«y, and will weaken the grounds and occasions of the re*- 
foi-matk>a ; and give our adversaries of the church of Rome, 
a^ well as others, great advantage against us; but can 
never, I am persuaded, advance the interest of the Cbrisi- 
tian religion in general, or of our church in particular.'* 
Ht added an Appendix to the charge in answer to some 
awthofiDies that had been produced from ancient writers in 
faivoui? of the independence of the church upon the state ; 
which^ he aays^ he. did the rather, because he <^. thought 
the peaee both of church and state more immediately con- 
cerned in it, and could not but apprehend: mischief coming 
tO' both from a pretension so new among those who call 

32 T R I M N E L L. 

themselves members of the church of England : a church 
that has hitherto been as much distinguished, as it has been 
supported, by rejecting that claim." In a sermon preached 
in 1707 before the sons of the clergy, he had expressed 
himself in as strong a manner upon this subject, viz. ** Let 
us take care that, while we maintain the distinction and 
dignity of our order,- we do not suffer ourselves to be car- 
ried into ^a separate interest from that of those who are not 
of our order, or from that of the state For we can- 
not pretend to be a separate body, without making the worst 
kind of schism, and the nearest to that which is condemned 
in scripture, that can be imagined : nor can any thing give 
greater advantage to those other schisms that disturb the 
peace of the church, than our dividing ourselves, in any 
degree, from the true interest of that government to which 
we belong.'' In his charge he censured a passage in favour 
of a proper sacrifice from Mr. Johnson's second part of the 
" Clergyman's Vade Mecum" (in the note upon the second 
apostolical canon), which Mr. Johnson defended in a post- 
script to a pamphlet called ^* The Propitiatory Oblation.'' 
The- bishop replied, in vindication of what he had said on 
that subject ; and afterwards inserted the subdtance of bis 
Reply in the body of the second edition of his charge. 

Besides the opinions that have been mentioned, he de- 
clared himself against the modern practice of using the 
bidding prayer before sermon, as not so agreeable to tb^ 
nature of the service, the long and general practice of the 
church, or the design of the 55th canon. And he observed 
from authority, that *^ the bishops (Dr. Ilavis and Dr. 
Fletcher) who drew up the 55th canon, always used a form 
of their own ;" and that among the bishop of Lincoln's 
articles of inquiry at his visitation in 1641, are these ; ^^ Do 

you know of any parson, vicar, or curate that never 

pray before their sermons, but bid the people pray ? or use 
any other new and voluntary rite or ceremony not war- 
ranted by law ? You are to present them." 

In 17 10 he printed a speech made in the House of Lords 
in support of the second article of the impeachment of Dr. 
Sacheverel, for ^^ suggesting and maintaining that the to« 
leration granted by law is unreasonable, and unwarrantable, 
>&c." Bishop Trimnell was considered as of whig prin- 
ciples, and when he preached the 30th of January sermon 
in 1711, before the House of Lords, his sentiments, which 
are said to have been more moderate than usual at that 

T R i M N E L L. 33 

tiriie, gaj^e so much ofFence^ that no motion was made in 
the House for the usual compliment of thanks. This occa- 
sioning much animadversion, and affording many conjee* 
tures which were unfavourable to him, be printed the di8«> 
course. He published also, from 1697 to 1715, fourtee.n 
other occasional sermons. 

Soon after the accession of George I. he was made clerk 
of the closet to his majesty, in which office he continued 
until his death. In August 1721 he was translated to the 
bishopric of Winchester; and in the same year elected 
president of the corporation of the sons of the clergy. Af- 
ter suffering long by a weak constitution, he died at Farn- 
ham castle, Aug. 15, 1723, leaving no issue. By his first 
wife, Henrietta Maria, daughter of Dr. William Talbot, 
then bishop of Oxford, and afterwards of Durham, he had 
two sons, who died in their infancy. This lady died in 1716, 
and in 1719 he married Mrs. Elizabeth Taylor, widow of 
Joseph Taylor, of the Temple, es<j. and sister of sir Row- 
land Wynne, of Nostell, in Yorkshire, bart. who survived 
him. He was interred in Winchester cathedral, under a 
black marble stone, with a Latin inscription. 

Mr. Archdeacon Stephens,' rector of Drokinsford, in 
Hampshire, preached his funeral sermon in Winchester 
cathedral. In that sermon, and other authorities, his cha- 
racter is thus given : ^^ He had a very serious and devout 
turnof mjnd, and performed the duty of every station with 
the greatest exactness, notwithstanding the weakness of a 
constitution broken, in the early part of life, by long 
and frequent fastings, and too diligent an application 
to his studies. But this had no effect upon his mind, 
which was calm and composed at all times. The un- 
easiness he suffered from dn ill habit of body, neyer 
made him uneasy to others. He was of a very affectionate, 
meek, and gentle nature ; and though h^ had a good deal 
of warmth in his temper, he subdued it so effectually by 
reflection and habit, that he was hardly ever seen in a pas«N 
sion ; but behaved in all the private, as well as public cir^ 
cumstances of life, with great moderation and firmness of 
spirit. He was a lover of peace and order, both from judg- 
ment and inclination ; and, being a most sincere friend to 
the church of England, he constantly avowed those prin- 
ciples of toleration and indulgence, which make that church 
the glory of the reformation. 

Vol. XXX. D 

34 T R I M N E L L- 

" There are letters extant, by which it appears, that 
he was very diligent in examining the arguments urged on 
both sidefi, before he took the oaths to king William and 
queen Mary, which he re»ligiously observed by a steady 
and uniform attachment to the Revolution-interest, as long 
as he lived. No man ever supported the character of a 
bishop with greater dignity and authority, and yet no one 
was ever more beloved by the clergy of both his dioceses ; 
for t^e was very courteous and obliging, and easy of access 
to all, and had a strict regard to those parts of behaviour 
which are most suitable to the profession of a minister of 
the gospel. His rebukes were conveyed in few words, 
and those delivered with a sort of uneasiness for the ne- 
cessity of them : but although they were few, and smoother 
than oil, yet were they very swords ; for to an understand- 
ing heart they seemed to receive an aggravation of anger, 
frx)m that very meekness which endeavoured to soften 
them. He was of a temper incapable of soliciting favours 
for himself, .or his nearest friends, though he had the 
tenderest affection for them. He was very much displeased 
at the appearance of an importunate application in others, 
and always avoided it in his own conduct. And Notwith- 
standing all his relations have prospered very much in the 
world l^y his means, their success has been owing rather 
to the credit and influence of his character, than any direct 
applications made by him. The nobleness of his mind 
appeared in many other instances ; in his candour and 
generosity of spirit, and contempt of money; of which he 
left so many marks in every place where he lived, that he 
had neither ability, nor occasion, to perpetuate his memory 
by any posthumous charities. He did not consider his 
revenue as designed for the private advantage of a family ; 
but as a trust or stewardship, that was to be employed for 
the honour of his station ; the maintenance of hospitality; 
the relief of the poor; the promoting a good exantple 
amongst his clergy ; and the general encouragement of 
religion and learning. 

*^ He was not less qualified for his high station by his 
abilities than his conduct; for he had an excellent turn 
for business, and a quick apprehension. He was very well 
versed in the divinity controversies, and immediately dis- 
cerned the point on which the dispute turned, and pared 
o(V all the luxuriancies of writing. He had read the an-f 
cients with great exactness; and, without: quoting, ofieii 

T R I M N E L L. 35 

mingled their finest notions with his owh discourse, and 
had a particular easiness and beauty in his manner of con-, 
versing, and expressing his sentiments upon every occa- 
sion. With his other excellencies he had acquired a 
thorough knowledge of mankind ; which, being adorned by 
an affable and polite behaviour, gained him the general 
esteem of the nobility and gentry. His known penetra- 
tion and judgment recommended him so strongly to the fa- 
vour and confidence of those who were at the head of af- 
fairs in the latter part of his life, that he was chiefly, if not 
solely, advised with, and entrusted by them, in matters, 
which related to the filling up the. principal ofHces in th6 
church. And, though he enjoyed as much of this power 
as any clergyman has had since the reformation, he raised 
no public odium or enmity against himself on that account; 
because his silence, moderation, and prudence made it im- 
possible for any one to discover the influence he had, from 
his conversation, or conduct ; a circumstance almost pe- 
culiar to him. He was too wise a man to increase the envy, 
which naturally attends power, by an insolent and haughty 
behaviour; and too good a man to encourage any*one with 
false hopes. For he was as cautious in making promises, 
as he was just in performing them ; and always endeavoured 
to soften the disappointments of those he could not gratify, 
by the good-nature and humanity, with which he treated 
them. These separate characters (rarely blended together) 
of an excellent scholar, and a polite, well-bred man ; a 
wise and honest statesman, and a devout, exemplary Chris- 
tian, were all happily reconciled in this most amiable per- 
son ; and placed him- so high in the opinion of,' 
that no one ever passed through life with more esteem and* 
regard from men of all dispositions, parties, and denomi- 
nations.*' * 

TRINCAVELLI (Victor), an eminent physician, but 
principaHy deserving notice as the editor of some of the 
first editions of the classics, was born at Venice in 1496. 
He began his medical studies at Padua, and went after- 
wards to Bologna, where he became so distinguished for, 
bis knowledge of the Greek language, that the professors 
of the university would often consult him on difficult pas- 
sages, and he was honoured by the name of the "Greek 

* Gen. Diet, — Biog. Brit. Supplement. — Burnet's Own Times. — Nichols's 
Atterbury, &c. 

D 2 

S6 T R I N C A V E L L I. 

scholar.'' After remaining seven years at Bologna, be re- 
turned to Padua to take his doctor's degree, and then to 
Venice, where, his character preceding him, he w^s ap- 
pointed successor to Sebastian Fuscareni in the chair of 
philosophy. His time was tehn divided between his lee* 
tures, his private studies, and his practice as a physician^ 
The latter was so extensive as to bring him annually about 
three thousand crowns of gold. In 1551 he was appointed 
successor to John Baptist Monti, in the medical professor* 
ship at Padua, and exchanged the profits of his practice for 
a salary of 950 crowns, which the senate afterwards in* 
created to. 1600. While professor here, he was the first 
who lectured on Hippocrates in the original language. 
Finding the infirmities of age approach, he resigned his 
office, and returned to Venice, where he died in 1568, in 
the seventy-second year of his age. 

His medical writings, most of which had been published 
separately, were printed together in 2 vols. fol. at Ley- 
den, in 1586 and 1592, and at Venice in 1599. He was 
editor of the following principes editiones ; 1.^^ Themistii 
Orationes,*' 1534, fol. 2. ^^ Joannes Grammaticus Philo- 
ponus,'' 1534, fol. 3. '^ Epicteti Enchiridion, cum Arria^i 
comment,^' 1535, Svo. This was the first edition with 
Arrian. 4. " Hesiod," 1536, 4to. The scholia and text 
of this edition have formed the basis of every subsequent 
one. Trincavelli also published editions of Stobseus and 
other Greek writers. ' 

TRISSINO (JoHK George), an Italian poet, who en- 
deavoured to reform the style of his country, was born at 
Vicenza, July 3, 1478, and was descended from one of 
)tbe most ancient families of that place. It has been said 
that it was late in life before he began his studies, but as 
the same writer who gives lis this information, adds that 
iipm his father^s death, when he was only seven years old, 
he applied to them with spirit, it is evident he could not 
i)ave lost much time. He was first educated at Vicenza, 
under a priest named Francis Gragnuola, and afterwards 
at Milan under the celebrated Demetrius Chalcondyfes. 
To the memory of this last master, who died in 1511, 
Trissino erected a monument in the church of St. Mary 
at Milan, or as others say, in that of San Salvador, with an 

' Eio|r, Diet. IHst. do McdeciDC*— -Mangeti B>bli Med. — Har«vood and Dib« 
diu*i Clas^dcs. 

T R I S S I N O. $7 

iiiflcripcion. From the Greek and Latin language, be pro- 
ceeded to the study of niathematicSy architecture, natural 
philosophy, and other branches which form a liberal edu* 
cation. In 1503 he mafried ; and with a view to domestic 
happiness and literary retirement, went to reside on one of 
his estates, for he was left very opulent, 2kt Criccoli on the 
Astego. Here he built a magnificent house, from his own 
design, on which he employed one of his pupils in archi* 
tectore, the afterwards justly celebrated Palladio. 

Trissino lived very happily in this retreat, cultivating the 
artt and sciences, and especially poetry, for which he bad 
M early taste, until bis tranquillity was disturbed by the 
death of his wife, who left him two sons, Francis and Ju- 
lias. He now left Criccoli, and to dissipate his grief by 
change of scene, went to Rome. It was perhaps with the 
same view that he endeavoured to amuse himself by writing 
bis ** Sophonisba," the first tragedy of modem times in 
which appeared some traces of ancient style and manner. 
Lea X. who bad received Trissino with respect, and even 
friendship, intended to have this tragedy represented with 
great magnificence, bnt it does not seem certain that it was 
so acted. In the mean time Leo perceived in the author 
talents of a graver kind, which he might employ with ad- 
vantage. He accordingly sent him on some important di- 
plomatic business to the king of Denmark, the emperor 
Maximilian, and the republic of Venice about 1516. In 
these respective courts, Trissino gained great credit, and 
during the interv'als of his employments, formed con- 
nexions with thd eminent men of all ranks who adorned 
the court of Leo. 

After the death of this pontiff he returned to his own 
country, and married a relation, Blanche Trissina, by whom 
be had a third son, Giro; but Leo's successor, Clement 
YIL soon reacailled him to Rome, and gave him e^qual proofs 
of bis esteem and confidence, by sending him as his am- 
bassador to Charles V. and to the senate of Venice. Some 
of his biographers say that he was created a knight of the 
golden fleece, eitlier by Charles V. or by Maximilian, bat 
Tiraboschi thiikks that he never was admitted into thai 
order, although he might have permission to add the fleece 
to hia arms, and even take the title of chevalier. Voltaire's 
blunders about Trissino are whoUy unaccountable. He 
makes him arebbishop of Benevento at the time he wroc^ 
hi» tragedy; and having this, probably pointed out to biin^ 

38 t R I S S I N O. 

' he endeavoured to correct the error by asserting in a sub* 
sequent publication that bishop Trissino, by the advice of 
the archbishop of Benevento, chose Sophonisba for a sub- 
ject, although Trissino never was either bishop or arch- 
bishop, nor an ecclesiastic of any rank. 

Trissino now retired to Vicenza in order to compose at 
more leisure a poem of which, many years before,. he had 
laid the plan ; bat his peace was at this time interrupted by 
domestic dissentions, in consequence of which he had 
scarcely afterwards a happy moment. The eldest of his 
two sons by his iirst wife, died, and Julius, the second, had 
conceived an aversion to his step-mother on account of the 
preference which his father seemed to give to her son Giro. 
Mutual irritation ended in Trissino's resolving to disinherit 
Julius and settle all upon Giro, and in Julius threatening 
to commence a suit at law for the recovery of his mother^s 
fortune. To add to Trissino's distress, his wife Blanche 
' died in 1540, on which he disposed of her son in mar- 
riage, and went again to Rome in hopes of tranquillity. 
There he remained some years, and finished and published 
his great poem, ^^ Italia liberata da Gotjii/' In the mean 
time his son Julius was carrying on the law-:suit at Venice, 
and was /supported in it by his mother's relations. This 
obliged Trissino to go thither in 1548, although so much 
ajSicted by the gout, as to travel on a litter. From Venice 
he went to Vicenza, where he found that Julius had begun 
to take possession of all his property, and he was so much 
enraged at this conduct, as to make a will in which he to- 
tally disinherited his unnatural son. Julius, more irritated 
than ever, carried on bis law-suit, and having obtained a 
decision in his favour, without ceremony took possession of 
his father's house and the greater part of his goods. Tris- 
sino now returned to Rome, biddin^an eternal adieu to his 
country, in some Latin verses, in which he said, " he would 
go to some country under another climate, as he had been 
defrauded of his paternal mansion, and as the Venetians 
had encouraged that fraud by a cruel sentence," &c. &c. 
He did not, however, long survive this latter disappoint-r 
xnent, but died at Rome about the end of 1550, in the 
seventy-second year of his age. 

Trissino has the credit of having firj$t discarded the 
shackles of rhyme, and employed the versi sa'olti, or blank 
Verse of the Italians. This he first tried in his ** Sopho- 
nisba/' and afterwards in his <^ Italia liberata," the, subject 

T II I S S 1 N O. 39 

of which was the liberation of Italy from the Goths by 
Belisarius ; and it was bis design to exhibit in this poem, 
which consists of twenty-seven books, a specimen of the 
true epic, as founded on the example of Homer, and con- 
firmed by the authority of Aristotle : but into the merits 
of this poem it is not necessary to enter so minutely as 
Ginguen£ has done, since it seems universally acknow- 
ledged that of all the attempts at epic poetry which had 
hitherto appeared, the ^^ Italia liberata" may be con- 
sidered as the most insipid and uninteresting; nor from the 
'time it first appeared, in 1547-8, was it ever' reprioted 
until the Abbate Antonini gave an edition of it in 1729^ 
3 vols. 8vo, and in the same year it appeared in the col- 
lected works of the author^ Verona, 2 vols, folio. In this 
collection, besides his epic poem and the tragedy already 
mentioned, are, a comedy from Piautus, called " I Simil- 
limi ;'' lyric poems, both Latin and Italian ; and various 
prose treatises, almost all on grammar and on the Italian 
language. As most of the great poets of bis time wrote 
an " Art of Poetry,'* we find accordingly among Trissino's 
works an attempt of this kind, ^^ Delia Poetica," which was 
originally published in 1529.^ 

TRISTAN L'HERMITE (Francis), a French poet and 
dramatic writer, was born in the castle of Souliers, ii> the 
province of la Marche, in 1601. When attached to tl^ 
household of the marquis de Verneuil, natural son of 
Henry IV. lie fought a duel, in which his antagoniut, one 
of the guards, was killed, and fled for some time to Eng- . 
land. Returning to Poitou, he found friends who obtained 
his pardon from Louis XIII. ; and Gaston of Orleans made 
him one of his gentlemen in ordinary. His life became 
then divided between poetry, gallantry, and gaming, and 
he experienced all the reverses and vicissitudes to which 
such a life is exposed, many of which he had alluded to 
iti his '^ Page disgracie," a romance published in 1643, 
4to. He . wrote much for the stage, and was seldom un- 
successful. His tragedy of " Mariamne^' still keeps his 
reputation alive^ although it was fatdl to the actor, Mon- 
dori, who performed the character of Herod, and died of 
violent exertion. Tristan was admitted into the French 
academy in 1649, but always lived poor. He died Sept. 7, 
1655, in the fifty-fourth year of his age. His dramas and 
other poems were printed in 3 vols. 4to. 

1 Tiraboscbi.^Gingufoe Hist. Lit. d'ltalic.*— Roscoe's Leo. 


There were; two others of this name : John Bi^PTiST 
Tristan L'Hermite Souliers, who was gentleman of his 
majesty's bedchamber, and brother to the preceding. He 
was author of the genealogies of several families; *^L'His« 
toire g^n^ologique de la Noblesse de Touraine/' ]66d9 
fol. ; *^ La Toscane Francoise," 1661, 4to; f* Les Corses 
Francoise," 1662, 12mo; " Naples Francoise,'.' 1663, 4to, 
&c. containing the history of such persons in those coun- 
tries as have been attached to France. There was alto John 
Tristan, son of Charles Tristan, auditor of accounts at Paris. 
He attached himself to Gaston of France, duke of Orleans, 
was weU skilled in antiquity and medals, add published a 
5' Historical Commentary on the Lives of the Emperors,'' 
1644, 3 vols. fol. a work full of curious observations; but 
Angeloni and father Srrmond found several faults in it, 
inchich Tristan answered with great asperity. He was liv« 
ing in 1656. * 

TRITHEMIUS (John), a celebrated abbot of the Bene- 
dictine order, and one of the most learned men in the fif-< 
leenth century, was born February 1, 1462, at Tritenheim, 
in the diocese of Treves. After finishing his studies he 
took the Benedktine habit, and was made abbot of Span- 
lieim in the diocese of Mentz, in 1483, which abbey he 
governed till 1506, and resigned it to be abbot of St, James 
at Wirtzberg. . He died Dec. 13, 1516. Trithemius was 
well acquainted both with sacred and profane literature, 
and left various works, historical and biographical, among 
which the principal are, a treatise ^^On the illustrious ec- 
clesiastical Writers," Cologn, 1546, 4to; in this book he 
gives some account of 870 authors ; another ^' Oa the ilius- 
trious Men of Germany;'' and a third on those of the ^^Be- 
nedictine Order," 1606, 4to, translated into French, 1625, 
4to ; six books ^* On Polygraphy," 1601 , fol. translated into 
French; a treatise "On Steganography," i. e. the various 
methods of writing in cyphers, 1621, 4to, Nuremberg, 172 !« 
' There is a scarce book on this work, attributed to Augus- 
tus, duke of Brunswick, entitled ^< Gustavi Seleoi £noda« 
tio Steganographies J. Trithemii," 1624, fol. There are 
also various ** Chronicles," in " Trithemii Opera historica," 
1701, fol. 2 vols, published by Freher, to which we may 
add his works on religious subjects, 1605, fol. '^Annates 

' Moreri. — ^Gen. Diet. — Diet. Hist. 

T R I V E T. 41 

Hirsaagienses/' 2 vols, folio, a curious and important work, 
and others. ' 

TRIVET (Nicolas), a Dominican friar, son of sir Tho* 
inas Trivet, lord chief justice, was author of the '^ Annales 
6. Regum Anglise," published by Mr. Ant. Hall, of Queen's 
^ college, Oxford, in 1719, 2 vols. 8vo. He lived in the 
rdgns of Edward I. II. III. and died in 1328. Bishop Ni- 
colson says that an excellent copy of his history, whick 
John Pits subdivides into three several treatises, was in his 
time in the library of Merton college, Oxford, '^ whence 
several of our most eminent antiquaries have had very re«t 
markable observations." It is in French, and bears tbe title 
of ^ Les Gestes des Apostoiles, or the popes, empefeurs, 
et rois ; -' but this must be a different work from the for* 
mer. Trivet left mapy other MSS. on various subjects of 
philosopby and theology, a commentary on Seneca's Tra« 
gedies, &c. He was educated at Oxford, and esteemed 
one of the ornaments of the university in his time. ' 

TROGUS (PoMPEius), a Latin historian, was born in 
the couritry of the Vocontian Gauls, in Gallia Narbonensis^ 
and lived in the reign of Augustus, about the beginning oi 
the Christian era. His father enjoyed a sitiMition uiuier 
the emperor. We know, however, nothing of the per- 
sonal character of Trogus, nov should have tieasd of his 
name had not Justin made an abridgment of his *'" Univer- 
sal History,^' comprized in forty-four books ; the editions 
6f which are noticed in our account of that classic' 

TROMMIUS (Abraham), a learned protestant divine, 
was born at Groningen in 1633, and Studied the classics, 
belles lettres, philosophy, and theology in that university, 
under Desmarets, Alting, and other eminent professors* 
He travelled afterwards through Germany and Switzei^land, 
and studied Hebrew under Buxtorf. He then visited 
France and England, and on his return was appointed cu« 
rate or minister, in the village of Haren, where be re- 
mained until 1671, when he was invited to be pastor at 
Groningen. In this ofSce he continued forty-eight ye^rs, 
and died in 1719, aged eighty-six. In his eightieth year 
he was created doctor in theology at Groningen, as a tes- 
timony of respect on the part of the university. John Mar- 
tinius, of Dantzick, having begun a Concordance of tbe 

^ Niceron, XXXVIII Freheri Theatrumi— Dupin. « Lcland.— 

Bale.-r*Tanner. — ^NicoUoo's Hist. Library. • Vossius Hi»U Lat. - 

Fabric. KbI. Lac. 

42 T R O M M I U S. 

Old Testament, in Flemish, Trommius completed it, and 
published it at Amsterdam, 1685 — 1692, 2 vols, folio. 
He also published a Greek Concordance of the Septuagint. 
He had made preparations aiid corrections for a second 
edition of the Flemish Concordance, but did not, we pre* 
sudie, finish it, as it has never been printed. ' 

TROMP (Majitin Happertz Van), a celebrated Dutch 
admiral, who is mentioned in our account of De Ruyter, 
was born at the Brille, in Holland. He rose in the naval 
service by bis merit, after having distinguished himself on 
many occasions^ especially at the famous engagement near 
Gibraltar in 1607. He was accounted one of the greatest 
seamen that had till that time appeared in ,the world ; and 
was declared admiral of Holland, by the. advice of the 
prince of Orange. He in that character defeated a large 
Spanish fleet in 1630, and gained upwards of thirty vic- 
tories, of more or less importance, at sea; but was killed 
when under deck in an engagement with the English, ia. 
1653. The States General caused medals to be struck to 
bis honour, and lamented him as one of the greatest heroes 
of their republic. It is said that in the midst of his greatest 
glory, he was modest and unassuming, and never arrogated 
a higher character than that of a burgher, and that of being 
the father of the sailors. His second son, Cornelius, who 
died in 1691, was also a brave ofiicer, and signalized him- 
self in various naval engagements. ' 

TI^ONCHIN (Theodoue), the first of a considerable 
family of learned men in Geneva and France, was born at 
Geneva, April 17, 1682, whither his father bad fled on ac- 
count of religion, and narrowly escaped from the massacre 
of the protestants in 1572. He was then at Troyes, in 
Champagne, and escaped by means of a priest, his friend 
and neighbour, who concealed him in his house. He in- 
tended to go into Germany, and only to pass through Ge- 
neva ;. but he remained there by the advice of an acquaint- 
ance, obtained the freedom of the city, and soon after was 
admitted into the council of two hundred in acknowledg- 
ment of ^some services which he had done the. State during 
the war with the Duke of Savoy. 

His son, Theodore, was educated, by the advice of Be- 
za, who was his godfather, and he made a vast progress in 
learning. The testimony which was given him in 1600, 

I Moreri.^— Lc LoDg Bibl. Sacia. ^ Moreri. — Diet. Hitt — Univ. Hist. 

T R O N C H I N. 43 

when he went to see foreign universities, represents him 
as a person of very great* hopes. He confirmed this cba* 
racter among all the learned men under whom he studied, 
or with whom he heoame acquainted during the course 6i 
his travels, and these comprized most of the eminent men 
on the continent and in England. He returned to Geneva 
in 1606, and gave such proofs of his learning that he was 
the same year chosen professor of the Hebrew language,- 
In 1607- he married Theodora Rocca, a woman of great 
merit' in all respects, sister to the first syndic of the com- 
monwealth, and grand-daughter to the wife of Theodore 
Beza, at whose house she had been educated, and whose god- 
daughter she was. He was chosen minister in~December 
1608, and created rector of the university in 1610. In 
1614 be was requested to read some lectures in divinity 
besides those on the Hebrew language, on account of the 
indisposition of one of the professors ; and when the pro- 
fessorship of divinity became vacant in 1618, he was pro- 
moted to it, and resigned that of Hebrew. The same year 
he was appointed by the assembly of ps^stors and professors 
to answer the Jesuit Coton, who had attacked the French 
version of the Bible in a book entitled " Geneve Plagiaire." 
This he did in his "Coton Plagiaire," which was extremely 
well received by the public. At the same time he was sent 
with Diodati from the church of Geneva to the synod of 
Dort, where he displayed his great knowledge in divinity, 
and a moderation which was hig;hly applauded. He had 
permission to go to the duke of Rohan for some months in 
1632, and fully answered the expectation of that nobleman, 
who shewed him afterwards great esteem, which he returned 
by honouring the duke*s memory with an oration, which 
he pronounced some days after the funeral of that great 
man in 1638. He parried on a very extensive correspond- 
ence in the reformed countries, where he gained the friend- 
ship of the most learned men, and of several princes and 
great lords. He had much facility in composing oradons^ 
and Latin verses, and his conversation was highly instruc- 
tive, for he had joined to the study of divinity and of se- 
veral languages, the knowledge of the law, and of other 
sciences, and of sacred and profane history, especially with 
regard to the two last centuries, particulars of which he fre- 
quently introduced, and applied when in company. In 1655 
he was appointed by the assembly of pastors to confer and 
concur with John Dury in the affair of the reunion between 

44 T R O N C H I N, 

the Lutberaas and the reformed, od which subject be wrote 
several pieces. He died of a fever on the 19th of Novem-* 
ber, I657| having survived all the foreigh divines who were 
present at the synod of Dort. He was an open and sincere 
aaan, zealous for religion and the service of the churehea, 
a great enemy to vices, though very miid towards persons* 
His advice was highly esteemed both for the civil govern- 
ment, and in the two ecclesiastical bodies, and by strangen, 
a great number of whom consplted him. He left, among 
other children, Lewis Tronchin, who was a minister of the 
church of Lyons, and was chosen four years after to fill bia 
place in the church and professorship of divinity at Geneva. 
He died in 1705. He was esteemed one of the ablest di- 
vines of bis time, and a man of great liberality of senti« 
raent. He was well known to, and corresponded with our 
archbishops Tillotsoo and Tentson, and the bishops Comp- 
ton, Lloyd, and Burnet, who givea him a very high charac- 
ter in his Tour through Switzerland. ^ 

TRONCHIN (Theodore), a celebrated physician, was 
apparently the. grandson of Lewis Tronchin, and was born 
at Geneva in 1709. His father, John Robert Tronchin, 
having lost his property in the fatal Mississippi speculation, 
Theodore left hom6 at the age of eighteen, and came to 
£ngland to lord Bolingbroke, to whom he is said to have 
been related, we know not in what degree; but Bolingbroke 
had it not in his power to do much for him, and he went to 
Holland to study chemistry uitder Boerhaave, whose work 
on that subject had engaged his attention, and made him 
desirous of seeing the author. Boerhaave is said to have 
soon distinguished Tronchin from the general mass of his 
pupils, and in 1731 advised him to settle at Amsterdam, 
where he introduced htm to practice, and in a short time 
Tronchin was at the bead of the physicians of Amsterdam. 
But having married a young lady ctf the family of the cele- 
brated patriot De Witt, be fancied that the name would be 
disgraced by bis accepting a place at court, and therefore 
he refused that of first physician to the stadtholder, aud 
quitting Amsterdam when the stadibolderate was madie 
hereditary, returned to Geneva, where he could live in a 
pure republic. Here the council gave him the title of ho*- 
norary professor of medicine, but no duties were attached 
to it. It was not his intention, however, to be idle, and he 

' Gea. Diet.— Chaufepie, who has a prolix life of Lewis Tronchin. 

T R O N C H I N. 45 

gave lectures on the general principles of medicine, in 
which he endeavoured to free the science from rooted pre* 
jttdiCes and false theories. In 1756 he was called to Piirit 
to inoculate th<5 children of the duke of Orleans. He had 
introduced this practice both in Holland and at Geneva, 
and,' in the former at least, without almost any opposition ; 
and the success he had in his first trial in France, on these 
princes of the btood, having contributed not a little to bis 
celebrity, he rose to the highest honours of his profession, • 
and acquired great wealth. In 1765 he was invited to 
Parma to inoculate the royal children of that court. Al- 
though averse to accept any situations which might form a 
restraint upon his time or studies, he consented to the title 
of first physician to the duke of Orleans, and in 17iS6 fixed 
bis residence at Paris. The arrival of an eminent physician 
in Paris is always accompanied by a revolution in practice: 
Tronchin brought, with him a new regimen, new medicines, 
and new methods of cure, and many of them certainly of 
great importance, particularly the admission and change of 
air in sick rooms, and a more hardy method of bringing up 
children ; he also recommended to the ladies more exercise 
and less effeminacy in their modes of living and in diet. 
His prescriptions were generally simple ; but perhaps his 
fame was chiefly owing to his introducing the practice of 
inoculation, which he pursued upon the most rational plan. 
In all this he had to encounter long established prejudices, 
and being a stranger, bad to contend with the illiberality of 
some of the faculty, obstacles which he removed by a 
steady, humane course, and his frequent success com* 
pleted his triumph. H^ was in person a fine figure^ there 
was a mixture of sweetness and dignity in his countenance ; . 
his air and external demeanour inspired affection, and com- 
manded respect ; his dress, voice, and manner, were gtace- 
ful-^and pleasing! all which no doubt gave an additional 
lustre to his reputation, and perhaps an efficacy to his pre- 
scriptions. His extensive practice prevented his writing 
or publishing more than a few papers on some medical 
cases, one ** De colica pictorum," 1757, 8vo. He also 
prefixed a judicious preface to an edition of << Oeuvres de 
Baillou," 1762. This eminent practitioner died Nov. 30, 
1781. He was at that time a citizen of Geneva, a title of 
t^hich be was very proud, a member of the nobility of 
Parma, first physician to the duke of Orleans, and to the 
infant duke of Parma, doctor of medicine of the universi- 

46 T R O N C H I N. 

ties of Leyden, Geneva, and Montpeliier, and a: member of 
the academy of sciences of Paris, of that of surgery, of the 
Royal Society of London (elected 1762), and of the aca- 
demies or colleges of Petersburgh, Edinburgh, and Berlin.^ 

TROTTER, Catherine. See COCKBURN. 

TRUBERUS (Primus), celebrated for his learned trans- 
lations, was born in 1508. He was first a canon of Lay- 
bach, and began in 1531 to preach publicly in the cathe- 
dral of that city Luther's doctrine concerning the sacra- 
ment in both kinds; and to approve the marriage of priests-; 
so that he embraced Luther's party, and left Carniola to 
retire into the empire, where the town of Kempson chose 
him for their pastor. He preached there for fourteen years, 
and acquired much fame by his translation3. He translated 
into the Carniolan tongue, in Latin characters, not ojily 
.the Gospels, according to the version of Luther, with his. 
catechism, but also the whole New Testament, and the 
Psalms of David in 1553. At length the States of Carniola 
recalled him home. He translated also into bis mother 
tongue the confession of Augsburgh, and Luther's German 
sermons. Herman Fabricius Mpsemannus thus notibes 
Truber's translation, with the addition of some other par- 
ticulars : '< John Ungnad baron of SoAneek in Croatia, at 
the time of the Augsburgh confession, caused the Bible to 
be translated into the Sclavonian language at Aurach in the 
duchy of Wirtenibergh. In this translation he employed 
three learned Sclavonians; the first was named Primus 
Truber, the second Anthony Dalmata, and the third Ste- 
phen Consul. But these books were seized on the road, 
and are still shut up in casks at Newstad in Austria. The 
character is altogether singular, almost resembling an 
Asiatic or Syriac character, with pretty large and square 
letters. A copy of this Bible may be seen in the library of 
the landgrave of Hesse. There are also some copiesf of it 
to be met with in Sclavonia.^' These Bibles are without 
doubt printed in Cyrillic characters. Truber was banished 
Carniola a second time, and died June 29, 1 586. The same 
year, in a letter he wrote to the deputies of Carniola, he 
subscribes himself " Primus Truber, formerly qanon. in or- 
dinary, called and confirmed at Lay bach, pastor at Lack, 
at TufFer near Ratschach, and at St. Bartholomew's field, 
chaplain at S. Maximilian of Cilly, Sclavonian preacher at 

1 Eluges dee Academicieos, vol. II. 




Trieste, and after tbe first persecution preacher at Rosem- 
burgb on the Tauber, pastor at Keinpten and at Aurais, 
aftenvards preacher to the States of Carniola, and at Rubia 
in the county of Goergh, and after the second persecution 
pastor at CaufFen, and now at Deredingen near Tubingen." * 
TRUBLET (Nicholas Charles Joseph), a French 
M)6 of temporary fame, but who is upon the whole ^ther 
faintly praised by his countrymen, was born at St. Malo in 
Dec. 1697. He was related to the celebrated Maupertuis,' 
who dedicated the third volume of his works to him. His 
first appearance as an author was in 1717, in his twentieth 
year, when he published in the French " Mercure," his 
-^Refl«ctions on Telemacbus," which served to introduce 
him to La Motte and Fontenelle, who became afterwards 
not only the objects of his constant esteem, but of a spe* 
cies of idolatry which exposed him to the ridicule of tbe 
wits of his .day. There are no memoirs of his education 
and early progress, but it appears that he was treasurer of 
the church of Nantes, and afterwards archdeacon and ca* 
noQ of St. Maio. For some time he lived in intimacy with 
cardinal Tencin, and visited Rome with him, but having 
no inclination to a life of dependence, whatever advantages 
it might bring, he returned to Paris, and employed his 
time in literary pursuits. His irreproachable conduct and 
agreeable manners procured him very general esteem as a 
man, but as a writer he never ranked high in the public, 
opinion, and although very ambitious of a seat in tbe 
French academy, he did not reach that honour until 1761. 
About six years afterwar^;^ he retired to his native place, 
where he died in March 1770. His principal works were^ 
1. **Essais de litterature et de morale," 4 vok. 12mo, which 
have been often reprinted and translated into other l[an- 
guages. These essays, although the author was neither 
gifted.with the elegance of La Bruyere, nor with the pene- 
tration of La Rochefoucault, contain much good sense and. 
knowledge of books and men. 2. ^^ Panegyriques des 
Saints," a. work feebly written, but to which he prefixed 
some^ valuable reflections on eloquence. It was in this work 
he incurred tbe displeasure of Voltaire. He in general 
disliked the poetry of his country, and had not only thie 
couraige and imprudence to say that he thought it in gene- 
ral monotonous, but that he was unable to read even tbe 

1 Ger. Diet. art. Dalmanlln. — Melchior Adam.— Freheri Theatrum. . 

48 T R U B L E T. 


^'Henriade^' of Voltaire without yawning. Voltaire re- 
sented this in a satire, entitled ^* Le Pauvre Diable/' but 
afterwards became reconciled to the abbe. 3. *' Memoirea 
pour aervir a Tfaistoire de Messieurs de la Motte et de Fbn* 
tenelle/' Amst. 1761. He was a contributor also to the 
'^journal des S.avanS|'' and to the ** Journal Chretien," 
which was established in defence of religion against the 
infidel writers of that time.^ 

TRUMBULL, or TRUMBAL (William), an estimable 
and upright statesman, was born at Eastbampsted in Berk- 
shire in August 1638. He was the eldest son of William 
Trumbull, esq. a justice of peace in Berkshire, and grand- 
son of another William Truaibull, who was agent and en- 
voy from James L to the archduke Albert at Brussels, from 
1609 to the end of 1625. This great man, for such he ap- 
pears, to have been, made a large collection of letters, me- 
moirs, minutes, and negociations, of all the men of note 
in bis time,^ with whom he entertained a constant and fami- 
liar correspondence. These documents, which are, or were 
lately, in the gallery at Eastbampsted park, sufficiently show 
hii care, industry, vigilance, and sufficiency, in the em- 
ployment he served ; and he appears to have been the fa^ 
mily pattern and model which sir William Trumbull, the 
smbject of our memoir, had in his eye, and spurred him on 
to an imitation of those virtues which, if they appeared so 
bright in the grandfather, shone forth in much greater 
lustre and perfection in the grandson. 

Mr. Trumbull was educated partly at home and partly at 
Oakingham school, to which he wsts sent in 1649. In 1654 
he was admitted a gentleman commoner, under Mr. T; 
Wyat, in St. John's college, Oxford, but removed thre^ 
years after to All Souls, on being, chosen a fellow. In 
1659, be went out bachelor of laws. In 1664 he began his 
travels through France and. Italy, and lived there with the 
lords Sunderland, Godolpbin, and the bishop of London, 
Dr. Compton. In 1666 he returned to college, and the 
following year practised as a civilian in the vice-chancellor's 
Court From some MS memorandums of his life written by 
himself, it appears that about this time he conducted an 
appeal to the lord chancellor Clarendon, and carried a point 
respecting the non-payment of fees for his doctor's degree, 

1 Eulogy by D'AlembcrL ^Dict. Hist.— Le Ntcrologie dei Hommes Celebres, 
pour aaa«e 1771. 


by wbjdi be gained great credit/and all t^he businete of the 
Tice-chancellor's court. In July of this year, 1667, be took 
the degree of LL. D. and in Michaelmas term, 1668, was 
admitted of Doctor^* Commons, after which he says be at* 
tended diligently the courts, and took notes. 

In 1670 be married a daughter of sir Charles Cotterell, 
and the same year his father settled upon him the yeai^iy 
sum of 350/. which, he adds, sharpened his industry it> 
his profession. In 1672, some deaths and promotions fon- 
tributed to increase bis practice, now worth 500k per ann.^ 
and about the same time he got the reversion of the place 
of clerk of the signet on sir Philip Warwick^s death, wbioii 
happened in 1682. In the following year, began his car- 
reer of public employment, by his accompanying lord 
Dartmouth to Tangiers. In this expedition he was ap* 
pointed judge advocate of the fleet, and commissioner for 
settling the properties of the leases of bouses, &c. at Tan* 
giers, between .the king and tbe inhabitanu. For tbisser-^ 
vice we should suppose he was not very. amply remune« 
rated, as he makes here a remark on *^ the gre^t differenc9v^ 
between the value of assistance when wanted, and after 
it is given and done with." In November he returned, 
ami resumed his profession in Doctors Commons ; and 
about the same time, refused the place of secretary of war 
in Ireland, 

In 1684, he was presented to the king by lord Hoches-p 
ter, and received the honour of knighthood ; and was alsci 
made clerk of- the deliveries of the ordnance stores, a 
place w^ortb 300/. a year. In 1685, he was appointed en-^ 
voy extraordinary at the court of France, against bis in^ 
clination ; but the king (James II.) insisted upon it, and 
gave bim a pension of 200/. a year, in lieu of his place 
of clerk of the deliveries, which he could not hold with 
his appointment as envoy. Dis coaduct in this office 
does him much credit. Being in France when the Pro<« 
testants were persecuted in consequence of the revocation 
of^he edict of Nantz, he remonstrated against it, and 
spok^ his opinion with a freedom which was not very ac«< 
ceptable, either at the court where he was, or that^from' 
which he came ; and when be found bis remonstrances iiv 
vaiui he took every method he could, by his privilege, ta' 
harbour many of the persecuted Protestants, and assisted 
theqi in recovering their effects, and conveying fheiti to 
Epglnnd. It was probably on this account that he was re* 
Vol. XXX. E 



called in 1686, and, as his services were too valuable to be 
laid aside, the -king appointed him ambassador extraordi* 
nary to the Ottoman Porte ; and before he embarked^ 
the Turkey-company presented him with a gold cup, va- 
lue sixty pounds. He was continued in this embassy by 
William III. and remained there until 1691. He then re- 
turned from Constantinople, principally by land. In 1694 
and 1695 he was advanced to be one of the lords of the 
treasury, a member of the privy- council, and principal 
secretary of state. He was also governor of the Turkey- 
company : and bad been several times member of parlia- 
ment, and once represented the university of Oxford. Hrs 
opportunities to acquire diplomatic knowledge, and to on'- 
derstand the intrigues of negotiation, induced him once to 
say to king William, ^^ Do not. Sir, send embassies to Italy, 
>ut a fleet into the Mediterranean.'^ 

In 1697, be resigned all his employments, and retired 
to East Hampsted, where he died December i4, 1716, and 
was buried in East Hampsted church. It Was in this re- 
tirement that, in 1705, he became acquainted with-Pope ^ 
who then lived at Binfield. Pope informed Mr. Spence, 
that he *^ loved very much to read and talk of the cislssics 
in bis retirement. We used to take a ride oClt together 
three or four days in the week, and at last almost every 
day." His letters to Pope breathe an air of uncommon good 
temper, good sense, candour, and tranquillity of mind. 
They evince the scholar, the man of taste, and the gentle- 
man, mixed with the clearest sense of propriety. It ap- 
pears that sir William, was the very first person that urged 
Pope to undertake a translation of tbe Iliad. Besides these 
letters in Pope's Works, several written by him while be 
was ambassador in France, are preserved in the paper- 
office, and extracts from others have been printed by sir 
John Dairymple. His well-written character of sir Wil- 
liam Dolben, archbishop of York, we have already given in 
our account of that prelate. We ought not to omit, that 
he had been a friend and patron to Dryden, who^ in the 
postscript to his Virgil, pays him a very elegant compli* 
ment: ^If the last iEneid shine among its fellows, it is 
owing to the commands of sir William Trumbull, one of 
the principal secretari^a of state, who recommended it as 

♦ Pope's epitaph on sir WilUam Trumbull may be leea io hii Works!; btoU- 
wai. nerer placed on hia monumenty as lome hare aaserted. 


bis favourite to tny care ; and for his sake particularly I 
hare made it mine. For who would confess weariness when 
he enjoined a fresh labour ? I could not* but invoke the 
assistance of a muse for this last ofBce t 

** Extremum hunc, Arethusa,- 

neget quis carmina Gallo V^ 

.Sir William Trumbull's first wife dying in 1704, be mar- 
ried Judith, dagghter of Henry Alexander, fourth earl of 
Sterling, by whom he had a son of his own names who died 
in 1760, and whose daughter and sole heir married the hon. 
x^olonel Martin Sandys. Sir William had a brother, the 
rev. Dr. Charles Trumbull, who died Jan. 8, 1724. He was 
rector of Stystead in Essex, and Hadley in Suffolk, and 
chaplain to archbishop Sancroft, but quitted these livings 
at the Revolution. * 

TRYE (Charles Brandok), a learned surgeon, and 
senior surgeon of the county-infirmary, Gloucester, was 
descended from the ancient family of Trye, of Hard wick, 
CO. Gloucester, and was born Aug. 21, 1757. He married 
Marj'^, elder daughter of the rev. Samuel Lysons, rector of 
Rodmarton, by whom he left three sons and five daugh- 
ters ; and was consequently related to the two celebrated 
antiquaries. In 1797, he succeeded to a considerable 
estate; consisting of the manor, advowson, and chief landed 
property in the parish of Leckhampton, near Cheltenham^ 
under the will of his cousin, Henry Norwood, esq. whose 
family had possessed them for many generations. — ^This 
gentleman will be long regretted, not only as a surgeon, 
but as a man extremely useful in various undertakings of 
national concern, such as rail-roads, canals, &c. in the 
planning of which he evinced great genius. As a surgeon, 
his practice was extensive, and his success great. Many 
arduous and diflScult operations he performed, which ended 
in perfect cures, after others of eminence had shrunk from 
the undertakings. His operations were conceived and exe- 
cuted frx)m a perfect knowledge of the structure of the hu- 
man body, attained by a well-grounded education, and 
constant intense study through life. He was educated un- 
der the eminent surgeon, Mr. Russell, of Worcester ; then 
studied under Jofin Hunter; was house-surgeon to the 

^ 1 6«iil; Mag. vol. LX.-^BbwIeS's edition of Pops. See Index.<»BgrDei*s 
Own TuDCf.— Ma1#b6*s Dryden, vol. IV. p. 560.— Ruff head's Life of Pope.— 
Coote*t Catalogue bf CiviUans. 

E 2 

S? T R Y E. 

Westminster Infirmary, and afterwards assistant to the very 
ingenious and scientifio Sheldon. He was for some time 
house-surgeon and apothecary to the infirmary in Glou- 
cester. Shortly aft^r \^e quitted that situation, he was 
elected sbrgeon to that charity, an office which be filled for 
near thirty years, discharging its duties with great credit 
to himself ; while those placed under his care were sensible 
of the advantages they possessed from his assiduous atten- 
tion to their su0erings. He trained up several -surgeons, 
mai^y of whom are exercising the medical profession in 
various parts of the kingdom, with credit to their precep- 
tor, honour to themselves, and utility to mankind. As anr 
author, he was well known to the literar}' part of the me* 
dical world, and published : 1. ^'Remarks on Morbid Re- 
tentions of Urine,'' 1784. 2. " Review of Jesse Foot'a 
Observations on the Venereal Diseas^," (being an answer 
to his attack on John Hunter,) 1787. 3. <* An Essay on 
the swelling of the lower Extremities incident to Lying-iix 
Women," 1792. 4. " Illustrations of some of the Injurie* 
to wliich the lower Limbs are exposed," (with plates), 
1802. -5. ** Essay on some of the Stages of the Operation 
of Cutting for the Stone,'* 1811. 6. " An Essay on Aneu- 
risms," in Latin, was far advanced in the press several 
years ago, but was laid aside, and not quite completed at. 
the author's death. He has left several interesting cases, 
and other observation^, in manuscript ; and many of his 
papers of a miscellaneous nature, connected with the pro- 
fession, are to be found in various periodical publications.. 
He was a steady friend and promoter of the Vaccine inocu- 

TRYPHIODORUS, an ancient Greek poet, as we learn, 
from Suidas, was an Egyptian ; but nothing can be deter- 
mined concerning his age. Some have fancied him older 
than Virgil, but without the least colour qf probability. 
Othi^s have made him a contemporary with Quintus Cala- 
ber, Nonn us, Coluthus, and Musscus, who wrote the poem^ 
on Hero aild Leander, because they fancied a resemblance. 
between his style and theirs; but this is a precariows argn-« 
?[ient, nor is it better known when these authors lived. All 
therefore that can be reasonably supposed concerning tha^ 
age ofTrypbiodorus i», that he lived between the reigns 
of Sererus and ^nas^tasius; the former of whom died at^ 

1 Gent. M»9. 4rol. LXXKU 


fhe beginning of the third century, and the Jatter at the 
beginning of the sixth. 

His reputation among the ancients, if we may judge 
from their having given him the title of grammarian, was 
very considerable; for, though the word grammaTian be 
now applied to persons altogether attentive to the minutiae 
of language, yet it was anciently a title of honour, and 
'particularly bestowed on such as wrote well and politely ia 
every way. The writings of thisr author were extremely 
numerous, as we learn from their titles preserved by Sui- 
das ; yet none of them are come down to us, except his 
" Destruction of , Troy," which he calls ** A Sequel to^e 
Iliad.'* He also wrote a new Odyssey, which Addison has 
described with equal truth and humour. After having pro* 
posed to speak of the several species of false wit among 
the ancients, -he says, *^ The first I shall produce arey the 
Lipogrammatists, or Letter- droppers, of antiquity, that 
would take an exception, without any reason, against some 
particular letter in the alphabet, so as not to admit it oi^<;e 
into a whole poem. One Tryphiodorus was a great master 
in this kind of writing. He composed an Odyssey, or epic 
poem on the adventures of Ulysses, consisting of four and 
twenty books, having entirely banished the letter A from 
his first book, which was called *■ Alpha,* as lucus d rum 
lucendOf because there was not an Alpha in it* His second 
bpok was. inscribed < Beta* for the same reason : in shorty 
the poet excluded the whole fonrand twenty letters in their 
turns, and shewed them, one after another, that he could 
do his business without them. It must have been very 
pleasant to have seen this poet avoiding the reprobate let- 
ter, as much as another' would a false quantity; and mak<* 
ing his escape from it through the several Greek dialects, 
when he w^as pressed with it in any particular syllable. 
For, the most apt and elegant word in the whole language 
was rejected, like a diamond with a flaw in it^ if it ap- 
peared blemished with a wrong letter. I jihall only oh9er9e 
upon this head, that if the work I have here mentioned 
had been now extant, . the Odyssey of Tryphiodorus in all 
probability would have been oftener quoted by our learne^ 
pedants than the Odyssey of Homer. What a perpetual 
fund would it have been of obsolete wordii and phrases, 
unusual barbarisms and rusticities, absurd spdlings and 
complicated dialects ! I make , no question, but it would 
have been looked upon as 6ne of the most valuable trea<- 

54 T R Y P H I O D O R U S. 

sii'r^s of th^ Greek tongue.'' It may be necessary to 'add 
that this singular composition does not exist, and that some' 
have good-naturedly doubted whether it was written by 
bur Tryphiodorus. 

The first edition of Tryphiodorus's "Destruction oi 
Troy" was published at Venice by Aldus, together with 
Quintus Calaber's " Paralipomena," and Colutbus's Poem 
on the rape of Helen. It was afterwards reprinted at se- 
veral places, particularly at Francfort in 1588, by Frisch* 
linus, who not only restored many corrupted passages .in 
the original, but added two Latiu versions, one in prose, 
the other in verse. That in verse was reprinted with the 
Greek at Oxford, 1742,. in Svo, with an English translation 
in verse ; and notes upon both the Greek and the English 
by J. Merrick of Trinity -college. There is another good 
edition more recently published by Mr. Northmor^, Ox- 
ford, J 791, Svo; and one was printed at Leipsic in 1809^ 
in fol. amounting only to twenty-five copies.^ 

TSCHIRNHAUSEN (Ernfroy Walter), an inge^ 
nious mathematician, lord of Killingswald and of Stolzen- 
berg in Lusatia, was born April 10, 1651. After having 
served as a volunteer in the army of Holland in 1672, 
he travelled into most parts of Europe, as England, 
Germany, Italy, France, &c. He . went to Paris for the 
third time in 1682 ; where he communicated to the Acade- 
my of Sciences, the discovery of the curves called from ' 
him Tschirnhausen's Caustics ; and the academy in conse- 
quence elected the inventor one of its foreign members. 
On returning to-Italy, he was desirous of perfecting the 
science of optics ; for which purpose he established two 
glass-works, from whence resulted many new improve- 
ments in dioptrics and physics, particularly the noted 
burning-glass which he presented to the regent. It was to 
him too that Saxony owed its porcelain manufactory^ 
- Content with the enjoyment of literary fame, Tschirn- 
hausen refused all other honours that were offered him. 
Learning was his sole delight. He searched out men of 
talents, and gave them encouragement. He was often at 
the expence of printing the useful works of other men, for % 
ib& benefit of the public ; and died, beloved and regretted, 
the 1 1 th of September, 1 708. 
Tschirnhausen wrote, "De Medicina Mentis & Corporis,'* 

I derrick's Dissertation prefixed iq bis Edition.— Spegtator, No. 59. 


prii)ted at Amsterdam in 1687. And the follomng me* 
moirs were printed in the volumes of the Academy of 
Sciences: 1. Observations on Burning Glasses of 3 or 4 
feet diameter; vol. 1699. 2. Observations on the Glass 
of a Telescope, convex on both sides, of 32 feet focal 
distance; 1700. 3. On the Radii of Curvature, viith the 
finding the Tangents, Quadratures, and Rectifications of 
many curves; 1701. 4. On the Tangents of Mechanical 
Curves; 1702. 5. On a method of Quadratures ; 1702.* 

TSCHUDI (Giles de), one of a family of Swiss writers, 
aiid landaman of the canton of Glarus, was born in 1 505. He 
devoted much of his time to historical researches, and pro- 
duced, among other works of less note, a *^ Chronicle," 
which, whatever h^ merits, remained in mannscript until 
1734, when it was published at Basle in 2 vols. fol. He 
died in 1572. Another of the family, DOMINICK TscuDi, 
who died in 1654, wrote in Latin, on the *^ Constitution of 
the Benedictine congregation in Switzerland,'' and an ac- 
count of the founders of that abbey, which was printed in 
1651, Svo. A third, John Henry Tscudi, who died in 
1729, and was a zealous protestant, his predecessors being 
equally zealous catholics, was the author of an account of 
the abbes of St. Gall, 1711, 4to; a << Chronicle" of the 
canton of Glaris, 1714, Svo, both in German. He also 
conducted a literary journal from 1714 to 1726, which was 
ordered to be burnt by the public executioner in conse- 
quence of the freedoms be took with popery. There wfts 
also a John Peter Tscudj, who wrote in German a 
" History of Werdenberg," published in 1726.* 

TUCKER (Abraham), an ingenious English writer, was 
horn in London Sept. 2, 1705, of a Somersetshire family) 
his father was a merchant, his mother was Judith, daughter 
of Abraham Tillard, esq. Both his parents died before he 
was two years old, and left him under the care of his 
grandmother Tillard and his maternal uncle sir Isaac Til- 
lard, a man of strict piety and morality, of whose memory 
Mr. Tucker always spoke with the highest veneration and 
regard, and who took the utmost pains to give his nephew 
principles of integrity, benevolence, and candour, with a 
disposition to unwearied application and industry in his pur- 
suits. He was educated atBishop^s Stortford, andiu 1721 

1 HattoD^s Dict.-r-Dr. Gleig's Supplement to the £acycl. Britannica, an am- 
ple account, chiefly from the Acta Eruditornm, LeipsiC; 1 709, 
^ Diet. Hi»t.— Saxii Oaomafit. 


was entered as a gentleman commoner in Merton-colleget 
Oxford, where his favourite studies were metaphysics an4 
the mathematics. He there engaged masters to teach him 
French, Italian, and music, of which last he was \'ery fond. 
In 1726 he was entered of the Inner Temple. Soon after- 
wards, and just before he came of age, he lost bis guar- 
dian sir Isaac. He studied enough of the law to be useful 
to himself and his friends ; but his fortune not requiring it, 
and his constitution not being strong, he was never called 
to the bar. He usually spent the summer vacations in 
tours through different parts of England, Wales, and Scot- 
hind, and once passed six weeks in France and Flanders. 
In 1727 he purchased Betchworth^castle with its estate. 
He then turned his attention more to rural affairs, and with 
his usual industry wrote down numberless observations 
which he collected in discourses with his farmers, or ex- 
tracted from various authors on the subject. On the 3d of 
February, 1736, he married Dorothy, daughter of Edward 
Barker, esq. afterwards cursi tor 'baron of the exchequer, aind 
receiver of the tenths. By her he had three daughters, 
Dorothy, ^who died under three years old, Judith, and 
Dorothea- Maria, who,, on the 27th of October, 1763, mar- 
ried sir Henry Paulett St. John, bart. and died on the 5th 
of May, 1768, leaving one son. Mrs. Tucker died the 7th 
of May, 1754, aged 48. As they had lived together in the 
tenderest harmony, the loss^ was a very severe stroke to 
Mr. Tucker. His first amusement was to collect all the 
letters which bad passed between them whenever tdey hap- 
pened to be absent from each other, which he copied out 
in books twice over, under the title of *' The Picture of 
artless Love ;" one copy he gave to her father, who sur^ 
vived her 6ve years, and the other he kept to read over to 
his daughters frequently. His principal attention then wa^ 
to instruct his daughters; he taught them French and 
Italian, and whatever else he thought might be useful to 
them to know. In 1755, at the request of a friend in the 
west of England, be worked op some materials which he 
sent him into the form of a pamphlet, then publishejd under 
the title of ** The Country Gentleman's Advice to his Son 
on the Subject of Party Clubs,*' printed by Owen, Tem- 
|ije-bar ; and he soon after began writing ^^ The Light of 
Nature pursued," of which he not only formed and wrofe 
over several sketches before he fixed on the method be de- 
termined to pursue, but wrote t^^e complete copy twice 


Aruh his ovm hand; bilt thinking bis style was naturally 
stiff and laboured, in order to improve it, he had employed 
much time in studying the most elegant writers and orators, 
and translating many orations of Cicero, Demostbenes, &c« 
and, twice over, *^ Cicero de Oratore.'* After this he 
composed a little treatise called ^* Vocal Sounds,^' printed, ' 
but never published ; contriving, with a few additional let* 
ters, to fix the pronunciation to tbe whole alphabet in such 
manner, that the sound of any word may be conveyed on 
paper as exactly as by the voice. His usual method of ' 
spcmding his time was to rise very early to his studies, in 
winter burning a lamp in order to light bis own fire before 
his servants were stirring* After breakfast he returned to 
bis studies for two* or three hours, and then took a ride on 
horseback, or walked. Tbe evenings in summer be often 
spent in walking over bis farms and setting down his re- 
marks ; and in tbe winter, while in the country, reading to 
his wife, and afterwards to his daughters. In London, 
where he passed some months every winter and spring, be 
passed much time in tbe same manner, only that bis even- 
ings were more frequently spent in friendly parties with some 
of his relations who lived near, and with somt; of bis old fellow 
collegiate!^ or Temple friends. His walks there were chiefly 
to transact any business he bad in town, always preferring 
to walk on aU his own errands, to sending orders by a ser- 
vant, and frequently when be found no other, would walk^ 
be said, to the Bank to see what it was o^ clock. Besides 
his knowledge in the classics and the sciences, he was per- 
fectly skilled in merchant's accompts, and kept all his 
books with the exactness of an accompting^house ; anid be 
was ready to serve his neighbours by acting as justice of 
peace. His close application to his studies, and writing 
latterly much by candle and lamp-light, weakened his 
sights aud brought on cataracts, which grew so much worse 
after a fever in tbe spring, 1771, that he could no longer 
tfmuse himself with reading or writing, and at last could 
not walk, except in his own garden, without leading. This* 
was a great trial on his philosophy, yet it did not hil hfm ; 
he not only bore it with patience, but cheerfulness, fre*- 
quently being much diverted with the mistakes his infirmity 
dc^casioned him to make; His last illness carried him %>S 
on the 20th of November, 1774, perfectly sensible; and 
as. be had lived^ easy and resigned^ to the last. 

sa T U C K E R. 



He published a pamphlet entitled /^ Man in quest of 
himself/' in reply to some strictures on a note to his 
" Free Will," He had no turn for politics or public life, 
and never could be induced to become a candidate to re- 
present the county of Surrey, to which his fortune^ abili- 
ties, and character gave him full pretensions. '^ My 
thoughts/' says Mr. Tucker of himself, ^^ have taken a 
turn, from my earliest youth, towards searcbrng into the 
foundations and measures of right and wrong ; my love for 
retirement has furnished me with continual leisure; and 
the exercise of my reason has been my daily employment.'* 
He once, however, was induced to attend a public meeting 
at Epsom in the beginning of the present reign, when party 
ran very high, and when sir Joseph Mawbey began to 
exercise his talent for poetry by a ballad on the occasion, 
in which he introduced Mr. Tucker and other gentlemen 
who differed from him in their opinions. So far from 
being hurt by this, Mr. Tucker was highly amused at the 
representation given of himself, and actually set the ballad 
to music. 

Having before provided for his younger daughter, he 
left his estate at Betchworth to his eldest daughter, who. 
was unmarried, and a more worthy successor could not have 
been found. With the strong understanding of her father, 
she inherited bis good and amiable qualities; and though 
possessed of learning which is not often found in a lady, it 
was never obtruded in conversation. Friendly to her neigh- 
bours, kind to her tenants, benevolent to the poor, she 
died unmarried Nov. 26, 1794, respected and regretted by 
all who were acquainted with her, leaving sir Henry Paulet 
St. John Mildmay, her sister's only son, heir to her estates, 
who, in 1798, sold the manor, mansion-bouse, &c. to 
Henry Peters, esq. banker in London, the present owner, 
who has made great improvements, and enlarged the estate 
by purchases. 

Mr. Tucker's " Light of Nature pursued," a work not 
now much read, was published in 7 vols. 8vo, of which the 
first three were published by himself in 1768, under the 
assumed name of Edward Search, esq. and the four last, 
after his death, as <' The posthumons work of Abraham 
Tucker, esq." It consists of disquisitions on most disputed^ 
points and obscure theories in metaphysics, politics, divi- 
nity, &c. in which are many bold and original thoughts, 
but conveyed in a style land manner ^hich has prevented 


the work from being much a favourite with the public* 
Although in general praised for liberality of sentiment, he 
has been by one party censured on account of his servile 
adherence to the doctrines of the established church, and 
by another has been claimed as a supporter of what 14 
called unitarian ism.' 

TUCKER (Josiah), a learned English divine, but more 
celebrated as a political writer, was born at Laugharn, in 
Carmarthenshire, in 1712. His father was a farmer, and 
having a small estate left him near Aberystwitb, in Cardi- 
ganshire, he removed thither ; and perceiving that his soo 
• had a turn for learning, he sent him to Ruthin school in 
Denbighshire, where he made so great progress in the 
classics that he obtained an exhibition at St. John's college, 
Oxford. The journey from his native place to the univer* 
sity was long, and at that time very tedious, on account of 
the badness of the roads. He travelled therefore for some 
time on foot, until old Mr. Tucker, feeling for bis son's- 
reputation, as wellas for his ease, gave him his own horse* 
But upon his return, young Josiah, with true filial affection, 
considered that it was better for him to walk to Oxford 
than for his father to repair on foot to the neighbouring 
markets and fairs, which had been the case, owing to this 
new regulation. TBe horse was accordingly returned ; and 
oor student, for the remainder of the time he continued at 
the university, travelled on foot backward and forward with 
bis baggage at his back. 

At the age of twenty-three he entered into holy orders, 
and served a curacy for some time in Gloucestershire. 
About 1737 he became curate of St Stephen's church, 
Bristol, and was appointed minor canon in the cathedral of 
that city. Here he attracted the notice of Dr. Joseph But« 
ler, then bishop of Bristol, and afterwards of Durham, 
who appointed Mr. Tucker his domestic chaplain* By the 
interest of this prelate Mr. Tucker obtained a prebeodal 
stall in the cathedral of Bristol ; and on the death of Mr. 
Catcott, well known by his treatise on the deluge, he be- 
came rector of St. Stephen. . The inhabitants of that pa- 
rish consist chiefly of merchants and tradesmen, a circum-^ 
stance which greatly aided his natural. inclination for com«. 
mercia) and political studies. When the famous bill waa 
brought into the House of Commons for the naturalisation 

1 Manning and Bray's Hist, of Surrey. 

60 T U C K E K 

of ibe Jews, Mr. Tucker took a decided part in favour of 
the, measure, and was, indeed, its most able advocate ; bul 
for this be was severely attacked in pamphlets, newspa- 
pers, and magazines ; and the people of Bristol burnt his 
effigy dressed in canonicals, together with his letters on 
behalf of ' naturalization ^. In 1753 he published anifble 
pamphlet on Che *' Turkey Trade," in which he demon- 
sKrates the evils that result to trade in general frqm char* 
tered companies. At this period lord Clare (afterwards 
eurl Nugent) was returned to parliament for Bristol, which 
bonour he obtained chiefly through the strenuous exertions 
of Mr. Tucker, whose influence in his large and wealthy 
parish was almost decisive on such an occasion. In return 
for this favour the earl procured for him the deanery of 
Gloucester, in 1758, at which time he took hisi degree of 
D. D. So great*was his reputation for commercial know- 
ledge, that Dr. Thomas Hayter, afterwards bishop of Lon- 
4lon, who was then tutor to his present majesty, applied 
to Dr. Tucker to draw up a dissertation on this subject 
for the perusal of bis royal pupil. It was accordingly done, 
and gave great satisfaction. This work, under the title of 
^^The Elements of Commerce," was printed in quarto, but 
never published. Dr. Warburton, however, who, after bav«- 
ing been member of the same chapter with the dean, at 
Bristol, became bishop of- Gloucester, thought very dif« 
ferently from the rest o^ mankind, in respect to his talents 
and favourite pursuits; and said once, in bis coarse manner, 
that ^* his Dean's trade was religion, and religion his trade.'* 
The dean on being once asked concerning the coolness 
which subsisted between him and Warburton, his answer 

* — 

was to the following purpose : *^ The bishop affects to con* 
sider me with contempt ; to which I say nothing. He has 
•cnnetimes spoken coarsely of me ; to which I replied no- 
thing. He has said that religion is my trade, and trade 
]£^my religion. Commerce, and its connections have, it is 
irue, been favourite objects of my attention, and where is 
the crime ? And as for religion, I have attended carefully 
to the duties of my parish : nor have I neglected my ca- 
thedral. The world knows something of me as a writer on 
religious subjects ; and I will add, which the world does 
not know, that 1 have written near three hundred seitnons,. 

^ Mr. Seward says, his being burnt io efllgy Was occasioned by an esf ay he 
wrote in support of the Hessians who. came to lettie in Engiand, 


and preached tbem all, again and again. My heart is at 
ease on that score, apd my conscience, thank God, does 
aot accuse me/' The fact is, that although there is «# 
possi{>Ie connection between the business of commerce and 
the duties of a clergyman, he had studied theology in all 
its branches scientifically, and his various publications on 
moral and religious subjects show him to be deeply versed 
in theology. 

In 1771, when a strong attempt was made to procure an 
abolition of subscription to tiie thirty-nine articles. Dr. 
Tucker came forward as an able advocate of the church of 
England, yet admitted that some reformation of the liturgy 
waa^ wanted^ and instanced particularly the Athanasiaa 
creed, which he considered as too scholastic and refined 
for a popular confession of faith. — About this time he pub- 
lished *^ Directions for Travellers/' in which he lays down 
excellent rules, by which gentlemen who visit foreign coun- 
tries may not only improve their^own minds, but turn their 
observations to the benefit of their native country* This 
ha$ become extremely scarce, but there is a part of it re- 
printed i,n Berchtold's ^' Essay to direct the inquiries of 
Travellers," an excellent work, published in 1789, 2 vols- 

|n 1772, the dean printed a small volume of sernK>ns, 
in ^hich he explains the doctrines of election and justificH' 
tion, in reference to a very violent dispute then carried 
OB between the Calvinistic and the Arminian niethodists, 
the former headed by Messrs. Toplady and Hill, and the 
latter by the Messrs. Wesleys and Fletcher. The year fol- 
lowing he published *^ Letters to the rev. Dn Kippis, where- 
in the claim of the Church of England to an authority in 
matters of faith, and to a power of decreeing rites and 
ceremonies, is discussed and ascertained,^' &c. 

When the dispute arose between Great Britain and the 
American colonies, the dean was an attentive observer of 
the contest, examining the affair with a very different eye 
from that of a party-mao, or an interested merchant, and 
discovered, as he conceived, that both sides would'be be* 
nefited by an absolute separation. The more he thought 
on this subject, the more he was persuaded that extensive 
colonies were an evil rather than an advantage to any com* 
merctal nation. On this principle, theipefore, he published 
his ** Thoughts upon the Dispute between the MDther 
Country and America.^' Hfi demonstrated, that the latter 
could not be conquered, and ^at, if it could, the pur^ 




chase would be dearly bought. He warned this c6untry 
against commencing a war with the colonies, and advised 
that they should be left to themselves. This advice startled 
all parties, and by all the dean was considered as a sort of 
madman, who had rambled out of the proper litie of hi9 
profession to commence political quack. Our autbor, how- 
ever, went on vindicating and enforcing his favourite sys- 
tem, in spite of all the obloquy with which it was treated 
both in the senate and from the press. As the war pro- 
ceeded, some intelligent pei:$ons began to see more truth 
and reason in his sentiments, and time^ perhaps, may be 
thought to have demonstrated that he was right. He 
printed several essays in the newspapers under the tKle of 

When the terrors of an invasion were very prevalent in* 
1779j the dean circulated, in a variety of periodical pub- 
lications, some of the most sensible observations that were 
ever made on the subject, in order to quiet the fears of the 
, people. He states at length, and with great accuracy, the 
numerous difficulties that must attend the attempt tb invade 
this country, and the still greater ones that must be en- 
countered by the invaders after their landing. Those Ob- 
servations were reprinted, with good effect, in ^he course 
of the late war. 

In 1781, he published what he had printed long before, 
" A treatise on Civil Government,'* in which his principal 
design is to counteract the tloctrines of the celebrated 
Locke and his followers. This book made a considerable 
noise, and was attacked by several of the best writers on 
the democratic side of the question. The year following 
he closed his political career with a pamphlet entitled " Cui 
Bono?" in which he balances the profits and loss of each 
of the belligerent powers, and recapitulates all his former 
positions on the subject of war and colonial possessions. 
His publications after that period consisted of some tracts 
on the commercial regulations of Ireland, on the expor- 
tation of woollens,, and on the iron trade. 

In 1777 be published seventeen practical sermons, in 
one vol. 8vo. After he resigned his rectory in Bristol he 
resided mostly in Gloucester, where, in 1781, he married 
Mrs, Crowe, his housekeeper. He died of thegradual de- 
cays of age, November 4, 1799, and was interred in the 
srouth transept of Gloucester cathedral, where a monument 
i^aa since been erected to his mejnory. It should be f<^* 


corded to his praise, that though enjoying but very mo- 
derate preferment (for to a man of no paternal estate^ o^ 
otb^ ecclesiastical dignity, the deanery of Gloucester is 
no very advantageous situation), he was notwithstanding a 
liberal benefactor to several public institutions,' and a dis- 
tinguished patron of merit. About 17dO bethought of re- 
signing his rectory in Bristol, and, without communicating 
his design to any other person, he applied to the chancel- 
loTy io whose gift it is, for leave to quit it in favoui* of his 
ciirate, a most deserving maq, with a large family. His 
lordship was willing enough that he should give up the 
living, but he refused him the liberty of nominating his* 
successor. On this the dean resolved to bold the living 
himself till he could find a (it opportunity to succeed in bis 
object. After weighing the matter more deliberately, he 
communicated bis wish to his parishioners, and advised 
them to draw up a petition to the chancellor in favour of 
the curate. This was accordingly done, and signed by alt 
of them, without any exception, either on the part of the 
dissenters or others. The chancellor, being touched with 
this testimony of love between a clergyman and his people^ 
yielded at last to the application ; in con^iequence of wfaicif 
the dean cheerfully resigned the living to a successor well 
qualified to tread in his steps. ^ • 

TUCKER, or TO.OKER (William), a learned divine of 
the sixteenth century, was the third son of Mr. William 
Tooker of Exeter, where he was born. He was educated 
at Winchester school, whence he went to New college, 
Oxford, and was admitted perpetual fellow in 1577. He 
completed his master's degree in 1583, about which time 
he distinguished himself as a disputant before some illus-* 
trious visitors of the university. In 1585 he gave up his 
fellowship on being^ promoted to the archdeaconry of Barn- 
staple ill Devonshire. He was afterwards made chaplain to 
queen,''£lizabeth, which, Prince says, was occasioned by 
his writing and dedicating a book to her mnjesty ou the 
king's evil, which we shall presently notice. He became 
afterwards prebendary of Salisbury, and took his degree of 
p. D* in 1594. He then became canon of the church of 
Exeter, and dean of Lichfield, but did not attain the latter 
preferment in consequence of the death of Dr. Boleyne^ as 

1 Gent Mfl^. toI. LXIX.<— M^arburtoaV LeUers, 4to edit. p. 331, 33V.— 
—Seward*! AnecdoUis. 

€« T U C K E R. 

Wood and Prince say, for be succeeded Dr. Montague^ 
and was installed Feb. 21, 1604*. These biographers inform 
us that king James designed him for the bishopric of 
Gloucester, and that the cong^ d'elire was actually issued, 
but for some reason the king was. pleased to revoke it« De. 
Tucker died at Salisbury March 19, 1620, and was buried 
in the cathedral there. 

Dr. Tucker was esteemed an excellent Greek and Latin 
scholar. <^The purity of his Latin pen,*' says Fuller, 
<^ procured bis preferment. . He was an able divine, a per#> 
son of great gravity and piety, and well read in curious and 
'critical authors." His publication^ are, K ^* Charisma, sive 
Donum Sanationis, sen Exp)icatio lotius qusestionis de mi- 
rabiliujn sanitatum gratia, &c." Loud. 1597, 4to. This is 
the work which. Prince says, introduced him to the favour of 
queen Elizabeth. It is a historical defence of the power of 
our kings in curing what is called the king's eviL Delrio, 
the Jesuit, answered . it, and *^ with him,"' say Wood and 
Prince, '^ are said to agree most fanaticks," and. we may 
add, most persons of common sense. Tucker was, if we 
mistake not, the first who wrote in defence of the royal 
touch, and Carte, the historian, the last, or perhaps the 
celebrated Whistou, who has a long digression on. the sub* 
ject in bis life. 2. ^^ Of the Fabrick of the Church and 
Church-men's Living,'' Lond. 1604, .8vo. This appears 
to have been written to obviate the scruples of some of the 
puritan party. The subjects treated are: 1. ^' Of parity 
and imparity of gifts; of competency and incompetency of 
men's livings ; and of the reward of men's gifts or main* 
tenance, so called ; of parity and imparity of men's livings,- 
which ariseth out of the equality or inequality of men's 
Igifts, and of preferments so called ; of singularity and phi-* 
rality of benefices, and of the cause thereof, viz. dispensa^ 
tioov; of the friends and enemies of pluralities;- and of 
supportance and keeping of the fabrick of the church up^ 
right) in which he vindicates the hierarchy and constitution 
of the church of England against the eoemies thereof, who 
are for reducing all to a parity and equality." 3. ^' Singu-^i 
lire Certamen cum Martino Becano Jesuita," Lond. 1611^ 
^VQ, in defence of James I. against Becan and Bellarmin \ 

TUCKNEY (Anthony), a learned divine, usually^ but 
perhaps not very strictly, classed among nonconformists, 

^ Ath. Ox. vol. I.— Priucc's Worthies of Devpn.— .Fuller's Worthies.— WillisV 
Cathedrals. v 

T U C K N E Y. 65 

was born in September 1599, at Kirton, near Boston in 
Lincolnshire, where his father was minister. He was, at 
fourteen years of age, matriculated of the university of 
Ctoibridge, being admitted of Emmanuel college there. 
His biographer, Dr. Salter, remarks that this circumstance 
*^ shews that he had been educated hitherto ih a dislike 
to the- church establishment; for that college, though it- 
abounded for many years in most excellent scholars, and 
might therefore very justly be esteemed and flourish oil 
their account, yet was much resorted to foranotber reason 
about this time;. viz. its being generally look'd on, from 
its first foundation, (which Tuckney himself acknowledges) 
as a seminary of Puritans."' To this class Dr. Tuckney cer- 
tainly belonged ; he was a Calvinist, and so far a doctrinal 
puritan/ but we find fewer symptoms of nonconformity' 
about him than in the case of any man of his time. 

Mr. Tuckney took his first degree in arts before he was 
seventeen years old, and was chosen fellow of his college 
three years after. In 1620 he proceeded M.A. and was 
some time in the earl of Lincoln's family, before he resided 
on his fellowship. When he returned he became a very 
eminent tutor, and had many persons of rank admitted 
under him. In 1627 he took his degree of B.D.; after 
which' be accepted the invitation of his countrymen, and 
went to Boston, as assistant to the famous vicar of that 
town, John Cotton, for whom, though a very zealous non«* 
eoofbrniist, his diocesan bishop Williams, when lord keeper^ 
procured a toleration under the great seal, for the free 
exercise of his it^inistry, notwithstanding his dissenting in 
ceremonies, so long as done without disturbance to the 
' church. But this was probably not very long: for Mr. 
Cotton quitted his native country, before the rebellion, and 
Withdrew to New England. On his departure the corpo- 
ration of Boston chose Mr. Tuckney, who was now married, 
into this vicarage, and be kept it, at their request, till the 
restoration ; or rather his title to it, for be took no part of 
t^e profit after he ceased to reside. Calamy mentions a 
Mr.* Anderson as having been ejected at the restoration ; he 
probably officiated there, but never was vicar, and Dr. How 
succeeded Mr. Tuckney in 1660. . 

When the Assembly of Divines met at Westminster, Mr. 
Tuckney was one of the. two nominated for the county of 
Lincfdn, and on this removed to London, and was appointed 
miqisier of St». Michael Querne in CUeapside. In 16^5; 

Vot. XXX. F 


6^ T U C K N E Y. 

when the earl of Manche^er tnrfred pat Dr. Holdswcath, 
master of Eimnanuel college, Mr. Tuckney was appoinligd 
to succeed him, bat did not entirdy reside on this emptoy- 
inent until I64S, %vhen being chosen vice-cfaiuncellor he fe- 
moTed with bis family to Cambridge, served that ofBoe with 
-credit;, and commenced D.D. the y^ar after. While vice- 
chancellor, Mr. Baker informs us, that he was very zealous 
for the conversion of the Indians, aird the propagation of 
the gospel in America, and promoted these designs very 
vigorously with the assistance of the heads of the other 
colleges. In 166% Dr. Hill master of Trinity dying. Dr. 
Tuckney preached bis funeral sermon, and on the removal 
of Dr. Arrommith to Trinity college, was chosen master of 
St, John^s, and two years aAefr regius professor of divinity. 
But although Aus legally possessed of these two considera- 
ble preferments, and akhougb. Dr. Salter says, his beha* 
T4our in both was irreproachable and even highly commend- 
able ; though (le ever consulted the interest hoth of the uni- 
versity and his college, and the honour of the chair, yet he 
Was (fStnlfy turned otd of both, at the restoration, on pretence 
pf bis gi^t age, which was only sixty-two. 

Mr. Baker thus represents the treatment Dr. Tacknegr 
met with : ^^ A set of young men (for the old ejected mem« 
bers seem to have been content with their commons) were 
so intoxicated with the retuni of the king, imdilushed with 
wiltaier expectations, as to forget nrll reverence and grati- 
tude f hat was due to a vet>erable old man, and to turn upon 

'their benefa)ctor, to whom most of them owed encourage- 
ment, and some of them preferment. The same person, 
that had been so much reverenced fay tbetn, was now nfeg«- 
lected. Complaints were brought by tliem, and preferred 
at court against him, where ^meeting with cbuntenance, the 
good, old man, partly awedhvith th^ terrors Of the higher 
powers, and partly grieved and vested with the ingratitdde 
of his fellows ; or possibly foreseeing a consequent nece§- 
stty upon his non-compliance, was easily prevailed with to 
reiign ifais preferments. He apeordingly resigned his mas* 
tetsfaip of St. John^s and professorship June22, 1661, a 
pension of lOO/. per annum being reserved to him out of 
the emoluments of bis professorship, which was duly paid 

^^liiii to his dying ^ay." 

"The rest of jils life,** adds Mr. Baker, "he spent in 
retirement, most part at London, M^here he bad been pafttor 
of St. Michael le Qu^rne, and wher^he h^d beM oommis- 

TUCK N E y. 67 

«io0er at Ibe conference at the Savoy : but, either through 
diffidence of himself, or for other reasons, although h^e bad 
filled the chair at Cambridge so many years with reputa- 
tion, by acquitting himself extremely well, yet he never 
could be prevailed with tp appear and act in that confer- 
ence; whilst Mr. Baxter, who knew nothing of an univer- 
sity, nor was acquainted with any other chair save that of 
the pulpit, only in the strength of natural logic ventured to 
engage in mood and figure with sou^ of. our .bestapd n^o^ 
experienced divines, with su^ch suqcess as lu^ually atti^ds 
rash undertakiugs.'' 

The Savoy conferenc;^ Dr. Tnckney certainly wv^ at^ 
tended, which, Dr. Salter say^, JMr. ^fixter ol>sierye^ <^ with 
some indignation;" but this wie cannot discover in Baxter^s 
account. Still less would he have hinted, as a cause for 
Dc Tuckney's absence, that be w|^ silenced by the \pQl* a 
.yean given him, which Dr. JSaJter, ajthougl^.ofb^rwjse^.l^s 
.adinirer, has doae. According \o CaU^nay, b^.^pre^i^ 
sometimes in his own bouse, and occa^Jially in^h^ fw^i^ 
lies of several friends. In ihfi time c^f the plagUfl.biP livf^ 
at Colwich hall near NoUingbaoa, ^ of JR4}l>|^rt pierre- 
. point, esq. where he wa3 sopu trembled and Qon6.ped^ but 
was treated very civilly, and in a few months dji^lpyaig^^. 
. Upon tbe £ve- mile act, be removed tp Oundle, ^nd thence 
to Warmington, in Nprtbamptpnsbire. . After the fii;e pf 
London (in which his library was burnt) be. j[reii^Q]ire4 Jl^o 
S.tockerstpu in Leicestershire, ^nd then to Tottenh^^mii^r 
London, whence in 1(169-70 he r/emoved to SpijuL-yard, 
.where he continued until bis death, (February 1670, ia^the 
^eventy-first vear of bis age. He. w^s buried March l,.in 
.the church of St. Andrew Undershaft, London. 
, Calamy says, be bad the character of an,em.ine(>tly piqiis 
and .learned man, a true friend, an indefatigable. stuc^cit,, a 
can,did disputant, and an earnest promoter of truth and.god- 
liness. A remarkable proof of his candour, and of h^^ zeal 
Jfor truth, may be seen in his letters to DrvWhichcptf^^who 
bad been one of his pupils, published. in 17^3 by Pr. Salter, 
under the;title of ** Eight Letters — concerning the Use of 
reason in religion ; the difTerences of opinion among Chris- 
tians; the reconciiiauon of sinners unto Gojd ;. and, the 
studies and learning of a minister of ,tbj/e gospel/' The^e 
were written in 1651, and were appended by Dr. Salter to 
his edition of Whichcote** *^ Aphorisms." Dr. Tuckn'ey*s 
other works were, " Forty Sermons'* published by his son 


68 T U C K N E Y. 

the Rev. Jonathan Tuckney, 1676, 4to; and a collection of 
Latin pieces, consisting of sermons ad clerum^ positions, 
determinations in the chair and for his own degree, lectures, 
&c. Amst. 1679, with a short account of the Doctor by W. 
D. supposed to be Dr. William Dillingham, his successor 
in the headship of Emmanuel college. 

From these writings. Dr. Salter remarks, that "our pro- 
fessor appears to have been a man of great reading and 
much knowledge; a ready and elegant Latinist ; but nar- 
row, stiff, and dogmatical ; no enemy to the royal or epis- 
copal power, as it should seem ; but above measure zealous 
for church power and ecclesiastical discipline ; which- such 
men as Tuckney, Arrowsmith, &c. very sincerely wished 
and hoped to have established, .by authority of the parlia- 
ment, following the repeated advice of the assembly ; and 
they sadly regretted their disappointment; their new masters 
constantly turning a deaf ear to all such admonitions." In 
his elections at St. John's, when the president would call 
upon him to have regard to the godly ^ the master answered, 
^'No one shotild have a greater regard to the truly godly than 
himself, but he was determined to choose none but scho- 
lars'^" adding, *'They inay deceive me in their godliness : 
they cannot in their scholarship." 

" One thing," Mr. Baker adds, " may be said in favour , 
of Dr. Tuckney, and his predecessor (Arrowsmith), or ra- 
iher it is a right owing to their memory, that though they 
were not perhaps so learned as some of those that have before 
and since filled that post and station, yet their government 
wi^ so good, and the discipline under them so strict and 
regular, that learning then flourished : and it was under 
them that some of those great men had their education who 
were afterwards the ornaments of the following age. I need 
not name them. Sdllingfleet, Beveridge, Cave, &c. are 
names well known ; names that will live in future aoes* 
when their first instructors- will perhaps be forgot." * 

TUDESCHI, or TEDESCHI (Nicholas), an eminent 
canonist, was a native of Sicily, and commonly called Pa- 
NORMlTANUS., from his being at the head of a Benedictine 
abbey in Palermo, and afterwards archbishop of that city. 
He was bor\i probably towards the close of the fourteenth 
century, some say in 13S6, and became one of the mos^ 

1 Calamy.—Life by Dr. Setter, prefixed to hw " Leitert.'>.«.Mr. Buktr't MS 
History of St. Johu*s college. « 

T U D E S C H I. 69 

celebrated canonis.u of his time. He was present at the 
CouDcil of Basil, and bad a considerable hand in the pro- 
ceedings there against pope Eugenius ; in recompense for 
which service he was made a cardinal by Felix V. in 1440. 
He was afterwards obliged, j)y the orders of the king of 
Arragon his master, to return to his archbishopric, where 
he died of the plague in 1445. There is a complete edition 
of his works, Venice, 1617, in 9 vols. fol. ' Dupin mentions 
as his principal work a treatise on the council of ^asil, 
which was translated into French about the end of the 
seventeenth century by Dr. Gerbais, of the Sorbonne, and 
printed at Paris. * » , 

TULL (Jethro), a gentleman of an ancient family in 
Yorkshire, deserves honourable mention in this work, al- 
though we can say little as to his biography, as the first in- 
ventor of the drill-plough, and the first Englishman, perhaps 
the first writer ancient or modern, who attempted with any 
tolerable degree of success to reduce agriculture to certain 
and uniform priniciples* After an education at on.e of our 
universities, and being admitted a barrister of the Teqiple, 
he made the tour of Europe, and, in every country through 
which he passed, was a diligent^ observer of the soil^ culture^ 
and vegetable productions. On bis return to England he 
married, and settled in a paternal farm in Oxfordshire, 
where he pursued an infinite number of agricultural expe- 
riments, till by intense application, vexatious toil, and too 
frequently exposing himself to the vicissitudes of heat and 
cold in the open fields, he contracted a disorder in bis breast, 
which, not being found curable in England, obliged him a 
second time to travel, and to seek a cure in the milder cli- 
mates of France and Italy. Here he .again attended more 
.minutely to the culture of those countries; and, having little 
else to do, he employed himself, during three years resi- 
dence abroad, to reduce his observations to writing, with a 
view of once more endeavouring to introduce them into 
practice, if ever he should be so happy as to recover his 
health, and be able to undergo the fatigues of a second at- 
tempt. From the climate of Montpelier, and the waters of 
that salutary spring, he found in a few months that relief 
which all the power of physic could not afford him at 
home ; and he returned to appearance perfectly repaired 
in his constitution, but greatly embarrassed in hi^ fortune. 

] DupiD.«-Caire, toI. II.—- Fabric. Bibl« Lat. Med, 

ro T tr L L. 

Pare of bis estate id Oxfordshire' he had sold, and before 
his dep2LTture bad settled his family on a farm of his owit^ 
cdlli^d Prosperous Farm, near Hungerford in Berkshiref, 
Inhere he returned with a firm resolution to perfect his 
former iThdertdking, having, as he thought, devised means 
during his absence to obviate all difficulties, and to force 
his new husbandry into practice by the success of it, in 
spite of all the opposition that should be raised by the lowet* 
class of husbandnien against it. He revised and rectified 
all his old instruments, and contrived new ones proper for 
the different soils of his new farm ; and he no<v went on 
pretty successfully, though not rapidly, nor much less ex* 
pensively, in the prosecution of bis new system. He de- 
monstrated to all the world the good effects of his horse- 
hoeing culture; and by raising crops of wheat without 
dunging for thirteen years together in the same field, equal 
in qtiantity, and superior in quality, to those of his neigh- 
bours in the ordinary course, he demonstrated the truth 6f 
his own doctrine, that labour and arrangement would sup- 
ply the place of dung and fallow, and would produce more 
fcorn at an equal or ifess expence. But though Mr. Tull 
was successful in demonstrating that this might be done, h6 
was not so happy in doing it himself.^ His expences were 
enhanced various ways, but chiefly by the stupidity of 
\vorkmen in constructing his instruments, and in the awk- 
wardness and wickedness of his servants, who, because 
they did not or would not comprehend the use of them, 
seldom failed to break some essential part or other, in order 
to render them useless. These disadvantages were dis-^ 
cernible only^ to Mr. Tull himself; the advantages attending 
the new husbandry were now visible to all the world ; and 
it was now that Mr. Tull was prevailed upon, by the soli- 
citations of the neighbouring gentlemen who were witnesses 
of its utility, to publish his theory, illustrated by a genuine 
account of the result of it in practice, which he engaged 
to do, and faithfully performed at no trivial expdnce. 

His first publication was a "Specinien" only, in 1731 ; 
which was followed in 1733 by " An Essay on Horse-hoeing 
Husbandry,*' 1733, folio; a work of so much reputation, 
that it was translated into French by Mr. Du Hamel. 'From 
this time to 1739, he continued to make several improve- 
ments in his method of cultivating wheat; and to publish 
at different times answers to such objections as had been 
made to his husbandry by ^^ those literary vermin that are 


T U L L, 71 

«$ injurious to the agricultuce of England, as tha Ay is to 
Qur turnips.'*. We use here the words of a noble writer, 
who cond^c^nded to prefix an advertisement to a posthu- 
mous publication of the late Mr. Francis Forbes, entitled 
^'Tbe extensive Practice of the New Husbandrjp^^' 1778, 
8vo, a work which endeavoured to revive the ideas and 
practice of Mr. Tuli, who died Jan. 3, 1740, at his seat at 

Mr.TuU had a son» JoQN, who in his early years travelled 
to France, Italy, and other parts of tfbe continent. On his 
return, being a good mechanic, he was led to various inven- 
tions, which had various success. He was, among other 
schemes, the first who introduced post*cfaaises, and post- 
travelling b}^ them, in England, for which he obtained a 
patent in 1737. He then appears to have gone into the 
array, and was an officer in the train of artillery, and aid- 
de-icaunp to general James Campbell, who fell at the battle 
ofFontenoy, where Mr. TuU attended him. After his^ re- 
turn he resumed his schemes^ one of which was the bring- 
ing of fish to London by land^arriage. This he introduced 
in July aod August 1761; but, failing for want of capital, he 
was arrested, and died in prison in 1764.^ 

TULLY (TkOMAS), a learned English divine and con<- 
tjroversial writer, was born in St. Martinis parish in the city 
of Carlisle, July 22, 1620, and was educated partly at fbe 
free»school there, and afterwards at Barton-kirk in West- 
moreland. He was entered of Queen*s college, Oxford, in 
1634, where Gerard Langbaine was his tutor, and attained 
a fellowship. In 1&42 be was created M. A. and became 
master of the grammar-school at Tetf>ury in Gloucester- 
shire; but this be seems to have accepted rather as a re- 
treat, while Oxford was garrisoned during the rebellion, 
for after the surrender of the garrison, he returned to bis 
college, and became a noted tutor and preacher, and in 
1657 was admitted bachelor of divinity. He was soon after 
made principal of £dmond-hall, which he found almost 
empty, but raised it, as Wood informs us, to a state as flou- 
risbiogas that of any hall in Oxford. After the restbration, 
he was created D. D. and was made chaplain to his majesty. 
He was also presented to the rectory of Griggkton, or Grit- 
tleton, near Malmsbury in Wiltshire, by Thomas Gore of 
Alderton, esq. who had been one of bis pupils, and in 1675 

i Gent Mag. vol. XS3CIV. apparently by Mr. DaTMlIiMry. 

, > 4 * 

72 T U L L Y. 



the king, conferred upon him the. deanery of Rtppon, which 
be did not long enjoy 5 as he died on January 14 foliowiog, 
l€75-6, at the parsonage house at Griggleton, and v)ras'in«< 
terred in thfe chancel of that church. 

Wood«ays, Dr. Tully '^ was a pious man, and many ways 
very learned, chiefly read in the more ancient writers, yet 
not so wholly addicted to the perusal of thenar, . but that at 
some times be took delight to converse with later authors. 
JHe was a person of severe morals, puritanically inclined, and 
a strict Calvinist,^' which Wood thinks was. some hindrance 
to him in the way of promotion, but his promotioi^ were 
certainly not inconsiderable. His principal works are, 1. 
*^ Logica Apodeictica, sive Tractatus brevis et dilucidusde 
demonstratione ; cum dissertatiuncula Gassendi eodem per- 
tinente," Oxon. 1662, 8vo. 2. ** a friend in 
Wilts (his patron Mr. Gore) upon occasion of a late.ridicu- 
lous pamphlet, wherein was inserted a pretended prophecy 
of Thomas Becket," Lond. 1666, 4to. 3. "Enchiiudion 
didacticum, cum appendice de ccena Domini, expositione 
Syroboli apostolici et orationis Dominicaj," London, 1673^ 
According to Wood, some of the. contents of this volume 
bad been published separately. 4. '^ Justificatio Piiulina 
sine Operibus, cum dissertat. ad Rom. vii. 14." Oxon. 1674, 
4tOv This was levelled chiefly at BulPs " Harmonia Apos- 
tolica," (See Bull, vol. VII. p. 267), and Baxter's "Apho- 
risms on Justifioaiibn;" and both replied to Dr. Tully, Bull 
in his " Apology for the Harmony," and Baxter in a 
** Treatise on Justifying Righteousness, &c." To the lat- 
ter Dr. TuUj( rejoined in *^ A Letter to Mr. Richard Bax- 
ter, &c." Oxon. 1675, 4to. He also. translated from French 
into English " A brief relation of the present troubles in 
England," Oxon. 1645, 4to. 

There was another of this name, Qeorge Tully, son of 
Isaac Tully of Carlisle, who, we conjecture, was a nephew of 
the above Dr. Tully. He was educated at Queen's college^ 
Oxford, and was beneflced in Yorkshire. He died rector 
of Gateside near Newcastle, subdean of York, &c. in 1697. 
He was ^ zealous writer against popery, apd was suspended 
for a sermon he preached and published, in 1686, again^st 
the worship of images, and bad the honour, as he terms it 
himself, to be the first clergyman in England who suffered 
in the reign of James IL ^^ in defence of our religion against, 
popish superstition and idolatry." He was one of the trans- 
Ifttors pf " Plutarch's Morals," " Cornelius Nepos," and 

T U L L Y. 73 


^^fifietcHiiuSy" all which were, according to the phrase ia 
ttie, ^^ done into English by several hands." Thomas Tully, 
author of the funeral sermon on the death of bishop Raii>- 
bpw, which is appended to Banks's Life of that prelate, wa$» 
wepresume, of the same family as the preceding. ^ He died 
chancellor of Carlisle about 1727.^ 

- TULP (Nicholas), an eminent physician, was the son 
of Peter Dirx, a rich niercbaut of Amsterdam, where he; 
M-as born Oct. 11, 1593. He rarely went, by his father's 
luune,, having rather whimsically changed it to de TuLP, 
the aame, or.probably the sign of a house in which he lived 
on the emperor's canal. He was at first a surgeon's ap- 
prentice, but having a perfect acquaintance with the Latin 
language, and a turn for science, h^ determined to extend 
bis studies to every thing connected with medicine, to 
which he accordingly applied at the university of Leyden. 
After taking hi& doctor's degree he returned to Amsterdam, 
and carried on practice for fifty- two years with the greatest 
reputation. But his fame was not confined to his profession 
only. Possessing an accurate knowledge and niuch judg- 
ment in the political history of his country, he was raised to 
civic honours ; in 1622 he was eletted of the council of 
Amsterdam^ and six times served the olfice of sheriff. In 
1652 he was 0)ade burgomaster, an office which he filled 
also in 1656, 1660, and 1671. In 1672, when Louis XIV. 
attacked Holland, Tulp had a principal hand in exciting 
that spirit. of resistance among his fellow-citizens by which 
Amsterdam was saved. Nor were they unmindful of his 
services, for when he died in 1674, aged eighty, a medal 
was struck to his memory. 

In the medical world he is principally known by his 
" Observationum medicarum Libri tres," Amst. 164-1, 1652, 
12mo, with engravings, reprinted with a fourth book, Amst. 
1672, 1685, and Leyden, 1716. In these cases, which are 
very curious, and written in a Latin style, which is pure 
without affectation, and concise without obscurity, are some 
valuable anatomical remarks ; and, according to Halle^^ 
Tulp was the first, or one of the first, who observed the lac<r 
teal vessels.' 

TUNSTALL, or TONSTAL (Cuthbert), a very 
learned^ and in many respects a very excellent prelate 

of the church of Rome, was born at Hatchford, near Rich^ 

• ■ ' . • • ' ■ ■• • 

9 Atb. Ox. Tol. II. 9 E)oy, Diet. Hftft. de Medecine.^Haller Bibl. Mei|. 

74 T U N S T A L L. 

mondy Yorkshire^ about 1474. He was a natural son^ of 
a gsqtlelmaQ named TunstatI or Tonstal, by a iady of -tbe^ 
Conyers family. He became a student at Baliol college,' 
Oxford, about Mdl, but, on the plague breaking out, 
went to Cambridge, where be became a fellow of King^s 
ball, now part of Trinity college. After baving for some 
time prosecuted his studies there, be went to the univer- 
sity of Padua, which was then in high reputation, studied 
along with Latimer, and took the degree of doctor of laws. 
According to Godwin, he was by this time a man of ex- 
tensive learning, a good Hebrew and Greek scholar, an 
able lawyer and divine, a good rhetorician, and skilled in 
various branches of the mathematics. These accomplish* 
ments, un his return, recommended him to the patronage 
of archbishop Warham, who constituted him vicar*general 
or chancellor, in August 1511. The archbishop also re- 
commended him to Henry VHI. and in December of the 
same year, collated him to the rectory of Harrow-on-the 
bill, Middlesex; which be held till 1522. 

In 1514 he was installed prebendary of Stow-longa, in 
the church of Lincoln, and the following year admitted 
archdeacon of Chester. In 1516 he was made master of 
the rolls, a post for which his extensive knowledge of the 
laws had well qualified him. The same year he was sent 
on an embassy, with sir Thomas More, to the einperor 
Charles V. then at Brussels, and there had the satisfac- 
tion of livfng in the same bouse with Erasmus, who said 
of him that be not only excelled all his contemporaries in 
the knowledge of the learned languages, but was also a 
man of great judgment, clear understanding* and uncom- 
mon modesty, and of a cheerful temper, but without levity. 
In the performance of his duty at the Imperial court, he 
made himself well acquainted with such circumstances as 
were of importance to his royal master and the interests 
of his country,, and gave such satisfaction to the adminis- 
tration at home, that about ten days after his arrival in 
London in 1517, he was a second time sent on an embassy 
to the emperor. 

On his return, apparently in 1 5 1 9, he was rewarded by 
a succession of preferments, in this year by the prebend 
of Botevant, in the church of York; in May 1521 by ano- 

* The illegitimacy of his birth has not to rest upon the best foandation. 
be«D called ia qUMtion, and seems See Hutchiitsoo's Durham^ yoI. 1. il% 

T U N S T A L L. 7S 

tber, that of Combe and Hornham, in the charoh of Sa- 
I'uni; by the deanery of Salisbttry; and in 1522 he wa$ 
promoted to the bishopric of London. In 1523 he was 
made keeper of the privy seal: and in 1525, he and sir 
Richard Wingfield went ambassadors into Spain, in order 
to confer with the emperor, after the king of France, 
Frahcis I was taken prisoner at the battle of Pavia. 

In 1527, we find bishop Tunstall employed in prose* 
euting several persons in his diocese for heresy ; for he 
was strongly attached to the principles of the Romish 
church, but he never carried his zeal so far as to put any 
person to death for their opinions. On the contrary he 
was always an advocate for milder methods of reclaiming 
them from what he thought erroneous. Still his principles, 
the example of his contemporaries, ^and the spirit of the 
age in which he lived, were all too powerful for the natu-^ 
rai mildness of bis disposition; and although he shed no 
Mood, he took many unjustifiable steps to obstriKt the 
progress of the reformation, and that being at present but 
partial, he probably thought he might succeed without 
proceeding to tiie last extremities. 

In July 1527, Tunstall attended cardinal Wolsey in his 
pompons embassy into France ; and in J1529 was one of 
the English ambassadors employed to negociate the treaty 
of Cambray. It was on his return from this last place, 
that he exerted himself to suppress Tyndale's edition of 
the New Testament, by means which will be noticed in 
our account of that celebrated reformer and martyr. Even 
in this matter, bishop Burnet observes that judicious per- 
sons discerned the moderation of Tunstall, who would will- 
ingly put himself to a considerable expence in burning 
the books of the heretics, but had too much humanity to 
be desirous, like many of his bretihren> to born the here- 
tics themselves. 

In the mean time he acquired great reputation by the 
political knowledge and talents which he displayed in his 
different embassies and negociations, and no promotion 
was thought too great for him. In 1530 he was translated 
to the rich bishopric of Durham. Before his removal from 
the see of London, he had bestowed a considerable sum of 
money in furnishing a library in Cambridge with valuable 
books, both printed and MS. which he had collected abroad ; 
and now at Durham, he laid out large sums in adorning 

as T U N S T A L L. 


the city with public buildings, and in^ repairing, and im* 
proving bis episcopal bouses. 

When the great question of Hienry VIII.'s divorce was 
agitated, Tunstall at first favoured the divorce, and ev^n 
wrote on that side of the question ; but, having reason after- 
wards to change his sentiments, he espoused the queen's 
cause, which .many of the Ronaan catholics then and now 
consider as the conscientious side. When Henry took the 
title of Supreme head of the church of England, Tunstall 
recommended it both in his injunctions, and in a sermon 
preached at Durham, although be bad, in 153], solemnly 
piiotested against that title. He also vindicated the king's 
supremacy, in 1538, in a sermon preached before his ma- 
jesty, upon Palm-sunday, in which he zealously condemned 
the usurpations of. the bishop of Rome. In 1535, he was 
one of the commissioners for taking the valuation of eccle* 
siastical benefices, in order to settle the first fruits apd 
tenths. And in 1537, the king commanded him, on aa* 
count of his learning and judgment, to peruse cardinal 
Pole's book of ^' Ecclesiastical Union,'' which occasioned 
some letters between the cardinal and Tunstall, particu-c 
larly a severe one written jointly by him and by Stokesley, 
bishop of London, against the pope's supremacy. Th« 
year following, be was appointed to confer coucerning the 
reformation, with the ambassadors of. the German protest-^ 
apt princes ; but matters were not yet ripe for an altera^^ 
tion in this kingdom. In 1541 a new edition of the En^ 
glish Bible was revised by him and Nicholas Heath, bishop 
of Rochester. Attached as be was to popery, he appears 
to have taken in many cases, a calm and judicious view of 
the questions agitated in Henry VIII.'s reign, and this led 
bin) to concur in some of the measures which were favou|^- 
able to the reformation ; and in that of Edward VI. he 
yielded obedience to every law which was enacted, and to 
all the injunction^, at the same time that he protested, in 
bis place in parliament, against the changes in religion^ 
which, Burnet says, he thought he might with a good con- 
science submit to and obey, though be coul.d not consent 
to them. In. the question of the corporal presence, he ad- 
hered to the popish opinion, and wrote on the subject. 

In December 1551, Tunstall was committed to the 
Tower, upon an accusation of misprision of treason. What 
the particulars were, is not known ; but Burnet thinks that 
the secret reason was that, if he should be attainted, the 


T U N S T A L L. 77 

dttke of Northumberland intended to have had the dig- 
nities and JLiFisdiction of that principality conferred on 
himself, aiid thus be count palatine of Durham. It ap- 
peairs, however, that Tunstall was charged by one Vi- 
vian Menrille, with having consented to a conspiracy in 
the north fdr exciting a rebellion ; and it is said, that 
something 6f this kind was proved, by a letter in the 
bishop^s own hand-writing, found when the duke of So- 
ihersefs papers were seized. It has been conjectured, 
that he, being in great esteem with the popish party, wsis 
made privy to some of their treasonable designs again^c 
king Edward's government : but which he neither con- 
curred in, nor betrayed. However, on March 28, 1552, 
a bill was brought into the House of Lords, to attaint him 
for misprision of treason. Archbishop Cranmer spoke 
vrarmiy and freely in his defence, but the' bill passed the 
Lords. When, however, it came to the Commons, they 
were not satisfied with the written evidence which was 
produced, and having at that time a bill before them, that 
there shoald be two witnesses in case of treason, and that 
the witnesses and the party arraigned should be brought 
face td face, and that treason should not be adjudged by 
•trcumstances, but plain evidence, they therefore threw 
:^ut the bill against Tunstall. This method of proceeding 
havilig been found ineflPectual, a commission was granted 
to the chief justice of the King's bench, and six others, 
empowering them to call bishop Tunstall before thecfi, 
and examine him concerning all manner of conspiracies, 
&c. and if found guilty, to deprive him of his bishopric. 
This scheme, in whatever manner it might be conducted, 
was effectual, for he was deprived, and continued a pri- 
soner in the Toiver durinjj the remainder of Edward's 
neign. In 1*553 also, the bishopric of Durham was con- 
verted into a county palatine, and given to the duke of 
Northumberland, which certainly favours bishop Burnet's 
conjecture that there was a secret as well as an open cause 
lor the deprivation of our prelate. 

While in the Tower, Tunstall Was frequently visited by 
bis nephew, the celebrated Bernard Gilpin, who had pro- 
bably been brought up to the church with a vie\^ of being 
advanced by this prelate, but he was now in no capacity 
to serve him otheirwise than by his advice, and the advice 
he gave him about this time, places Tunstall in a very fa- 
vourable pofnt of view. When Gilpin, just entered on his 


parochial duties in tbe north, fouiid that his mifid was not 
quite settled in his religious opinions, be wrote to his uocle 
Tunstall, who told him, in answer, that he should think of 
.notluncr till he had fixed his religion, and that, in his opi- 
nion, he could not do better than put his parish into tbe 
bands of .some person in whom he could confide, and 
spend a year or two in Germany, Fr/ince, and Holland; 
.by which means he might have an opportunity of convers- 
ing with some of the most eminent professors on both sides 
of the question. To this admirable advice, for suob. it . 
surely is, from a popish bishop of that age, Gilpin bad 
but one objection, namely tbe expence ; but the bishop 
wrote, that his living would do something towards bis 
maintenance; and he would supply deficiencies. When 
they parted, the bishqp gave him some boo(:s be had. wcil- 
ten while in tbe Tower, particularly que. on the Lord^s 
supper, which he wished to be printed under his inspect- 
' tion at Paris. 

On the accession of queen Mary in 1553, Tunstall was 
restored to bis bishopric ; but still be was not a omn to ^r 
mind, behaving with great lenity .and moderation, .^n4 
• consequently his diocese escaped tbe cruet persecutions 
which prevailed in others. When he left London, he iVas 
strictly charged with tlie entire extirpation of heresy in bis 
diocese ; and was given to understand, that severity would 
be the only allowed test of his zeaL These instructioi^, 
says Mr. Gilpin, he received in the spirit they were given; 
loudly threatening, that heretics should no where find a 
warmer reception than at Durham : and it was thougbl in- 
deed that the protestants would hardly meet with macb 
f^vpur from him, as tliey had shown bim so little^ fiiit 
jDothing was further from his intention tbanperseou^on: 
insomuch, that his was almost the only diocese where tbe 
poor protestants enjoyed any repose. When most of tbe 
other bishops sent in large accounts of their servicers to re- 
ligion, very lame ones came from Durham; they were 
filled with high encomiums of the ortlipdoxy of the diocese, 
interspersed here and there with tbe trial of an beictic^ 
but either the depositions against him were not su£Eu:ientty 
proved, or there were great hopes of bis recanutt^ion ; no . 
mention however was made of any bumiogs. A bebavio«pr 
of this kind was but ill relished by the zealots council : 
and tbe bishop lay deservedly under the calumny .of bei^g 
not actuated by true Romi&h principles. When his oe- 

T U N S T A L L 79 

phew Bernard Gilpin, an avowed protestant, came home 
Yrom bis travels, the bishop not only received him with 
great friendship, but gave this heretic the archdeaconry of 
Durham ; and Fox tells us, that when one Mr. Russel, a 
preacher, was before bishop Tunstal I, on a charge of heresy, 
and Dr. Hinmer, his chancellor, would have examined him 
more particularly, the bishop prevented him, saying, << Hi- 
therto, we have had a good report among our neighbours ; 
I p^ray you bring not this man's blood upon my head.'* 

From such a man it was naturally expected that, on the 
accession of queen Elizabeth, there would have been little 
difficulty in reconciling him to the reformation, and in 
face the queen had nominated him as the first in a list of 
prelates to officiate at the consecration gf several new bi- 
shops; but notwithstanding this, he refused to take the 
oath of snpremacy, and was consequently deprived of his 
bishopric in July 1559. At the same time he was com- 
mitted to the custody of Parker, afterwards archbishop of 
Canterbury, and then in possession of Lambeth palace, by 
whom be was entertained in a very kind, friendly, and re- 
speoiful manner ; and Parker is said to have produced a 
change in some of his sentiments. It appears that Tunstall 
told Bernard Gilpin, that in the matter of transubstantia- 
tion, pope Innocent III. had done unadvisedly, in making 
it an article of faith ; and be further confessed, that the 
pope committed a great error in the affair of indulgences, 
and in other things. Tutistal^ also h^d the doctrine of jus- 
tification' by faith only. 

Bishop Tunstall did not continue long in this state of 
retirement, for be died Nov. 18, 1559, aged eighty>five, 
and was bandsomety buried in the chancel of Lambeth 
church, at the expence of archbishop Parker, with a Latin 
^itaph by the learned Dr. fladdon. The character of 
Tunstall may in part be collected from the preceding par- 
ticuiara, Gilpin, who has frequently introduced notices of 
him in his Lives of Beiniard Gilpin, Latimer, &c. says << he 
was a papist only by profession ; no way influenced by the 
spirit of'popery ; but he was a good catholic, and had true 
notions of the genius ^ Christianity. He considered a 
good life as the end, and faith as the means; and never 
branded as ao heretic that person, however erroneous his 
opinions /ink;fat be in points less fundamental, who had 
■such a belief in Christ as made him live like a Christian. 
He was just therefore the reverse of (his early patron/ 



Warham, and thought the persecution of protestants one 
of the things most foreign to his function. For * parts* andt 
learning he was very eminent : his knowledge was exten* 
sive, and his taste in letters superior to that of most of his 
contemporaries. The great foible of which he stands ac- 
cused in history, was the pliancy of his temper. Like 
most of the bishops of those times, he had been bred in a 
court; and was indeed too dextrous in the arts there prac- 
tised." On this last failing, Mr. Gilpin seems to us to lay 
too much stress, for even the particulars which, in the pre- 
ceding sketch we have extracted from his life of Beniafd 
Gilpin, shew decidedly that Tunstall vtas no courtly com- 
plier in those measures which were particularly character- 
istic of the timev and which have been more or less the 
test of the worth of every eminent man who lived in them. 

Bishop Tunstall's writings that were published, were 
chiefly the following: 1. "In Laudem Matrimonii,'* Lond. 
1518, 4to. 2. " De Arte Supputandi," Lond. 1522, 4to, 
dedicated to sir Thomas More. This was afterwards seve- 
ral times pnnted abroad. 3. <* A Sermon on Palm Sun- 
day" before king Henry the 8th, &c. Lond. 1539 and 
1633, 4to. 4. " De Veritate Corporis & Sanguinis Domini 
in Eucharisiia," Lutet, 1554, 4to. 5. " Compendium ift 
decem Libros Ethicorum Aristotelis," Par. 1554, 8vo. 6. 
^^ Contra impios Blasphematores Dei praBdestinationis,** 
Antw. 1555, 4to. 7. ** Godly and devout Prayers in Eng- 
lish and Latin," 1558, in 8vo. 

Several of his letters and papers are published in Bur- 
netts History of the Reformation, Strype's Memorials, 
Ck)llier's Ch. History, Lodge's Illustrations, &c.* 

TUNSTALL (James), a learned and amiable divine, 
was born about 1710, and eduoated at St. John's college in 
Cambridge, of which he became fellow and a prinpipal 
tutor. He was instituted to the rectory of Sturmer in 
Essex, in 1739, and, in 1741, elected public orator of the 
university. , He afterwiirds became chaplain to Potter, 
^bp. of Canterbury ; and was there a person of such uni- 
form meekness and humility as to make it said, after he left 
Lambeth, that *^ many a man came there, as chaplain, 

' Ath. Ox. Tol. I. — ^Tanner. — Bale an<l Pits. — Strype's Cranmer, pi>. 66, 77 
— 81, 288, 309. — Strype's Paiker, pp. 47, 54.-~Strype*s Grindal, 27.--More's 
Xife of sir Thomas More. — Gilpin^s Life of Qilpin, pp. 4o«-47, 65, 71, 101.-^ 
Qilpin's Life of .Latimer, see Index. — Biog, Brit — HHlchinson's Hist, of X)ur- 
>iam. — Dodd's Cb. Hist. — Burnet's Reformation.— Fox's Acts and Monumtnts,, 
— *Lodge'i Illustrations, 

r UN St. ALL. *t 

kiUnUHe^ but thit tiooe ever departed so except Dr. Tun* 
tUU.*" He was created D. D. at Cambridge in 1744 ; was 
collated by the archbishop to the rectory of Great Chart in 
Kent, and to the: vicarage of Minster ia the Isle of Tbanet^ 
both which, he resigned in 1757, for the valuable vicarage 
gf AocbdsleifiLaacasbire, given him by abp. Hutton, who 
married his wife^s aunt; but the exchange, from many cir- 
cumstances, did not answer his expenctation ; he wished /or 
a prebend .of. Canterbury. It is supposed that either family 
uneasinesses, or,, the above disappointment, hastened his 
death, which took place March 28, 1772. 

His writings are, .1. '^ Epistola ad virum erudijtum Cpn- 
y/ers Middletou, &c.'' Cant. 1741, 8vo. In this work, he 
calls in question the genuineness of the letters betwe^ 
Cicero and Brutus, of which Dr. Middletoti had made great 
use in his elegant " History of Cicero^s Life;'' and shews^ 
that he had not paid .sufficieiikt attention to the letters to 
A^ticus and his brother Quintus. 2« '* Observations on the 
present collection of Epistles between Cicero and Brutus.** 
This was to confirm what he had before advanced, and by 
way of answer to a preface o^ Middieton's to an edition of 
the epistles. Mr. Markland, in a private letter, says, ** 1 
have read over Mr. Tuhstall's book, twice more, since t 
(^me hither ; and am more and more confirmed, that it can 
never be answered.'' 3. ^^ Sermon before the House of 
Commons, May 29, 1746." 4. *^ A Vindication of the 
^ower of the State to prohibit Clandestine Marriages, &c.'^ 
1755* 5. ^< Marriage in Society stated, &c. in a second 
letter to Dr. Stebbing," 1755. 6. ''Academica: part 
the first, containing Discourses upon Natural and Revealed 
Religion, a Concio, and a Thesis." The second part he 
did not live to publish ; but it is supposed to be included 
in ** The Lectures on Natural and Revealed Religion," 
published after his death, in 4to, by the rev. Mr. Dbds- 
worth, treasurer of Salisbury, and his brother4n»-Iaw. 

Among Dr. Birch's MSS. in the British Museum, is a 
collection of letters from Dr. Tunstall to the earl of Ox- 
ford, in 1738 and 1739, on Ducket's Atheistical Letters, 
and the proceedings thereoti.* 

TURBERVILE (George), ah English poet, descended 
ffom a family of considerable note iu Dorsetshire, was a 
younger son of Nicholas Turbervile of Whitchurch, and 

* NicbpU'a Buwyer, 

Vol. XXX. (i 

8a T U R B E R V I L E. 

supposed to have been born about 1 530. He received hii» 
education at Winchester school, and became fellow of Newr 
college, Oxford, in 1561, but left the university without 
taking a degree, and resided for some time in one of the 
inns of court. He, appears to have accumulated a stock of 
classical learning, and to have been well acquainted with* 
modern languages. He formed his ideas of poetry partly 
on the classic^, and partly on the study of the Italian? 
school. His poetical pursuits, however, did not interfere 
with more important business, as his welUknowp abilities 
recommended him to the post of secretary to Thomas Ran- 
dolph, esq. who was appointed queen Elizabeth's ambassa- 
dor at the court of Russia. While In this , situation, be 
wrote three poetical epistles to as many friends, Edward 
Davies, Edmund Spenser (not the poet), and Parker,- de- 
scribing the manners of the Russians. These mayibe seen 
in Hackluyt^s voyages, vol. I. p. 384. After his return, he 
was much courted as a man of accomplished education and 
manners; and the first edition of his ^^ Songs and Sonnets,'*' 
published in 1567, seems to have added considerably to 
his fame., A second edition appeared in 1570, with many* 
additions and corrections. 

His otber works were, translations of the ^^ Heroicat 
Epistles of Ovid,'' of which .four editions were printed ^ 
and the *' Eclogues of 6i Mantuan," published in 1567. 
The only copy known of this volume is in the Royal Li- 
br^ary. Wood, who appears to have seen it, informs us- 
that one Thomas Harvey afterwards translated the same 
eclogues,, and availed himself of Turbervile's translation,, 
without the least acknowledgment. Among the discoveries 
of literary historians, it is to be regretted that such tricks 
are to be traced to very higk antiquity. Another very rare 
production of our author, although twice printed, in 1576 
and 1587, is entitled/^ Tragical Tales, translated by Tur- 
^ bervile., in time of his trouble^ out of sundrie Italians, with 
the argument & L'Envoye to each tale.*' What his troubles 
were, we are not told. To the latter edition of these tales 
were annexed '^ Epitaphs and Sonets, with some other 
broken pamphlettes and Epistles, sent to certaine of his> 
friends in England, at his being in Moscovia, anpo 1569.^' 
Wood has mistaken this for his *^ Epitaphs, Epigrams,. 
Songs, and Sonets," from which it totally differs. 

Our author was living in 1594, and in great esteem, but 
we have no account of bis death. There appear to have 

t OR B4E R V I L ST. ts 

been t\^o other persons of bdth bis namesy both nstives of 
Dorsetshire and* nearly contemporaries, one of whom was 
a commoner of Gloucester-bail in 1581, aged eighteen^ 
and the other a student of Magdalen-hall in 1S95, aged 
seventeen. ' Wood was not able to tell which of the three 
was the ituthor of* Essays, politic and moral/' which were 
published in 1608, nor of the '* Booke of Falconrye and 
Hawking, heretofore published by G. Turbenrile, gent, 
and now revived, corrected, and augmented by another 
hand," Lond. 161 1. But the intelligent editor of << Phil- 
lips's Theatrum'* is of opinion that this work was the pro* 
duction of otir poet, from its having commendatory versea 
prefixed by Gascoigne ; and the curious biographical tract 
of Whetstone, lately reprinted in the edition of the English 
Poets, before Gascoigne's works, notices ,a production of 
that autbor on hunting, which Mr. Park thinks is the one 
printed with the above ** Booke of Falconrye," and usually 
attributed to Turbervile. Besides tbese^ our poet wrote 
cominendatory verses to the works of several of his con« 

Turbervile was a sonnetteer of great note in his time, slU 
though, except Harrington, his contemporaries and suc- 
cessors appear to have been sparing of their praises. It is 
probably to some adverse critics that he alludes, in his ad- 
dress to Sycophants. Gascoigne also used to complain of 
the Zoilus*s of his time. There is a considerable diversity 
of fancy and sentiment in Turbervile's pieces : the verses 
hi praise of the countess of Warwick are ingeniously ima- 
gined, and perhaps in his be^t style, and his satirical effu- 
sions, if occasionally flat and vulgar, are characteristic of 
his age. Many of his allusions, as was then the fashion, 
are taken from the amusement of hawking, and these and 
his occasional strokes on large noses, and other personal 
redundancies or defects, descended afterwards to Shak- 
speare, and other dramatic writers. He entitles his pieces 
Epitaphs and Epigrams, Songs and Sonnets, but the reader 
will seldom recognize the legitimate characteristics of those 
species of poetry. His epitaphs are without pathetic re^ 
flection, being stuffed with common-place raiiing against 
" the cursed cruelty'^ of death; and his .epigrams are often 
conceits without point, or, in some instances, the point is 
placed first, and the conclusion left *^ lame and impotent.^' 
His love sonnets, although seemingly addressed to a real 
mistress, are full of the borrowed passion of. a translator, 

6 2 


ftnd the eUborate and Qfinatoral language of a scholar^ 
The classics in bis age began to be studied very generally, 
and were no sooner studied than translated. This retarded 
the prpgreaa of invention at a time when the language was 
certainly improving ; and hence among a number of authors 
who flourished in this period, we seldom meet with the 
glow of pure poetry. It may, however, be added in fa- 
vour of Turbervile, that be seldom transgresses against 
morals or delicacy. ^ 


TURCOT, an ancient historian, of the eleventh century^ 
was an Anglo-Saxon, of a good family in Lincolnshire. 
When a young man,, be was delivered by the people of 
Lindsay, as one of their hostages, to William the Con- 
queror, and confined in the castle of Lincoln. From thence 
he made his escape to Norway, and resided several years 
in the court of king Olave, by whom be was much caressed 
and enriched. Returning to his native country, he was 
ibipwrecked on the coast of Northumberland, by which he 
lost all his money and effects, escaping death with great 
difficulty. He then travelled to Durham ; and applying to 
Walter, bishop of that see, declared his resolution to for- 
sake the world, and become a monk ; in which he was en* 
couraged by that pious prelate, who committed him to the 
care of Aldwine, the first prior of Durham, then at Jarrow, 
From that monastery he went to Melross ; from thence to 
Wearmoatb, where he assumed the monastic habit; and 
lastly returned to Durham^ where he recommended him» 
self so much to the whole society, by his learning, piety, 
);>rudence, and other virtues, that, on the death of Aid- 
wine, in 1087, he was unanimously chosen prior, and not 
Jong after was appointed by the bishop archdeacon of his 
diocese. The monastery profited greatly by his prudenf 
government; the privileges were enlarged, and revenues 
considerably increased by his influence; and he promoted 
many improvements in the sacred edifices. In tliis office 
be spent the succeeding twenty years of his life, some- 
times residing in the priory, and at other times visiting 
the diocese, and preaching in different places. At tho 
end of these twenty years, he was, in 1107, elected bishop 
of St. Andrew's and primate of Scotland, and consecrated 

» English Poets, 21 vols. 18J0.— Atb. Ox. vol. I.— Warton'i Hist, of Poetry. 
— Centura Lit. vols. II. and III*— Philips*! Theatrum, by sir K. Brydget.*-^ 
EHis'fi Spfecimens. 

T ¥ K G O T. •# 

by tnrcbbisfaop TbonBas, at York, Aup. 1, IlOi^. Dissent 
tioDs ftrning between our archbishop and the kiog of Scot^ 
land, the prelate's anxiety and distress af miod brought on 
a decline of health, under which be obtained permission tQ 
return to England; and came back to Durham in 1115, 
where he resided littte more than two months before bii 
death. Stevens, in the ** Monasticon," says that he re^ 
turned to Durham aftef the death of king Malcohn and j}it 
queen ; and Spotiswood, in his *^ Church History,'* that be 
died in Scotland, and was thence conveyed to and buried 
at Durham, in the Chapter-house, between bishops Wal*. 
cher and William. 

Some of his leisure hours he employed in collecting and 
writing the history of the church of Durham from the year 
635 to 1096, in four books. But not having pubMsbed this 
work, or nwde many transcripts of it, according to the 
custom of those times, it fell into the bands of iSimeon^ 
precentor of the church of Durham, who published it un^* 
def his own name, expunging only a few patssages that 
would have discovered its real author. This curious facti 
of which we were not aware when we drew up our bri^f ac^ 
count of Simeon, is demonstrated by Selden, in bis pre- 
face to sir Roger Twysden's *^ Decem Scriptores," and 
sbewFs that literary fiime was even then an object of am* 
bition* Turgot composed several other works, particularly 
the li^es of Malcolm Canmore, king of Scotland, and of 
his pious consort queen Margaret, which is . often quoted 
by Fordnn and others, but is not supposed to exist Tur- 
gbt bad been confessor to queen Margaret, and as Pape« 
brocb has published in the *^ Acts of the Saints," a life of 
her, under the name of Theodoric, also said to have been 
a confessor to the queen, it seems not improbable^ accord- 
ing to lord Haiies and others, that Theodoric is another 
name fbd Turgot,' or that the name of Theodoric has been 
prefixed, to the saint's life, instead of that of Turgot, by 
the mistake of some copier : but Papebroch certainly thinks 
they were two distinct perscms. ' 

TURGOT (ANNE-RouEkT-jAMES), a French minister of 
state, was born atParisy May 10, 1727, of a very ancient 
Norman family. His father was, for a long time, provost 
of the corporation of merchants. He was intended for 

. * Tapn«r and references. — ^Nicohon's Hist Library. — Henry's Hist vol. VI« 
p. 131. — Hutchinson's Dnrham, vol. 11. p. 65. — Keith's Cat, of Scotch Bist^ops. 
•-i-V^e&cc to Oeddet'a Uft of Queen Margartt, 17S4, 8?o. 

t« T U U G O T. 

the chbrcb, *Ai weht through tfa^ i«qa>site prtiparatory 
Studies; but whether he disliked the catholic religion, or 
objected to any peculiar doctrines, is not certain. It is 
generally supposed that the latter was .the case, and the 
intimacy and correspondence he bad with Voltaire, Dide- 
rot, D^Alembert, &c. afford very probable ground for be- 
lieving him entirely of their opinion in matters of rehgioi^ 
He looked, however, to the politick! department, as that 
which was best adapted to bis acquisitions, and the re* 
sources which he found in his ingenuity and. invention. For 
this purpose be studied the sciences suited to«his destina- 
tion, and mixed experimental philosophy with mathe-» 
inatics, and history with political disquisition. He em- 
braced the profession of the law, and at once displayed his 
views by fixiug on the office of master of the requests, who 
is the executive officer of government, in operations of 
commerce and finance. His panegyjrist, M. Condorcet^ 
tells us, that a master of requests is rarely without a con- 
siderable share of inQuence respecting some one of the 
provinces, or the whole state ; so that it seldom happens 
that his liberality or his prejudices, his virtues or his vices, 
do not, in the course of his life, produce great good or 
^reat mischief. About this period Turgot wrote some ar>^ 
tides for the Encyclopedie, of which the principal were, 
Etymology, Existence, Expansibility, Fair, and Founda*^ 
lion. He had prepared several others; but these five only 
were inserted. , All these his biographer praises with more 
2eal than judgment ; the article on Expansibility being very 
exceptionable, and that on Existence being little more thau 
lEin ingenious commentary on the first principles of Des Car- 
tes, and by no means deserving to be called the *^ only 
improvement in the science of the human mind since the 
days of Locke." 

In 1761, Turgot was appointed intendant of Limoges. 
The intendant is the confidential officer of the government. 
He carries their orders on the subject of commerce add 
finance into execution ; and has occasionally the right of 
taking provisional decisions. In this office, which Turgot 
discharged with great attention and ability for thirteen 
years, he spent the most useful, though not the most con- 
spicuous, part of« He conferred many advantages 
on his province, corrected many abuses, and opposed many 
mistaken opinions. In particular, he gave activity to the 
society of agriotiUure established at Limoges, by directing 

T U R G O T. W 



^feheir efforts to important subjects: be opened a mode ai 
|)ubUc instruction for female professors of midwifery : he 
f)rocured for tbe people the attendance of able physicians 
xluring tbe raging of epidemic diseases : be established 
houses of industry, supported by charity, &c. &c. an^ 
during all this time he meditated projects of a more ^x* 
pensive nature, such as an equal distribution of the taxes, 
•the construction of the roads, the regulation of the militia, 
the prevention of a scarcity of provisions, and tbe protecticMi 
pf commerce. 

At the death of Louis XV. the public voice called M« 
Turgot to the first offices of government, as a man who 
united the experience resulting from habits of business^ 
to all tbe improvement which study can procure. After 
lieing at the head of the marine department only a short 
^ime, be wiis, in August 1774y appointed comptroUer'^ge* 
neral of the finances. In this office he introduced a great 
many regulations, which were unquestionably beneficial^ 
but it has been remarked, that he might have done more^ 
if he had attempted less. He does not appear to have at- 
tended closely to the actual state of tbe public mind in 
^f ranoe. He would have been an enlightened minister foe 
a sovereign, where the rights of the people were felt and 
understood. He endeavoured, it is true, to raise them 
from the abject s.tate in which they had long continued, but 
this was to be done at the expence of tbe rich and power- 
ful. The attempt to establish municipalities probably put 
a. period to his career. This scheme consisted in the 
establishn>ent of many provincial assemblies for the interr- 
nal government, whose members were elected according to 
the most rigorous rules of representation. These little 
parliaments, by their mutual contests, might, and indeed 
<licl, lay the fouiidation of great confusion, and created^ a 
spirit of liberty which was never understood, and passisd 
easily into licentiousness. The nobility, whom he attempted 
to controul ; the clergy, whom he endeavoured to restrict; 
iand the officers of the crown, whom he wished to restrain, 
united in their comnK>n cause. All his operations created 
a murmur^ and all his projects experienced an opposition, 
which ended in his dismissal from office in 1776, after 
holding it about twenty months. From that period, be 
lived a private and studious life, and died March 20, 17S1, 
in the fifty-fourth year of his age. Condorcet has written 

•8 T U B G O T. 

s long life of hintiy but it is tbrdqgboot tfao whole m pa*^ 
ftyric. His countrymen now do not seem agreed in hia 
character. By some it is considered tbat be might faavt 
•aved the state : by others he is .classed among those wb^ 
precipitltted the revolution. ^ 

TURNEBUS (Adrian), an eminent critic and transla^ 
tor, was born at Andeli» a small village near Rouen ih 
Normandy, in 1512. Two nations have contended for 
the honour of bis biitb ; th^ French, who say he was de* 
scended of a noble but decayed family in Normandy ; and 
the Scotch, who have discovered (Dempster, and after him 
Mackenzie) that his Frepch name Taumebtetrf is no other 
than TurrJmUy and that he was the son of a Scotch geiT- 
tleman of that name who married in Normandy. What^ 
ever may be in this, Turnebus, for tbat is the name be 
took in his writings and correspondence, came to Paris at 
the age of eleven, and soon made such progress in classical 
and polite literature as to surpass all his fellow^students^ 
and even, we are told, bis masters. He had every quali- 
fication indeed to form an accomplished scholar, great me- 
mory, indefatigable application, and both taste and judg^ 
'Snent far beyond bis years. Before these all difficulties 
vanished, and his avidity and knowledge knew no inters 
mission in his after*life. Even on the day oi his marriage^ 
it is said, he devoted some hours to study. 

The progress of his pursuits are not particularly detailed, 
but he is reported to have uugbt the classics at Toulouse, 
and afterwards, in 1547, was appointed Greek professor at 
Paris, where he had for his colleagues Buchanan and Mu- 
vetus, whose joint reputaiion brought scholars from all 
parts of Europe. In 1552, Turnebus was appointed super^- 
intendant of the royal printing-house for Greek books, and 
bad William Morel for bis associate, whom he left in sole 
possession of this ofBce about four years after, on being 
appointed one of the royal professors. Such was his fame^ 
$hat he had invitations and large offers from Italy, Spain, 
Poriagal, Germany, and England, on condition of settling' 
in either of those countries ; but he preferred the mod^« 
rate circumstances enjoyed in his own country to the mosrt 
tempting offers of riches elsewhere. He died June 12, 
1565., in the fifty-third year of his age, and was buried oii 

^ Life by Coodorcet, published in 1787, 8to.— Moutbly and Crit. Keviewt 
for tbat year.«-Pict Uiiu 

t U R N E B U S. Bf 

lip #i«iiing of the same day, agreeably to his desire, ik 
a very private manner, in the burial-place belonging to the 
cMkge of Modtaign^ being followed to his grave by only 
a fevr friends. He was supposed to have embraced tb^ 
doctrines of the Reformation ; but this was not geoerally^ 
known; and so mueh was he admired, that both papists 
and protestaols endeavoured to claim him as their own. It 
was his singular fate, that ail who knew him, and all 
who read his works, loved him. This gave rise to som^ 
ingenious Hoes by Henry Stephens, in which, after putting 
the question^ " Why does Turnebus please every body ?'* 
in various ways, he answers, that ** he pleased every 
body, because he did not please himself,'' alluding to his 
«xtren)e diffidelice and modesty, and his very amiable 
manners. Such was the esteem in which be was held, that 
some of the German professors, when in their lectures they 
quoted the authority of Turnebus (or Cujacius, to whom 
the same compliment was paid) they used to move their 
right hand to their cap, as a token of veneration. He di-* 
rected his studies chiefly to philological researches, and to 
translating the Greek authors. His translations have aU 
ways been approved, and his criticisms were not les^ ad- 
mired in bis own and the succeeding age. It has been, 
indeed, sometimes objected, that he was too fond of con<» 
jectural emendations, and that, notwithstanding the con* 
stitutional gentleness of his temper, he displayed mor6 
than necesstry warmth in his controversies with Ramus^ 
and with Bodin ^ but in general his style, as well as bis 
sentiments, were liberal ; and he is said to have discovered 
nothing of the pedant but in his dress. His works wera 
collected and published in three volumes, folio, which ge- 
nerally make but one, at Strasburg, 1600, ahd consist of 
his commentaries on various parts of Cicero, Varro, Ho- 
race, Pliny, i&c; his translations of Aristotle, Theophras- 
tus, Plutarch, &c. and his miscellaneous pieces,* letters^ 
and j^&ms. His '^Adversaria" went through mainy edi» 
tiohs, first in quarto, from 1564 to 1599, when the last 
wag printed in folio. Niceron enumerates a few other se>» 
parate publications, and comments contributed by him to 
some of the classics. Of bis translations, Huetius says, 
that '< he had every quality which is necessary for a pei^ 
feet translator ; for he understood Greek thoroughly, and 
iarned it into eleganl Latin, closely and without departs 


acig in the te^$t from his author^ yet in a dear and plea^nt 

TURNER (Dakiel), a dissenting minister of the bap*- 
ti$t persuasion, was born at Blackwater-farm, in the parish 
of St. Michael) and district of St. Alban^s, Hertfordshire,- om 
^arch I, 17 to.' He appears to. have bad some classical 
education, which he iafierwards diligently improved, but 
was not regularly educated for the ministry. In 1738 be 
published ^' An abstract of English grammar and rhetoric,^' 
and an advertisement at the end of this volume intimate* 
that he then kept a boarding school. Two of his pupils 
have been ascertained. Dr. Hugh Smith, an alderman and 
leminent physician in London, and Dr. William Kenrick. 
He commenced preacher, without any of the usual forms 
of admission, but merely because he was thought capable 
of preaching, when be was about twenty years old ; and 
having been approved of at his outset, he continue^ snd 
was settled as minister of the baptist congregation at Read* 
ing. From this be was invited to become pastor of a simi* 
Jar congregation at Abingdon in 1748, where he spent the 
remainder of his Ipng life. He began to preach and to 
print early in life, and he preached and printed to the last. 
Many of his publications were much approved, and pro^ 
iluced occasional correspondence between him and. some 
eminent men of his time, particularly Dr. Watts, Dr. Ken- 
JDicott, and Dr. Lowth, bishop of London. He was a man 
of great piety, and of a disposition peculiarly candid, libe- 
ral, and benevolent. He died Sept. 5, 1798, in the erghty- 
pintb year of his age, and was interred in the baptist bury«- 
ing*groand at Abingdon. 

He published} 1. "An Introduction to Psalmody," 1737. 
a. "An abstract of English grammar," 1738. 3. "The 
balance of the merits of the whigs and tories," 1753. 4. 
" A summary of facts relative to the election at Abingdon,'* 
1768. 5. f'A friendly monitor to the hardened 'sinner,** 
&c. 1770. 6. "An Introduction to rhetoric,'* 1771. 7. 
"A Compendium of social religion,*' 1758, reprinted in 
1778^ 8. ** Remarks on Mr. Lake's sermon on Baptism, 
1781. 9. " Meditations on select portions of Scripture, 
2d edit. 1785. 10. " Devotional poetry vindicated again^ 
Dr. Johnson/* 17»5. 11. "A serious address to Chris- 

» Niceroo, vol. XXXIX.— Mackenzie's Scotch Writer*.— Inripe»8 Life of Bn* 
^banan.— -Saxii Onomast. 


T U R N E K. n 

^8 on the duty of prayer/' 1786. 12. <<Eisay$on im^ 
portant subjects^" 1789, 2 toU. 13. '^Exhorutioos to 
loy&lty and peace/' 1792. 14. ** Fr^e thoughts on the spi- 
rit of Free inquiry in religion^'* 1792. 15. *< Letters reli« 
gious and moral, addressed to young persons,^' 1793, 2d 
edit. , 16. ** Several pieces of poetry/' printed, but not 
published, in 1794. 17. << The Monitor, or friendly ad-^ 
dress to the people of Great Britain," 1795. 18. << Com* 
mon sense, or the plain man^s answer to the question, whe* 
ther Christianity be a religion worthy of our choice?" 1797«; 
He also printed a few occasional sermons.' 

TURN£R (Thomas), dean of Canterbury, was the son 
of Thomas Turner of Heckfield in Hampshire, alderman 
^nd mayor of Reading in Berkshire ; and was born in the 
parish of St Giles's in that borough, in 1 59 1 . In 16 10 he 
was admitted on the foundation at St. John's college, Ox^ 
ford, and bad for his tutor Mr. Juxon, afterwards archbishop 
of Canterbury. His application to learning was assiduous 
and successful, and having entered into holy orders, he im* 
9iediately distinguished himself as a divine of merit. In, 
1623 he was presented by his college to the vicarage of St. 
Giles's in Oxford, which he held with his fellowship, bu( 
relinquished it in 1623. Laud, when bishop of London,^ 
made him his chaplain, and in 1629, at which time Mr. 
Turner was B. D. collated him to the prebend of Newingv^^ 
ton in the church of St. Paul, and in October following t^ 
the chancellorship of the same church, in which also ha 
was appointed by Charles I. a canon -residentiary. Thes 
iiog likewise made him one of his chaplains in ordinary,^ 
and gave him the rectory of St. Olave, Southwark, with 
which he held the rectory of Fetcham in the county of 
Surrey. In 1633, when Charles I. resolved on a progress 
to Scotland for his coronation, Turner was commanded to 
attend his majesty; previous to which be was, April I, 
1633*4, created D. O. by the university of Oxford. In 
1641 he was preferred to the deanery of Rochester, aqd on 
the death of Dr. Eglionby to that of Canterbury, but of thi^ 
last he could not obtain possession until the restoration. 
After the death of the king, to whom he had adhered witl^ 
inflexible loyalty and attachment, be shared the fate of the 
other loyal clergymen in being stript of his preferments, 
and treated with much, indignity and cruelty. On >he 

^ fni. Aiflsentcrs* Masasiae, vol. Vl* 

is T U ft N E R. 

restoi'atibn, in Auguist 1660/ he entered into full possessiofi 
of the deanery of Canterbury, and might have been re^ 
warded With a mitre, but he declined it, *• preferring' to' 
set oiit too little rather than too much sail.'* Insteafd of 
seeking further promotion, bei soon resigned the rectory of 
Fetcham, '* desiring to ease his aged shoulders of the bur«^' 
then of cure of souls ; and caused it to be bestowed upon 
a person altogether unacquainted with him, but recom- 
mended very justly under the character of a pious man, and 
a sufferer for righteousness.** 

Having enjoyed an uninterrupted share of good healthy 
during thirty years, he was at length attacked with that se- 
vere disease the stone ; the sharpness of which he endured* 
with exemplary fortitude and refsignation. Nor did the' 
•* innocent gayety of his humour,'* which made his company 
so agreeable to all, forsake him to the ]ast. He reached 
fhe age of eighty-one, and died in Oct 1672, with "the 
greatest Christian magnanimity, and yet with the deepest' 
sense imaginable of godly sorrow, working repentance unto 
salvation not to be repented of.'* He was buried in the' 
dean's chapel in Canterbury cathedral, and his funeral ser- 
mon, since printed, was preached by Dr. Peter du Moulin,! 
prebendary of the church, who gives him a very high and 
apparently very just character. It is not known that dean 
Turner published more than a single sermon on Matt, ix^ 

13. mentioned by Wood. Prynne censures him as an Ar- 
minian, yet Du Moulin, who enters so fully and so affec- 
tionately into his character, in all respects both as a man 
and as a divine, was a zealous Calvinist. 

Dean Turner married Margaret, daughter of sir Francis 
Windebank, knt. secretary of state to Charles I. By her 
he had three sons, each of whom attained distinguished 
situations, and of whom some account will now be given.* 

TURNER (Francis), an English prelate, son of the 
preceding, received his education at Winchester school, 
and was thence elected fellow of New college, Oxford ; 
where he took his degrees in arts, that of bachelor, April 

14, 1659, and that of master in the beginning of 1663. fie 
commenced B. D. and D. D. July 6, 1669, and in Decem- 
ber following was collated to the prebend of Sneating irt 
St. Paul's. On the promotion of Dr. Gunning to the see 
of Chichester, he succeeded him in the mastership of St.' 

1 Todd's Account of the Desas of Canterbury .^Ftineral Sermon by Da Moulin. 


Jobn^s college, Cambridge, April II, 1670. Id 1683, h# 
was made dean of Windsor, and the same year, was pro* 
moted to tlie see of Rochester, being consecrated on Nov« 
} 1, and next year Aug. 23, was translated to the bishppric 
of Ely. Though he owed most of these preferments to tho 
influence of the duke of York^ afterwards James IL yet oa 
the accession of that prince to the throne, as soon as h^ 
perceived the violent measures that were pursued, and tho 
open attempts to introduce popery and arbitrary power, h« 
opposed them to the utmost. He was one of the six bishops 
who joined archbishop Sancroft on May 18, 1688, in sub- 
scribing and presenting a petition to the king, setting fortb 
their reasons, why they could not comply with his com- 
mands, in causing his majesty's '^ Declaration for liberty of 
conscience'' to be read in their churches. Thi^ petitioii 
being styled by the court, a seditious libel against ois ma- 
jesty and his government, the bishops were all called before 
the privy council ; and refusing to enter into recognisances, 
to appear in the court of the king's bench, to answer the 
misdemeanour in framing and presenting the said petitioa, 
were, oh June 8, committed to the Tower; on the 15th of 
the same month they were brought by habeas corpus. to the 
bar of the king's bench, where, pleading not guilfy to th^ 
information against them, they were admitted to bail, and 
on the 29th came upon their trials in Westminster-hall, 
where next niorning they were acquitted to the great joy 
of the nation. However, when king William and queen 
Mary were settled on the throne, our bishop, among many 
others of his brethren and the clergy, refused to .own the 
established government, out of a conscientious regard to 
the allegiance he had sworn to Jaque^ II. ; and refusing to 
take the oaths required by an act of parliament of April 24, 
1689, was by virtue of that act suspended from bis office, 
and about the beginning of the following year, deprived of 
his bishopric. After this he lived the rest pt bis days in 
retirement, and dying Nov. 2, 1700, w:as buried ip the 
chancel of the parochial church of Therfleld in Hertford* 
shire, where be bad .been rector, but without any niemo-^ 
rial except thef word Expergiscab engravetaon a stone ovep 
the vault. , , 

Previously, however, to his retirement, Burnet informji 
us that he was concerned in a very ill-concerted plot to re- 
store the abdicated king, for which some of his party were 
imprisoned, and he thought .it .prudent io abscond. His 


abilities were not considered as of the first order, but ht 
was of great sincerity and integrity in private life, and it 
is impossible not to respect the character, whatever we may 
think of the opinions of a man whom neither gratitude nor 
interest could seduce from what he considered as his duty. 
He published a ^* Vindication of the late archbishop Sau- 
croft and bis brethren, the rest of the deprived bishops^ 
from the reflections of Mr. Marshall, in hit defence of out 
Constitution.'* ^' Animadversions on a pamphlet entitled 
The Naked Truth," which were answered by Andrew Mar- 
Tell, under the nQ,me,oi Bivet ; and ** Letters to the Clergy 
of his diocese.'* ^ 

TURNER (Thomas), brother to the above, was born at 
Bristol in 1645, and edi^cated at Corpus Christi college, 
Oxford, of which be was elected fellow ; he afterwards be- 
came chaplain to Dr. Henry Compton, bishop of London, 
who collated him, Nov. 4, 1680, to the rectory of Thorley 
in Hertfordshire, and De6. 20 followinof, to the archdea- 
conry of Essex ; and in 1682, to the prebend of Mapesbury 
in St. PauFs. He commenced D. D. at Oxford, July 2, 
1683, was collated by his brother to ji prebend of Ely, 
March 26, 1686, and elected presid^f of Corpus, Marcb 
13, 1687-8. The same year. May 7, he was instituted to 
the sinecure rectory of Fulham, on the presentation of his 
brother, to whom the advowson, for that turn, had been 
granted (the bishop of London being then under suspension), 
and at length was made precentor and prebendary of 
Brownswood in St. PauPs, Jan. 11, 1689. What his poli« 
tical principles were at the revolution, we are not told, 
although, by keeping possession of bis preferments, it is 
lo be presumed, be did not follow the example of his bro- 
ther, but took the oaths of allegiance. However, we are 
informed, that after the act passed in the last year of king 
William IIL requiring the abjuration oath to be taken be- 
fore Aug. 1, 1702, under penalty of forfeiting all ecclesias- 
tical preferments. Dr. Turner went down from London to 
Oxford, Jiily 28, seemingly with full resolution not to take 
the oath, and to quit all his preferments ; but, on better 
advice, he made no resignation, knowing that if he was 
legally called upon to prove his compliance with the act, 
bis preferments would be void in course ; and so continued 
to act| as if be had taken the oath, by which means he re- 

^ AUi. Oz.— ^Bentham'a £l]r.«->Boract't Own Ttinei. 


tained his preferments to his death, without ever taking it 
at all. He died April 30, 1714, and was buried in the cha-t 
pel of Corpus Christi college, where there is a monument^ 
and an inscription written by Edmund Chishull, B. D. 

Dr. Turner has left only one sermon in print, preached 
before the king. May 29, 1685, but he is memorable on 
another account. He was a single man, and remarkable 
for his muniticence and charity in his life-time. By his 
will, he left the bulk of his fortune, which was very consi*- 
derable, in public and charitable uses ; for, besides 4000/, 
in legacies to his relations and friends, he gave or left to 
his college 6000/. for improving the buildings, and other 
purposes; to the dean and chapter of Ely 1000/. for aog- 
menting the singing-men's stipends; and 100/. the interest 
of which was to be expended in putting out children of the 
town of Ely apprentices, at the nomination of his successors 
in the stall he held; and the remainder of his effects, which 
amounted to 20,000i. bis executors were directed to layout 
rn estates and lands, and settle them on the governors of 
the charity for the relief of popr widows and children of 
clergymen. His executors accordingly purchased the manor 
of Stow in Northampt6nshire, and other estates there, and 
at West-Wratting in Cambridgeshire, amounting to above 
1000/. a year» and settled them in 1716^ agreeably to bitf 
will. They also erected a sumptuous monument to hia 
memory in Stow church, with an inscription.— <-V^LU]!« 
Turner^ the third son of the dean of Canterbury, wa» 
archdeacon of Durham, and rector of Stanhope iji iliac 
county. He died at Oxford in 1635, and was buried m 
St. Gileses church, and near his remains were deposited 
those of his mother, who died in 1692.^ 

TURNER (William), a very emineqt naturaHst and di* 
Tine, was born at Morpeth, in Northumberland, and wa«* 
educated under the patronage of sir Thoitaas Wentworth, 
at the university of Cambridge, where be was chosen a feU 
low of Pembroke Hall, about 1531. He acquired great 
reputation for his learning, and about. 1536 was admi<tted 
to deacon^s orders, at which time he was master of arts. 
He applied himself also to philosophy and physic, and 
early discovered an inclination to the study of plants, and 
a wish to be well acquainted with the materia mediea of the . 
ancients. He complains of the little assistance he caukd 

1 B«ntbam'« Hist, of Eiy.^Ath. Ox. ypLII. 

96 T tJ R N E ft. 


receive in these pursuits^ ** Being yet a Bttident of V^ttt^ 
broke Hall, where I could learn neter one Greke, neither 
LatiPy nor English name, even amongst the physician^, of 
any herbe or tree ; such was the ignorance ^f that times 
and as yet. there was no English herbal, but one all full of 
unlearned cacographies and falsely naming of herbes.^^ 

At Cambridge, Turner imbibed the principles of the re- 
formers, and afterwardsi agreeably to the practice of toany 
others^ united the character of the divine to that of the 
physiciao. He became a preacher, travelling intp many 
parts of England, and propagated, with so much zeal, the 
cause of the reformation, ths^ he excited persecution from 
bishop Gardinen He was thrown into prison, and detained 
for a considerable time ; and on his enlargencient submitted 
to voluntary exile during the remainder of the reign of 
Henry VHL This banishment proved favourable to his 
advancement in medical and botanical studies ; he resided 
at Basil, Strasburgb, and at Bonn, but principally at Co- 
logn, with many other English refugees. He dwelt for 
some time at Weissienburgh ; and travelled also into Italy, 
and took the degree of doctor 9I physic at Ferrara. As at 
this period the learned wereapplying with great assiduity 
%o the illustration of the ancients, it was a fortunate cir- 
cuoostance for Dr. Turner, that he had an opportunity of 
attending the lectures of Lucas Ghinus, at Bologna, of 
whom he speaks in his *^ Herbal" with great satisfaction ; 
and frequently cites bis authority against other commen* 
lators. Turner resided a considerable time at Basil, whence 
be dates the dedication of his book ** On the Baths of Eng** 
land and Germany," During his residence in Switzerland 
be contracted a friendship with Gesner, and afterwards 
kept up a correspondence with him. Gesner had a high 
opinion of Turner, as a physician and man of general learn- 
ings whose equal, he says, he scarcely remembered. This 
encomium occurs in Gesner'^ book ^^ De Herbis Lunariis.^' 

On the accession of Edward VL he returned to England, 
was incorporated M. D. at Oxford, appointed physician to 
Edward, duke of Somerset, and, as a divine, wa» rewarded 
with a prebend of York, a canonry of Windsor, and the 
deanery of Wells. In 1552 he was ordained priest by 
bishop Ridley. He speaks of himself in the third part of 
his ^< Herbal," as •haying been physician to the *.^ erle of 
Embden, lord of East Friesland." In 1551 he published 
the first part of his History of Plants, which he dedicjated to 



(£te duke of Spmerset his pttron. But on the accession 
of queen Mary, his zeal in the cause of the reformation, 
which he had amply testified, not only in preachjing^ but 
in rarious publications, rendered it necessary for him to 
retire again to the continent, where he remained at Basil, 
or Strasburgh, with others of the English exiles, until 
queen Elizabeth came to the throne. He then returned,' 
and was reinstated in his preferments. He had, hovrever, 
while abroad, caught some of the prejudices which divided 
the early prbtestants into two irreconcilable parties, and' 
spoke and acted with such contempt for the English dis- 
cipline and ceremonies, as to incur censure, but certainly 
was not deprived, as some of those writers who are hostile ' 
to the church have asserted, for he died possessed of th^ 
deanery of Weils. It would appear, indeed, that he had 
given sufficient . provocation, but found a friend in the 
queen on such occasions. In the dedication of the com- 
plete edition of his ^^HerbaP' to her in 1568, he acknow- 
ledges with gratitude, her favours in restoring him to his 
benefices, and in other ways protecting him from troubles, 
having, at four several times, granted him the great seal 
for thatpurpose. 

Dr. Turner seems to have divided his time between his 
deanery, where he bad a botanical garden, of which fre- 
quent mention is made in his **• Herbal,^* and his house in 
Crutched Friars, London. He speaks also of his garden at 
Kew, and from the repeated notices he takes of the plants 
in Purbecky and about Portland, Dr. Polteney infers that 
he must have had some intimate connections in Dorsetshire. 
He died July 7, 1568, a few months after the publication 
of the last part of his ** Herbal,'* and was buried in the 
chancel of St. 01ave*s church. Hart-street, London, where 
a monument was erected to bis memory by his widow. 

Dr. Turner was the author of many controversial treatises,^ 
chiefly written against popery. Among these were, 1. 
"The hunting of the Romish Fox,*' &c. Basil, 1543. 2. 
« Rescuing of the Romish Fox," 1545. 3. " The hunting 
of the Romish Wolf," 8vo : all these were published under 
the name of William Wraughton. 4. " Dialogue, wherein 
is contained the examination of the Mass," Lond. 8vo. 5. 
*^ A preservative, or triacle against the Poison of Pelagius, 
lately renewed and litirred up again, by the furious sect 
of the anabaptists," ibid. 1551, 12mo« 6.<^A new book 
of spiritual physio for diners diseases," 1555. 7. ^ The 

Vol. XXX, H 


hunting of the Fox and Wolf, because they did male ba^ 
vock of the sheep of Jesus Cbrist/* 8vo. Tanner nientioii:9 
m few other articles, and there are several of his tracts yet 
in manuscript, in various libraries. He collated the trans- 
lation of the Bible with Hebrew, Greek, and Latin copies,, 
and corrected it in many places. He procured to be 
printed at Antwerp a new ana corrected edition of William 
df Newburgh's ^' Historia gentis nostrse,'' from a MS. he 
found in the library at Wells ; but complains that the priiv 
ter not only omitted certain articles sent by him, but left 
out the preface he sent him, and substituted one of hii^ 
own. Our author also translated several works from the 
Latin, particularly ^^ The comparison of the Old Learning, 
and the New,'' written by Urbanus Regius, Southwark, 
1537, 8vo, and again 1538 and 1548. 

His first work on the subject of plants was printed at 
Cologn, under the title of '^ Historia de naturis berbaruda, 
scholiis et uotis yallata,'' 1544, 8vo. Bumaldus is the only 
writer who mentions this work, and it probably wasknot re-* 
printed in England. It was followed by a small vohime 
under the title of ^^ Names of Herbes, in Greek, Latiq^ 
English, Dutch and French/' Lond. 1548. As his know- 
ledge in natural history was not confined to botany, be 
jj^ublished a treatbe on birds, entitled ^< Avium prsecipu- 
arum, quarum apud Pliniiim et Aristotelem mentio est, 
brevis et succincta historia,^' Cologn. 1543, 8vo, By a 
letter of his prefixed to Gesner's '^ Historia ▲nimalium;*'^ 
edit. 1&20, relating to the English fishes, it appears that 
Jhe had no inconsiderable degree of knowledge in that part 
of zoology. But the work which secured his reputation 
to posterity, and entitles him to the character of an original 
writer on that subject, in England, is his *^ History of 
Plants,*' printed at different times, in three parts, in foh 
with cuts, under the title of a ^^New Herbal,*' Lond. 1551^ 
part first ; part second at Cologn, in 1562 ^^with this wa» 
reprinted the first part, and his ** Book on the Bathes of 
England and Germany.** These were reprinted, with a 
third part, in 1568. Dr. Pulteney has given a minute ac- 
count of the contents and progress of this work, and ob- 
serves, that when we regard the time in which Dr. Turner 
lived, and the little assistance he could derive from tai» 
Gontemporariei^ be will appear to have exhibited uncom- 
mon diligence, and great erudition, and fuUy to desetve 
the character of an original writer. H^ also, paid early 



llttdntion Id mineral waters^ and to wines; and wrote on 
both subjects. 

It af^ears that at one time there was a design of placing 
JDr. Turner at the'head of Oriel college. Kennet mentiooa 
a letter to that college (1550, Jtilj 5) << to accept Dr. 
Turner for master of the same, appointed by the king ;^^ 
but this appointment certainly did not take place. Bnfc 
from a passage in his *' Spiritual Physic,'^ he appears td 
have been once a member of the House of Commofts.. Fox 
speaks of Turner with great respect, as ^^ a man whose aa^ 
thortty neither is to be neglected, nor credit to be dis-* 
puted.^' lie married Jane, daughter of George Ander, an 
alderman of Cambridge, who after his death married Coir|i 
bbhop of Ely. In memory of her first husband, she lef6 
some money and lands to Pembroke Hall. 

By this lady Dr. Turner had a son, Peter, who was ai 
physician, and practised in Lpndon, and resided the latter 
part of his life in St. Helen's, Bishopsgate-street, London* 
He died in 1614, and was buried near his father in Sjk^ 
Olave's church, where there is a monument to his mie<f: 
moiy* He married Pascha, sister to Dr. Henry Parr, bishop 
of Worcester, by whom he had eight children, one of whooti 
ia the subject of the following article. ^ 

TURNER (Peter), son to the preceding Dr. Peter, and 
grandson to Dr. William Turner, was born in 15S5y and 
iltras admitted a probationer fellow of Merton dollege, Ox^^ 
ford, in 1607,. where lie proceeded in arts> and not beiHg^ 
restricted to any particular faculty, as the fellows of other 
colleges are, became, according to Wood, versed in alt 
hinds of literature. His first preferment was the professor* 
ship of geometry in Gr<esham college, in July 1620^ but 
he continued to reside mostly at Oxford, and held this 
place together with his fellowship. In 1629, by the di- 
rection of Laud, then bishop of London, he drew up a 
scheme for the annual election of proctors out of the se-> 
yeral colleges at^ Oxford in a certain order, that was ta 
return every twenty-three years, which being approved of 
by his majesty, Charles L was called the Caroline cycle^ 
and is still followed, and always printed at the end of the 
** Paiecbolae sive Excerpta, e corpore statutorum universi- 
tatis Oxon/' In the same year he acted as one of the com* 

1 Ath. Ox. ▼oK I. new •dit-^Pulteaey't Sketchcf.«^Ward't Grcsham Pro* 
fetton.'-Strype*t CrMnncr, p. 235> 274, dU, 357.~Slrypt^s Park«r, p. A$, 
151^— Folter*! Wortkief; 

H 2 

100 T U R N E R. 


missioners for revising the statutes, and reducing them txt 
a better form and order. In 1630, on the death of Briggd^ 
Mr. Turner was chosen to siicceed htm as professor of geo- 
metry at Osfordi and resigned his Gresbam professorship. 
How well he was qualified for his n<ew office appears by the 
character archbishop Usher gives of him, *^ Savtiianus in 
academia Oxoniensi matheseos professor eruditissimus/' 
In 1634 the new edition of the statutes was printed in' fol. 
Kith a preface by Mr. Turner; and to reward him for his 
care and trouble^ a new office was foundedi that of ** cus->: 
tos archivorum/' or keepe^ of the archives, to which he 
was appointed, and made large collections respecting the 
antiquities of the university, which were afterwards of great 
use to Anthony Wood. In 1636, on a royal visit to Ox* 
ford, Mr. Turner was created M. D. but having fCdbered 
to his majesty in his troubles, and even taken up arms in 
his cause, he was ejected from his fellowship of Merton, 
and his professorship. This greatly impoverished him, and 
he went to reside with a sister, the widow of a Mr. WaHs, 
a brewer in Southwark, where he died in Jan. 165T, and 
was interred in St. Saviour's church. He was a man of 
extensive learning, and wrote much, but being fastidious 
in his opinion of his own works, he never could complete 
them to his mind. We have mentioned the only writings 
he published, except a Latin poem in the collection in ho-^ 
Dour of sir Thomas Bodley^ called the ^' Bodleiomnema,'' 
Oxf. 1613. Wood also mentions *^ Epistolie varise ad doc-' 
tissimos viros ;^' but we know of no printed letters of his i 
Dr. Ward, however, gives extracts from three MS letters 
in English to Selden, chiefly relating to some Greek writers* 
on the music of the ancients. ' 

TURNER (William), a pious English divine, was & 
native of Flintshire, and born near Broadoak, in that county,, 
but in what year we have not discovered. Our particulars^^ 
indeed^f this gentleman are extremely scanty, he having 
been omitted by Wood. Previously to his going to Ox* 
ford, he was for some time an inmate in the house of thfr 
celebrated Philip Henry, partly as a pupil, and partly as 
an assistant in the education of Mr. Henry's children, one 
of whom, Matthew, the commentator, was first initiated in 
grammar-learning by Mr. Turner. This was in 1669, .after 
which Mr. Turner entered of Edmund ball, Oxford, where 

1 Ath. Ox. Tol. IL— Wsrd'p Gresbam Profespeni. 


1m took htt degrM of M. A. Jone 8, 1675. He became 
afterurards vicar of Watberton, in Sasisear, «nd resided there 
in 1697, at the time be published his principal work, but 
the date of his death we have not been able to ascertain. 
In 1695 he published a ** History of all Religions/' Lond. 
8vo ; but the work by which he is best known is his ^' Com« 
pleat history of the most remarkable Providences, both of 
Judgment and Mercy, &c. to which is added, whatever 
is curious in the works of nature and art The whole di- 
gested into one volume, uader proper heads ; being a work 
set on foot thirty years ago, by the rev. Mr. Pool, au- 
thor of the '' Synopsis Criticorum ;' and since undertaken 
and finished by William Turner," &c. 1697, fol. This 
curious collection ranks with the similar performances of 
Clark, 8^nd Wanley in his " History of the Little World," 
but is superior, perhaps,' to both in selection and con- 
ciseness* Dunton, in bis '< Life,'' gives Mr. Turner the 
character of ^< a man of wonderful moderation, and pf 
great piety," and adds, what it is very natural for a book- 
seller to praise, that ** be was very getierous, and would 
not receive a farthing for his copy till the success was 
known." * 


TURRETIN (Benedict), the first of a celebrated fa* 
mily of protestant divines, waa the son 6f Francis Turretio, 
descended from an ancient family at Lucca, who was 
obliged to> fly his country for the cause of religion, and 
resided partly at Antwerp and Geneva, and lastly at Zu- 
rich, where he died. His son Benedict was bom NoV; 9^ 
15S8, and in his thirty^third year (1621) was appointed 
pastor,' and professor of theology at Geneva. The same 
year the republic of Geneva being alarmed at the hostile 
preparations making by the duke of Savoy, sent Mr. Tur- 
retin to the States General of the United Provinces and to 
the prince of Orange, and he prevailed on their high 
niightinesses to advance the aum of S0,000 livres, and 
10^000 tivres per month, for three months, in case of a 
siege. He ' also obtained other pecuniary aid from the 
churches of Hamburgh, Embden, and Bremen. During 
hir being in Holland, he had interviews with the French 
attd English ambassadors, and had an audience of the king 

1 Life qI Philip Heniy, p. 100, 16U— of Matt Henry, p. Vl.— Danton's W^ 


102 T U R R f T I N, 

«f 'Bebemiii, to whom he communicated the syitapathy 
which the state of Geneva felt on his revene of fortune. 
In 1622 be returned to GenoTa, ajid was received with 
all the respect due to his services. He died at Geneva, 
March 4, 1631, with the character of a very learned dU 
vine, and a man of great moderation and judgment. . Hia 
works are, 1. A defence of the Geneva translation of the 
Bible, against the attack of father Coton in his '^ Geneve 
Flagiaire." This extended to three parts, or volumes, 
printed from 1618 to 1626: 2. '^Sermons,'' in French, 
<< aur Tutilit^ des cbatimentsJ* 3. <f Sermons,'' in Italian, 
«cc.» • • • 

TURRETIN (Francis), son to the preceding, was bora 
at Geneva, Oct, 17, 1623. After pursuing bis studies in 
the classics and philosophy with great credit, he entered 
on the study of divinity, under t^ celebrated Calvinistic 
professors, John Diodati, Theodore Tronchin, Frederick 
Spanhein^, &c. While a student he supported in 1640 
and 1644, two theses, ^^De felicitate moraJi et politica,'* 
and <^ De necessaria Dei gratia*" He afterwards went to 
Ldeyden, and formed an acquaintance with tbe most emi- 
nent scholars there; and afterwards to Paris, where he 
lodged with the celebrated Daill6, and studied geography 
Uhd^r Gassendii whose philosophical lectures be also at-r 
tended. He then visited the sehools of Saumur and Mon*» 
laub^, and on bis return to Geneva in 1647 was or4ained, 
and in the following year served both in tbe French and 
Italian churches of that city. In 1650 be refused the pro^ 
fessorship of philosophy, which was offered to him more 
than once, hut accepted an invitation to the pastoral oflMse 
at Lyons, where he six:ceeded Aaron Morus^ the brother 
of Alexander. In 1653 he was recalled to Geneva to be 
professor of divinity, an pfEice which Theodore Tronchin 
was now about to resign from age, and Turretin continued in 
it during the rest of his life. In 1661 he was employed on 
a sin^ilar business as bis father, being sent to Holland to 
obtain assistance from the States General to fprtify the city 
of Geneva. Having represented tbe case, be obtained the 
fum of 75,000 fiorins, with which a bastion was huiJt, called 
tbe Dutch bastion. He had an interview with tbe prince 
l^nd princess dowa:ger of Grange at Turnhout in Brabant ; 
and having often pi^eacbed while in (iolland, he was so 


^ U R R E T I N. loa 

muc)i admired^ that ^be Walloon cbarcb of L^den, aii4 
tbe French church at the Hague, sent him invitations to 
settle with them ; but this he declined, and returned to Ge- 
neva in 1662. He had not been here long before the 
states general of Holland wrote most pressingly to the re- 
public^ requesting that Turretin might be permitted to 
settle in Holland; and sipnilar applications were. made 
fpoi Leyden, &c. in 1666 and 1672 : but he could not be 
reconciled to the change, and resuming his functions, ac- 
quired the greatest fame, both as a divine and professor. 
He died Sept 28, 1687. 

Besides some sermons dedicated to m^dam de Scbom- 
berg, he wrote an answer to a piece published by a cauou 
of Aneci, in order to render the protestants odious, among 
other things, upon the doctrine of the obediep^e of sub- 
jects to their lawful princes. He wrote also an answer 0' 
the letter, which the bishop of Lucca sem to the femilies 
at Geneva, which were originally of his diocese, to exhort 
them to the profession of the catholic religion, which their 
ancestors bad abandoned. But what will chiefly perpetu- 
ate our authov^s memory is his '^Ihstitutio Theologis^ Slenc- 
ticae,^' in three volumes 4to, his theses ^* De «atisfac- 
tione Cbristi" against the Socinians, and ^< De necessaria 
secessione ab Ecclesia Romana.*' There is an excellent 
abridgment of his ^^ Institutio,'* by Leonard Riisseo, which 
has gone through sreveral editions'; the best^ if we mistake 
not, is that of Amsterdam, 1695, 4to. ^ , 

TURRETIN (John Alphonsus), the most celebrated 
of the family, was the son of Francis Turretin, and waa 
born at Geneva, Aug« 24, 1671. From his infancy he 
shewed a great ardour for study, which his father took 
every pains to improve and direct. Some of his early pre- 
ceptors were divines who had fled from France for religioDj 
and one of them, a Mons. Dautun, was particularly ser-* 
vlceable in correcting the exuberances of bis compositional 
and habituating him to revise and reconsider what he wrote. 
This M first was rather troublesome to the lively spirits of 
pur author, but he soon saw that Dautun had reason oo hi« 
side. He studied the Cartesian philosophy under Chouet^ 
^ very able professor. Bishop Burnet^ who passed tbn 
fvinter at Geneva in 1685, conceived a tery high opinion 

* Morert.— life by ?icUt pnflxed to tbe edition of the «< Institntio" pristed 
in 1701. 

10* ; T U R R E T I N, 

of young Tufretin^ often examined bim on his tasks, and 
in the course of many conversations inspired him with that 
taste which Turretin always afterwards indulged for En^ 
glish literature. In 1687 be lost his father, but continued 
to pursue his theological studies under Louis Tronchin, 
Calendriniy and Pictet. Tronchin admired in him a great 
love for truth ard peace, and said, ^* that young man b^ 
gins where others end." Turretin had many advantages 
on his side, an uncommon share of natural understanding, 
a great memory, a facility in discovering the important 
parts of a question; an aversion to idleness and frivolous 
amusements; learned friends, an ample library, and a pa- 
trimony which set him at ease from anxiety or precipita« 
tion in his studies. At the age of twenty, with these ad- 
vantages, we are told he was ** almost a great man,'' Yp^tf#^ 
que un grand hommcj. 

In 1693 he began bis travels, and first resided for a con- 
siderable time in Holland, where bis talents recommended 
him. to the acquaintance and friendship of the most emi- 
nent scholars and divines of tbe time. He lived eight 
months at Rotterdam, and in tbe midst of the disputes bc-^ 
tween Jurieu.and Bayle, was on good terms with botbji 
without any sacrifice of principle on his own part Hia 
chief object during his residence in Holland was the«tudy 
of ecclesiastical history under Spanheim; and with that view 
be continued about eight months at Leyden, and main- 
tained some theses which did, him great credit, particularly 
« Pyrrhonispius pontificius, sive Theses Theologico-histo- 
ricae de variationibus pontificiorum circa ecclesiss infallibi- 
litatem.^* This was reprinted in the collection of his Dis* 
sertation^. In July 169^1 he came to England, but had not 
slept many nights in London before he was attacked by 
an asthmatic complaint, which disturbed bim for the greater 
part of his life. He removed for better air to Chelsea, but 
preached in the French church in London, and visited the 
universities of Oxford and Cambridge. At the latter bQ 
first saw Mr. (afterwards sir) Isaac Newton, in' whose modest 
manifers and conversation he discerned the future illus- 
trious character. It appears also that he held sonie amica- 
ble disputes with our divines on the respective constitutions 
of the churches of England and Geneva. He passed much 
pf his time with his old friend bishop Burnet, at the palace 
at Salisbury, where he also met Dr. Whitby and Mr. Alliz \ 
^^d by means of lord Galloway was introduced at court, an4 

t ' 

T U. R R E T I N. 105 

very graciously received liy king William and queen Mary. 
Burnet also introduced him to Tillotson, Compton, Tenison, 
Lloyd, Wake, &c. &c. He learned English so well, that when 
after his return to Geneva, the duke of Bridgwater and lord 
Townsend, with both of whom he was intimate, engaged 
him to preach in English, he performed it with a facility 
which astonished his noble hearers ; but he afterwards lost 
the art of speaking, although he could always write and 
read English with great ease and correctness. 

After leaving England, which he did with much regret, 
in the spring 1693, he went to Paris, where he had equal 
reason to be pleased with his reception, being in the same 
manner caressed by Bossuet, Huet, Bignon, Nicaise, Ma-» 
billon, Malebranche, &c. &c. and in short all the learned 
men of the day. On his return home he was ordained to 
the ministry in 1694, when only twenty-two years of age, 
a special mark of tespect, as twenty* four is the lowest age 
appointed by law. For some time he had no fixed charge, 
but preached in the Italian church, with which his father 
and grandfather had always been connected, and he was a 
perfect master of the language. In 1697 the magistrates 
founded for him a professorship of ecclesiastical history, 
but without any salary, and M. Turretin was in a condition 
to accept it on such terms. He entered on his oflSce in 
May, with a discourse on the utility and excellence of sab- 
ered antiquities, and afterwards began a course of ecclesi- 
astical history, comprised in about three hundred lectures. 
He was often requested to print these, but pleaded that 
they were merely collections formed for the direction of 
the students, and were not sufficiently polished for publi- 

In 1699 be embraced a favourable opportunity to make 
the tour of Swisserland, in the course of which he added 
considerably to the number of his friends and admirers. 
After bis return, the commencement of a new century di- 
rected his attention to the secular games of the ancients, 
and produced from his pen a treatise entitled ^< De ludis 
ssecularibus Academicse Questiones,'* Gen. 1701, 4to« In 
the same year he was chosen rector of the academy, in 
which office he remained until J711, and delivered ten 
orations on the academic anniversary of each year. In 
1702, be wrote a panegyric on William III., which was re^ 
printed in England, and much admired. On the death af 
Troncbin, jn 1705, he was. appointed. to succeed him in 



the dirinity professonbip, 'wbich he held wUh tbat of 
eeclesiastical history, bat did aot dehver a regular, syste- 
matic coDfse of divinity lectures, for which be was blamed. 
In 1706 he joined those Geneva divines who sought to be 
excused from subscribing the form called the consensus^ 
which had been introduced about thirty or forty years be- 
fore. It appears from this that his notions were rather 
more latitudinarian than those of his ancestors ; and it was 
remarked as rather singular tbat the son should be so zea* 
Ions to abolish, what the fathei' bad been equally zealous to 
establish. We are assured, however, that friendly as he' 
was to toleration, and somewhat inclined to Arminian- 
km, he was a constant advocate for uniformity in all essen- 
tial doctrines. In 17.07, when the re*union of the protest- 
ant churches was agitated, the king of Prussia made Tur- 
retin a present of a gold medal, and he was chosen a mem- 
ber of the royal society of Berlin, as he had before of that 
of London. On the subject of any junction with the church 
of Rome, Turretin held that to be wholly impracticable^ 
andrhis opinion bad great weight. Such was indeed his re- 
putation, that no strangers, of whatever rank, ever visited 
Geneva without a desire to be introduced to him, and to 
eonsult him on matters of importance. 
' In 17 1 1 he began to print bia theses on different subjectsi 
but chiefly on the necessity of a revelation, and on the 
truth of the Christian religion, all of which were published 
at Geneva in 2 vols. 4to, 1737. In 1719 he published a 
<< Dissertation on Fundamental Points," which be bad writ- 
ten at the request of two persons of rank of the Lutheran 
profession. Along with it was publisjied his ^^ Cloud of 
Witnesses.'' The title was <^ Nubes Testium de modefato 
et pacifico de rebus theologicis judicio, et instituenda inter 
^ protestantes concordia. Premissa est brevis et pacifica de 
drticulis fundamentalibus diaquisitio, qua ad protestantium 
pacem, mutuamque tolerantiam via steroitur/' 4to. Tfaia 
work, which contains an assemblage of the sentiments of 
Imminent men. of all ages on ,the subject of tolertftion, was 
dedicated to archbishop Wak^, who as well as the author 
laboured much to procure a re-union between the protestant 
churches ; and Turretin derived no little reputation from 
this attempt, which many of the leading men among the 
Lutherans highly approved. About this time he had a con- 
troversy with Buddeus on the subject of miracles, which 
fvas conducted on both sides with great urbanity. Torr^tiH 



idso began to prepare for the press his lectures on nitural 
religion, whieh form an excellent system on that subject. 
On the death of Pictet he succeeded him in bia duties on 
solemn academical festivals, and in delivering the accus* 
tomed harangues, prescribed by the laws of Geiieva, not 
only in the council of t^o hundred, but in the half-yearly 
meetings of the burgesses. He also took an active part in 
various improvements introduced by the church of Geneva, 
as a revision of their liturgies, a translation of the new 
testament published in 1726, the establishment of a society 
for the education of the young, &c. In 1734 be published 
his abridgment of ecclesiastical history, in Latin, ** Histoii» 
EcclesiastictE compendium a Christo nato usque ad anuum 
1700," Genev. dvo. This, he used to dictate to his studentft, 
and it served as a text-book for his lectures. The preceding 
year he received from our queen Caroline, who had often 
shewn him marks of respect, a gold medal, brought by-8ir 
Luke Schaub, but she was dead before it arrived. On the 
death of archbishop Wake in 1737, which Turretin very 
much regretted, the divines of Geneva having determined 
to write a letter to the new archbishop, Potter, congratu* 
kiting him on his promotion, and requesting his protection 
to the foreign churcheil, Turretin was employed on the oe«> 
casion, and this was the last letter of any importance which 
he wrote. His health, always delicate, now began to give 
way, and he died May 1, 1.737, in bis sixty-sixth year^ 
regretted as one of the most able divines of his church or 

In 170S he married, and left a son, who did npt follow 
his father's profession, but died in 1754. There were two 
Lives of Turretin written, one in French, by Vernet, which 
is inserted in the *^ Bibliotheque raisonn^e," vol XXL ; the 
other in Latin by Tronchin, inserted in the ^^Tempe HeU 
vetica,'' vol. HL From these Chaufepie has compiled an 
excellent article, as indeed all his additional articles are^ 
from which we have taken the above particulars.^ 

TURSELIN, orTURSELLINUS (Horace), a learned 
and indefatigable Jesuit of Rome, was born in 1545, and: 
taught rhetoric in that city with reputation during twenty 
years, and was afterwards rector of several colleges. He 
promoted the study of the belles lettres in his society, and 
died at Rome, April 6, 1599, aged 54. His principal workt 

I CItttfepie; 

lt>8 T U R S E L I N; 

are, 1. << The Life of St. Francis Xavier ;*' the best eiiiion 
of this 18 that of 1596, 4to. On this work we shall have oc* 
casion to make some remarks in our article of Xavier. 2^ 
^^ The History of Loretto/' 8vo. 3. A treatise on the 
Latin Particles. 4. <*An Abridgment of Universal History/' 
from the creation to 1598, &c. All the above are in elegant 
Latin. The best editions of bis Universal History are those 
which have a continuation by father Philip Briet, from 1618 
to 1661. The best French translation of it is by the abbd 
Lagneau, Paris, 1757, 4 vols. 12mo, with notes.^ 

TUSSER (Thomas), an English poet of the sixteenth 
century, and styled the British Varro, was born, as it is 
supposed, about the year 1515, at Rivenhall near Witham 
in Essex. His father, William Tusser, married a daughter of 
Thomas Smith, of Kivenball, esq. by whom he had $ve 
sons and four daughters ; and this match appears to have 
been the chief foundation of ^'the gentility of his family,'' 
for which he refers his readers to ^^the Heralds' book.*' 
The name and race, however, have long been extinct. At 
an early age, much against his will, he was sent by his fa- 
tber to a music-school ; and was soon placed as a chorister 
or singing-boy in the collegiate chapel of the castle of 
Wallingford ; and after some hardships, of which he com- 
plains, and frequent change of place, he was at length ad- 
mitted into St. Paul's, where he arrived at considerable 
proficiency in music^ under John Redford, the organist of 
that cathedral, a man distinguished for his attainments iiv 
the science. From St. Paul's he was sent to Eton school, 
and was some time under the tuition of the famous Nicholas 
Udall, of whose severity be complains, in giving him fifty- 
three stripes at once for a trifling fault. Hence he was re-r 
moved to Cambridge, and, according to some, was first 
entered of King's college, and afterwards removed to Tri«* 
nity hall ; but his studies being interrupted by sickness, he 
left, the university, and was employed about court, probably 
in his musical capacity, by the influence of his patron,, 
William lord Paget. He appears to have been a retainer 
in ih|s nobleman's family, and he mentions his lordship in. 
the highest terms of panegyric. 

In this situation, which must have been during the latter 
par^ of the reign of Henry VI H. and the first years of £d^ 
wiard VI* when his patron was in great favour, he remained 

T U S S E R, 109 

ten years, and then retiring into the country, l^nd marrying, 
turned farmer at Katwade, nov^r Cattiwade, a hamlet of the 
parish oC Brantham, in Sanfort hundred, Suffolk, near the 
river Stoun Here he composed his book of Husbandry, the 
first edition of which was published in 1557, and dedicated 
to his patron lord Paget. It is probable that he must have 
been acquainted with rural affairs, for several years at least, 
before he could produce even the rude essay which forths 
the germ of his future and more elaborate work. He appears 
to have suffered some reverse in his farming business, a$ 
we find him afterwards successively at Ipswich, where his 
wife died, at West Dereham, and at Norwich. He married, 
however, a second wife, of the name of Moorij which af- 
fords him a play of v^ords; but this match did not add tp his 
happiness, apparently from a disparity in age, she being 
very young. He then obtained, by the interest of Salis- 
bury, dean of Norwich, a singing-man*s place in that cathe-' 
dral. After this he tried farming again, at Fairsted, near 
his native place ; but again failing, he repaired to London, 
which he mentions with due commendation, until being 
driven from it by the plague in 1574, he went to Cambridge. 
When the scourge abated he returned to London, and 
died there, as is generally supposed, about 1580^ and was 
interred in St. Mildred's church in the Poultry, with an 
epitaph, recorded by Stow. 

For an author, the vicissitudes of his life present an un* 
common variety of incident. ^' Without a tincture of care** 
less imprudence,*' saysWarton, ^^ or vicious extravagance,, 
this desultory character seems to have thriven in no voca- 
tion. ^* There are no data^ however, to account for his fre* 
quent changes of life and his failures. Farming was his 
leading pursuit. And in that, although he was a good theorist 
for the time, he was unsuccessful in practice* Stillingfleet, 
says, ^^He seems to have been a good-natured cheerful man, 
and though a lover of ceconomy, far from meanness, as ap- 
pears in. many of his precepts, wherein he shews his disap- 
probation .of that pitiful spirit, which makes farmers starve 
their cattle, their land, and every thing belonging to them ; 
choosing rather to lose a pound than spend a shilling. Upon 
the whole, bis book displays all the qualities of a well-dis- 
posed man, as well as of an able farmer.'' Mr. Stillingfleet 
adds, " Googe set Tusser on a level with Varro and Colu-' 
mella and Palladius; but I wQuld rather compare him to old 
Hesiod. They both wrote in the infancy of husbandry y 

110 T U S S E R. 

both gave good general precepts^ without entering intb the 
detail, though Tusser has more of it than Hesiod; they 
both seem desirous to improve the morah of their readers 
as well as their farms, by recommending industry and ceeo^ 
nomy ; and that which perhaps may be looked upon as the^ 
greatest resemt>lance, they both wrote in verse, probably 
fot the same reason, namely; to propagate their doctrines 
more effectually.'* 

Tusser's ^^Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry'* 
appears fo have obtained a very favourable reception from 
the public, above twelve editions having appeared within^ 
the first fifty years, and afterwards many others were printed. 
The best editions are those of 1 58Q and 1585, but they are 
very scarce. In 1812 the public was fwoured with a new 
edition, carefully collated and corrected by Br. William 
Mavor, of whose biographical sketch we have availed our- 
selves in the present article. Dr. Mavor has rendered his 
edition highly valuable by a series of notes, georgical, il- 
Idstrative, and explanatory, a glossary, and other improve- 
ments. ^ 

TUTCHIN (John), a party writer in the reiga of king; 
James the second, very early in life became obnoxious to 
the government from the virulence of his writings. He was 
prosecuted for a political performance on the side of Mon« 
mouth> and being found guilty, was sentenced by Jefferies' 
to be whipped through several market-towns in the west. 
To avoid this severe punishment he petitioned the king that 
the sentence might be changed to hanging. At the death 
of this unfortunate monarch he wrote an invective against 
bis memory, which even the severity of his sufferings can' 
hardly excuse. He was the author of " The Observator,", 
which was begun April I, 1702. Becoming obnoxious to 
the tories, he received a severe beating in August 1707, 
^nd died in much distress in the Mint, the 23d of Septem- 
ber follbwing, at the age of forty-seven. In some verses on 
his death he is called captain Tutchin. Besides political 
and poetical effusions, he wrote a drama entitled ^^The uti- 
fortunate Shepherd,*' 1685/' 8vo, which is printed in a 
collection of his poema.* 

TUTET (Mark Cephas), an eminent merchant in Pud- 
ding^lane, is said to have united to the integrity and skill 

1 life hj Dr. Mafor.^JPbilipt't Tbeatnraii» edit* 180K--CcMaaraLil»rSiui«^ 
VibKoptpher, toL I. ^ 

^ Biog. Dram.— Swift'g Worki.— Pope'g Works, by Bowlen: 

T UT E! T. Ill 

of a man of business the accomplifthoienis of a polite scho^ 
Jar and an intelligent antiquary. He was elected a member 
of the Society of Antiquaries June 26, 1755. In 1771 ha 
married a cousin, but had not any issue. On the 5th of 
July, 1785, presently after supper, he received a sudden 
and unexpected pamlytic stroke, which in a few hours de- 
prived him of speech and senses ; in which state he lay tili 
the 9th of July, being the day on whioh he had accom^ 
plished fifty-two years and eleven months. By his will he 
ordered his coins, medals, books, and prints, to be sold by 
auction (which was done from the ilth of January to the 
18th of February, 1786, inclusive) ; the produce to be added 
to the principal part of his estate, which his industry and 
extreme frugality had increased to a considerable fortune, 
the interest of which he bequeathed to his widow for her 
life ; and after her to a female cousin of the same condi- 
tion ; the ultimate reversion equally amongst the children 
pf his brother. Few of his survivors understood better the 
rare secret of collecting only what was truly valuable; 4 
circumstance which invincible modesty alone prevented' 
from being more generally known. To those wha were fa« 
voured with his intimacy his treasures and his judicious 
communications were regularly open. His select and valu^ 
able library was remarkable for the neatn^s of the copies ; 
and many of the books were improved by notes written ia 
his own small but elegant hand-writing.^ 

TWEDDELL (John) an enterprizing schofar of uncom* 
mon talents and attainments, was born June I, 1769) at 
Threepwood, near Hexham, in the county of Northumber- 
land. He was the son of Francis Tweddell, esq. an able 
and intelligent magistrate. His earlier years were paseect 
under the care and instruction of a most pious and aflfec^ 
tionate mother; and at the age of nine years he was sent 
to school at Hartforth, near Richmond, in the North Ridings 
of Yorkshire, under the superintendance of the Rev. Mat- 
thew Raine (father of the late learned Dr, Raine, of the 
Charter-house), who early discovered those rare endow- 
ments which were shortly to win high distinction, and were 
cherished by him with a kind solicitude, and treated with« 
no common skill. Previously to his commencing residence 
at the university of Cambridge he sp&nt some tiiiie under 
the immediate tuition of the Rev. Dr, Samuel Parr, whose 

* * • 

3 Biog. Brit. art. Ducarel. 

a liJ T W E D D E L L. 

pre-eminent learning opened not its stores in vain to an ar^. 
dent, and capacious mind ; and whose ttvAy affectionate re-^^ 
gard for his pupil spared no pains to perfect him in all the. 
learning of Greece and Rome ; lior is it too much to say, 
that the tutor saw his pains requited, and gloried in his 
charge; whilst he secured the grateful respect and lasting 
attachment of his accomplished scholar. Mr. TweddeU'^ 
proficiency in his academical course procured him unprece* 
dented honours. The ** Prolusiones Juveniles/' which were 
published in the year 1793, furnish an ample and unequi- 
vocal testimony to the extent and versatility of his talents. 
Professor Heyne, of Goettingen, in a letter addressed to 
Dr. Burgess (the truly learned and venerable bishop of St. 
David's), thus speaks of Mr. Tweddell's productions : -^ 
^^ RedditsD mihi his diebus sunt litterss tuae, missss ex urbe 
Dresdae, Saxonise, inclusft litteris elegantissimis JiSannts 
Tweddeil, juvenis ornatissimi; cujus visendi et compeU 
landi copiam mihi baud obtigisse vebementer doleo; spi* 
rant litteroe ejus indolem ingenuam, ingenium venustumf 
mores amabiles et jucundos. Eruditionem autem ejus ex- 
quisitam ex prolusionibus eju^juvenilibtis perspexi, qpas lit- 
teris adjunxerat ; uoa cum generoso libertatis sensu, quern 
cum ipsa libertate sibi eripi baud videtur pati velie.'* 

In 1792 Mr. Tweddeil was elected fellow of Trinity 
college ; and, soon afterwards, entered himself a student 
of the Middle-Temple. By those who were acquainted 
with the vivacity and playfulness of his mind, and who 
remember with what an exquisite feeling he relished the 
beauties of poetic fiction and the graces of classical com- 
position^ it will not be thought surprising that the study 
of the law should be in a more than common degree dis- 
tasteful ; yet, such was his deference to the wishes of bis,, 
father, that, although he could never overcome the pre- 
vaiUng aversion of his mind, he paid considerable atten- 
tion to his professional studies* It appears, both from the 
]necords of bis private sentiments, as well as from his large 
and constant intercourse with the best sources of English 
history, and his predilection for political economy, that. 
he would have wished to employ bis talents and cultivated 
address in diplomacy at the courts of foreign powers. 

It was not without a view to this that Mr. Tweddeil de- 
termined to travel, and Cfmploy a few years in acquiring a, 
knowledge of the manners, policy, and characters of the 
principal courts and most interesting countries of Europe^ 

T W E D D E L L. lia 

fAAth wete not yet become inaccessible to ao English-. 
man through the overwhelming dominion of republican 
France. He accordingly embarked on the 24th Septem- 
ber 1795, for Hamburg; where that ** Correspondence'* 
commences -which was lately published, and which may 
serve, ^o illustrate, though very imperfectly, the progress,, 
pursuits, and indefatigable researches of this traveller in 
Switzerland, the North of Europe, and various parts of 
the East, until the period of his arrival in the provinces of 
Greece: here, after visiting several of the islands in the 
Archipelago, be fixed his residence for four months in Athens, 
exploring with restless ardour, and faithfully delineating,! 
the remains of aft and science, discoverable amidst her 
sacred ruins. The hand of a wise but mysterious Provi-* 
dence suddenly arrested his career, on the 25th of July, 

The' regret and regard expressed on this melanchdy 
occasion were universal ; and many honours have in cQn« 
sequence been paid to Mr. Tweddeirs memory, by various 
distinguished travellers, who have since visited Athens, 
where his remains are deposited in the Theseum, with a 
beautiful Greek inscription by the rev. Robert Walpole^ 
A.M. of Carrow abbey, near Norwich, a gentleman whose 
taste and classical erudition are well known, and parCicu-* 
larly in the sources of Grecian literature and antiquities. 

The learned have looked with wearied expectation, and 
the friends of Mr. Tweddell with disappointed anxiety, 
to receive from the press some portion at least of the very 
large and choice materials, which he had prepared for pub-^ 
lication, both from his own pen, and frooi the pencil of an 
eminent artist^ Mons. Preaux, acting under his immediate 
directioiv; these, it may be presumed, coming from a tra- 
veller so accomplished' and so indefatigable, must have 
shed new and extraordinary light on the, antiquities of 
Greece, and more particularly on those of Athens ; whilst 
the journals of his travels in some of the mountainous dis- 
tricts of Switzerland, rarely, if ever before^ visited, and 
in the Crimeia, on the borders of the Euxine, could not 
have failed to impart much novel information. * But not-^ 
withstanjding the most iirgent and diligent endeavours 
made by Mr. TweddelPs friends — notwithstanding the ar-^ 
rival at Constantinople of his papers and effects from 
Athens, and the actual delivery of his Swiss journals, with 
sundry other manuscripts, and above three hundred higbly- 


H4 T W E D D E L L. 

finished drawings, into the official custody of the British 
Ambassador at the Otbman court, it remains at this time a 
mystery, what is actually become of all these valuable ma- 
nuscripts and drawings. Neither have all the investigations 
set on foot by his friends, nor the more recent representa- 
tions addressed to the ambassador, obtained any explicit 
or satisfactory elucidation of the strange and suspicious 
obscurity which hangs over all the circumstances of this 
questionable business. \ 

Mr. Tweddell, in his person, was of the middle stature, 
of a handsome and well-proportioned figure. His eye was 
remarkably soft and intelligent. The proBle, or frontis* 
pifce to the volume, lately published, gives a correct and 
Uyely representation of the original, though it is not in the 
power of any outline to shadow out the fi^e expression 
of his animated and interesting countenance. His address 
was polished, a^Sable, and prepossessing in a high degree ; 
and there was in his whole appearance an air of dignified 
benevolence, which pourtrayed at once the suavity of his 
nature and the independence of his mind. In conversa- 
tion, he had a talent so peculiarly his own, as to form a 
very distinguishing feature of bis character. A chastised 
and ingenious wit, which could seize on an incident in the 
happiest manner — a lively fancy, which could clothe th^ 
choicest ideas in the best language — these, supported by 
large acquaintance with men and books, together with the 
further advantages of a melodious voice, and a playfulness 
of manner singularly sweet and engaging, rendered him 
the delight of every company : his power of attracting 
friendships was, indeed, remarkable; and in securing them 
he was equally happy. Accomplished and admired as he 
was, his modesty was conspicuous, and his whole deport- 
ment devoid of affectation or pretension. Qualified emi- 
nently to shine in society, and actually sharing its ap- 
plause, he found his chief enjoyment in the retired cir- 
cle of select friends ; in whose literary leisure, and in the 
amenities of female converse (which for him had the high« 
est charms) he sought the purest and the most refined recre- 
ation.-^^* Of the purity of Mr.TweddelPs principles, and 
the honourable independence of his character — of his ele- 
vated integrity, his love of truth, his generous, noble, and 
affectionate spirit, the editor might with justice say much, 
but the traces and proofs of these, dispersed throughout 
the annexed correspondence, he cheerfully leaves to the 


notice and sympathy of the intelligent reader.^' ^ Such is 
the language of his brother^ the rev. Robert Tweddell, and 
the editor of a very interesting volume, entitled ^^ Remains 
of the late John Tweddell, &c. being a selection of his 
Letters, written from various parts of the continent, toge- 
ther with a republication of his Prolusiones Juveniles,*' 
1815, 4to. It has been justly remarked on this volume, 
that, though some letters in the collection, and parts of 
others, would have been perhaps judiciously omitted, there 
are few instances of a private correspondence, written with-. 
out the least view to publication, which will bear a severer 
scrutiny, either in point of good sense, elegant taste, or 
honourable sentiments. Full of candour and discrimtna- 
tion, Tweddell pourtrays with great spirit the manners and 
customs, and characters of the different nations he visited ; 
imbued with classical lore, and blessed with a fine imagi- 
nation, he paints in glowing colours the magnificent scenery 
of nature in her wildest regions, and throws a double in- 
terest over the deserted relics of ancient art : educated in 
the strict principles of morality and religion, by the most 
excellent of parents, he repays their care and solicitude by 
the strong and vivid sentiments of attachment displayed 
throughout his whole correspondence, which is undefiled 
by a single sentence of a licentious tendency. ^ 

TWELLS (Leonard), a learned English divine, was 
educated at Jesus college, Cambridge, where he proceeded 
B. A, in 1704. In 17:53 the university of Oxford conferred 
on him the degree of M. A. by diploma, in approbation, 
as we presume, of his *^ Critical Examination, &c.*' here« 
after mentioned. He was- at that time vicar of St. Mary's 
at Marlborough ; but in 1737 was presented to the united 
rectories of St. Matthew, Friday-street, and St. Peter, 
Cheap. He was also a prebendary of St. Paul's, and one 
of the lecturers of St. Dunstan's in the West Some of 
these promotions came late, nor had he more than 100/. a 
year to support a family of five children till within five 
years of his death, which took place Feb. 19, 1741-2. By 
the advice of some friends, two volumes of his sermons at 
Boyle's and lady Moyer's lectures were published for the 
benefit of his family, 1743, in 2 vols. 8vo. His publica- 
tions in his life-time were, 1. '^ A Critical Examination of 

1 Memoir prefixed to the Remains.— Brit. Crit. toI. V. N. S. where the reader 
will find a candid eKamination of Uie evidence retpectiog his lost MSS. fc«. 


116 T W E L 1^3. . 

the late new text and version of the Testament, in Gnreek 
and English, in three parts;" the first two were printed in 
1731, and the last in 1782, 8vo. The work here examined 
was entitled ^' The New Testament in Greek and English, 
containing the original text corrected, from the authority 
of authentic MSS. and a new version formed agreeably to 
the illustrations of the most learned commentators and 
critics, with notes and various readings, &c.'* Mr. Twells's 
object is to prove that the editor's text it corrupt, his ver- 
sion felse, and his notes fallacious, and that the tendency^ 
of the work is to injure Christianity in general, and the 
tenets of the Church of England in particular. Mr. TwelU 
also published, 2. <^ A Vindication of the gospel of StMat^ 
thew," 17359 8vo; and ^^ A Supplement to the Vindica-* 
tion.'* 3. '' Answer to the Inquiry into the meaning of the 
Demoniacks in the New Testament,*' 1737, Svo. 4. '^ An«« 
swer to the * Further Inquiry,* 1738," Svo. 5* " The 
Theological Works of Dr. Pocock,*' 1740, 2 vols. fol. with 
a life of Pocock, to which we have already referred, re^ 
plete with curious information respecting that great orien-* 
talist, his contemporaries, and the times in which he lived. 
Mr. Twells, we are sorry to add, gained little by this pub* 
fication. He himself states that his reward for writing the 
life, compiling indexes, collating and correcting the errors 
of the old edition, which with soliciting for subscriptions, 
travelling to London, Oxford, &c. more or less employed 
his time and exercised his patience for five years, would 
be in all probability not more than 50/. ' 


TWINING (Thomas), a learned divine,^ was the only 
son of an eminent tea-merchant by bis first marriage, and 
born in 1734. He was intended by his £pitberro succeed 
htm in that house, which he had so well esCablfahed ; but 
the son, feeling an impulse towards literature and science, 
entreated his father to let him devote himself to study and 
a classical education ; and, being indulged in his wish, he 
was matriculated at Sidney- college, Cambridge. Mr. T. 
was contemporary in that university with Gray, Mason, aud 
Bate; and so able a musician, that, besides playing the 
harpsichord and organ in a masterly manner, be was so 
excellent a performer en the violin as to lead all the (^n^ 
certs, and even oratorios, that were performed in the uui- 

^ Bibl. Topog. Brit. No. H.— NichoIs*i Bowyer. • 


versity during term^timey in which Bate played the organ 
.and harpsichord. His taste in music was enlarged and con- 
iirmed by study as well as practice, as few professors knew 
jDore of cogiposition, barmdnics, and the history of the 
art and science of music, than this intelligent and polished 

In 1760 be look bis degree of B. A. and that of A. M. 
in 1763. He became rector of White Nojtiey, Essex, in 
private piitronage, 171S8, and of St. Mary's, Colchester, to 
which he was presented by the bishop of London, on the 
death of Philip Morant, 1770. He died Aug. 6, 1S04, in 
the seventieth year of his age« Sound learning, poiite 
literature^ and exquisite taste in all the fine ar(s, lost an 
ornament and defender in the death of this scholar and 
worthy divioe* His translation of the *^ Poetics of Aristo- 
tle'* must convince men of learning of his knowledge of the 
Greek language, of the wide extent of his classical erudi- 
tion, of his acute and fair spirit of criticism, and, above 
all, iff his good taste, souiid judgment, and general read- 
ing, manifested in his dissertations. Besides his familiar 
acquaintance with the Greek and Roman classics, his know- 
ledge of itoodern languages, particularly f^rench and Italian, 
waa such as not only to enable him to read but to write 
those languages with facility and idiomatic accuracy. His 
conversation and letters, when science and serious subjects 
were out of the question, were replete with wit, humour, 
and playfulness. In the performance of bis ecclesiastical 
duties Mr. T. was exemplary, scarcely allowing, himself to 
be absent from bi*^ parishioners more than a fortnight in a 
year, daring the last forty years of his life, though, from 
his learning, accomplishments, pleating character, and con- 
versation, do man's company was so much sought. Dur- 
ing the last 12 or 14 yeatB of his life he was a widower, 
and has left-no progeny. His preferment in the church was 
inadequate to bis learning, piely, and , talents ; but such 
was the moderation of his desires, that he neither solicited 
. nor complained. The Colchester living was conferred upon 
him by Dr. Lowth, bishop of London, very much to his 
honour, without personal acquaintance or powerful recom- 
mendation ; but^ from the modesty of his character, and 
love of . a private life^ his profound lear^ning and lite- 
rmry abilitiee were little known till the pubUcation of bis 
Aristotle^ * 

1 Gent, liaf . rd. LXXIV. 

116 T W I S S. 

TWISS (William), a very learned nonconformist di- 
Tine, was descended from German ancestors, of whom his 
grandfather is said to have been the first who settled ia 
England. He was born about 1575. His father, who was 
a clothier at Newbury in Berkshire, perceiving this his sou 
to be well qualified for a learned education, sent him. to 
Winchester-school, whence he was in 1596 elected pro- • 
bationer fellow of New-college, Oxford, and two years 
after became actual fellow. According to Wood, he stu- 
died divinity for sixteen years together. In 1604 he pro- 
ceeded in arts, and about that time taking orders, was a 
frequent and diligent preacher, *^ noted to the academicians 
for bis subtile wit, exact judgment, exemplary life and 
conversation, and for the endowment of such qualities that 
were befitting m6n of his function.'* He was not less 
esteemed as a logician and philosopher, and his learning 
appeared not only in his public lectures and disputations, 
but in the accuracy with which he corrected the works of 
the celebrated Bradwardine, published by sir Henry Savile. 
Besides his catechistical lectures, which he read every 
Thursday in term-time in the college chapel, he preached 
every Sunday at St. Aldate's church ; and at length his 
fame reaching the court, king James appointed him chap- 
lain to his daughter Elizabeth, afterwards the unfortunate 
queen of Bohemia, who was then about to leave her native 
country and go to the Palatinate. On this he was admitted 
to his degree of D. D. 

His stay abroad, however,- was not long, "t In about two 
months he was called back to England, but on his arrival 
took a final leave of the court, and devoted himself to a 
learned retirement at Newbury, the place of his birth, of 
which he obtained the curacy. Here, such was bis attach^ 
ment to the quiet enjoyment of his studies, s^nd the dis- 
V charge of his parochial duties, that he refused some va- 
luable preferments offered him entirely on the score of 
merit ; among these were the wardenship of Winchester 
college, a prebend of Winchester, and a valuable living. 
This last he had some thoughts of accepting, provided (be 
people of Newbury could be furnished with a suitable 
successor. With this view he waited upon the archbishop 
of Canterbury, who received him very kindly, granted his 
request, and added, that be would mention him to the king 
as a pious and learned divine, and no puritan. Twiss seems 
^o have been alarmed at this last compliment;^ which h^ 

T W I S S; 119 

knew be did not deserve^ and upon more mature conaiderar 
tioR^ remained at Newbury. About the same time he^ re- 
fused a professor's chair at Oxford^ and another in the 
university of Franeker. 

Upon the publication of the '^ Book of Sports,^' which 
did so much mischief to the royal cause, Dr^^Twiss de* 
cidedly declared his opinion against it, and refused to 
read,it,yet he was still such a favourite with king James 
ibat he forbade bis being molested on thi^ account. Du- 
ring the rebellion be suffered considerably by the violence 
of the soldiery ; but when prince Rupert came to Newbury 
be entertained Dr. Twiss very courteously, wishing hint to 
forsake the parlianoentary cause, and write in defence of 
the king, which he refused. In 1640 he was chosen one 
of the sub-committee, to assist the cpmmittee of accom- 
modation appointed by the House of Lords to con^id^r the 
innovations introduced into the church, and to promote a 
more pure reformation. In 1643 he was nominated, by an 
order of the parliament, prolocutor to the assembly of di- 
vines* This appointment he repeatedly declined, but hav- 
ing at length been prevailed upon to accept it, he preached 
(the assembly opening on July 1.) before both Houses of 
parliament, in Henry Vlllth's chapel. '* In his sermon," 
«ays Fuller, " he exhorted his auditoi^y to a faithful dis- 
charge of their duty, and to promote the, glory of God and 
the honour of his church ; but he was $orry that they wanted 
the royal assent. He hoped, however, that in due time, it 
might be obtained, and that a happy union would be ob- 
tained between the king and parliament.^' He appears to 
have been dissatisfied with the conduct of both of the great 
contending parties : '^ whilst some would have nothing re- 
formed, others would have all things changed, and turned 
upside down." These melancholy prospects gradually im- 
paired his health, and some time after he sunk down in the 
pulpit while preaching, and being carried home, languished 
until. July 20, 1646, when he expited, in the seventieth 
year of his age* During his. illness the pj^rliament voted 
him 100/.. as he had lost all his property while at Newbury^ 
and had in London only one of the lectureships of St« An- 
drew's, Holborn ; and after his death 1000/. to his family -^ 
but this, it is said, they never received *. Respecting his 

* Dr. Twiss wms buried in Wettoiin- This, we presume, mutt have been in 

ster-abbey, but at tbe restoration bis -consequence of a general order (by »• 

remains, together with those of some means indeed to be Tindicated), as th<re 

others* were dug up and thrown into was nothing ioDr.Twiss's conduct to ren* 

a ptty in St. Margaret's chnrch-yard. der his memory particularly obnoxious. 



120 T W I S S. 

personal character, there seems no difference of opinion 
among historians. Fuller denominates him *' a divine 6f 
great abilities, learning, piety, and moderation;" and Wood 
says, ** his plain preaching was esteemed good ; his solid 
disputations were accounted better; but his pious life was 
reckoned best of all." Nor less favourably does bishop 
Sanderson speak of him, even while differing greatly from 
(Some of his opinions. Mr. Clark says, that be *^ bad bis 
infirmities, whereof the most visible was this : that he waft 
'of a facile nature, and too prone to be deceived by giving 
too much credit to those, whom, by iifformation from 
■others, or in his own opinion, he judged to -be godlj^ 
Whence it came to pass that he was often iHfifkised tipon, 
especially by certain crafty heads, who solemnly profested 
that their chiefest care was the preservation of the purity 
of doctrine, and reformatipn of discipline, whereas, in deed 
Bnd truth, they sought the ntter subversion of both." 
' His writings are ail controversial, and more or (ess di* 
rected against Arminianism, of which, it seems to be agreed, 
even by his adversaries, he was the ablest- and most success- 
ful opponent of his time. The authors against whom he 
wrote were, principally. Dr. Thomas Jadkson, Mr. Henry 
IVfason, Dr. Thomas (Jodwin, Mr. John Godwin, Mr. Jofadi 
Cotton, Dr. Potter, Dr. Heylin, and Dr. Hammond. His 
works were, 1. " Vindicice gratiae," Amst. 1632 and 1648, 
foL against Arminius. 2. ** A discovery of Dr. Jacks6n*s 
Vanity," &c. 1631, 4to, printed abroad. 3. ♦* Dissertatio 
de scientia media tribus libris absoluta," &c. Arnheim, i 639, 
fol. 4. *' Of the Morality of the Fourth Commandment,** 
Lond. 1641, 4to. 5. "Treatise of Reprobation,'* ibid. 1646, 
4to, with some other works printed after his death. There 
are fifteen of his letters in Mr. Joseph Mode's Works, and 
he left many MSS. in the hands of his son, who, Wood 
says, was a minister, but these are probably lost. ^ 

TWYNE (John), one of a family of Oxford antiquaries, 
was the grandson of sir Brian Twyne, of Long Parish, in 
Hampshire, knight, and was bom at Bolingdon, in the 
same county. He was educated at New Inn hall, Oxfofd, 
and admitted to the reading of the instit«tion» in 1524, at 
a time when that society c6uld boast of many excellent ci- 
vilitns. After he left the university he was appointed head 
master of the free-school at Canterbury, and in 1553 rose 

I Ath, Ox.Yol. H.^CUrk'i Ltv«t, 1684, fol.— .Faller^ Chirch History and 
WorthiM.— Wordsworth*! Bed. Biofraphy„ vol. V. p,M6. 

T W y Hf E. 121 

4o be niayor of the city, in the time of Wyat's rebellion. ' 
By the school he became so rich as to be able to purchase 
lands at Preston and Hardacre, in Kent, which he left to 
bis posterity. He was a good Greek and Latin scholar, and 
devoted much of his time to the study of history and anti-^ 
quities. He was held in great esteem by oien able to judge 
of his talents, particularly by Leland, who ii^troduces him 
among the worthies of bis time in his *' Encomia/' and by 
Camden, who speaks of him in \fi% <* Britannia'* as si 
learned old man. Holinshed also mentions him as a learned 
antiquary, in the first edition of his <' Chronicle;" buttfaia 
notice is for some reason omitted in the edition of 1587. 
It is said he was a violent papist, but Tanner has produced 
evidence of a charge more disgraceful to his character as 
a tutor and magistrate. This appears in a MS. in Bene't 
college librarjr^ Cambridge, No. CXX. ^'Anno 1560, Mr. 
Twyne, school-master, was ordered to abstain from riot 
and drunkenness, and not to intermeddle with any public 
office in the town." He died in an advanced age, Nov. 
S4, 1581, and was buried in the chancel of the church of 
St. Paul, Canterbury, with an inscription, in which he is 
styled armiger. His only publication, which, however, 
did not appear until after bis death, was bis work '< De 
rebus Albionibis, Britannicis atque Anglicis commentario* 
rum libri duo," Lond. 1590, dvo. ^His MSS. which are on 
subjects of history and antiquities, were given by his grand- 
son, Brian Twyne, to the library of Corpus Christi college^ 
Oxford. Mr. Gougb mentions bis collections for a hiatory 
of Canterbury, as being lost. Bishop Kennet says that he 
wrote an epistle prefixed to the ^^ History of king Boccus 
and Sydracke," 1510, 4to, avery rare book, of which there 
is a copy in St. John's library, Oxford. 

By bis wife Alice, daughter pf William Piper of Canter- . 
bury^ whom he married in 1524, which, according to Wood, 
must have been when he was at Oxford, he had three sons. 
The first, Lawrence, was a fellow of AH Sonls college, 
and bachelor of civil law, and an ingenious poet, but ven* 
tured no farther than some encomiastic verses prefixed to 
books. He lived and probably died on his father's estate 
at Hardacre in Kent. He had a brother John, who also 
wrote verses prefixed to books ; and a third, Thomas, of 
whom Wood has given us some farther particulars, although 
perhaps they are not very interesting. He . was born in 
Canterbury, and admitted scholar of Corpus Christi college| 

122 T W Y N E. 

Oxford^ in 1560, and probationer fellow in 1564, beingr 
then bachelor of arts. He afterwards proceeded in arts, 
and then studied medicine, and in 1581 took his doctors 
degree, aad practised at Lewes in Sussex, under the pa- 
tronage of Thomas lord Buckhurst. He died in 1613, 
aged seventy, and was buried in the chancel of St. Anne's 
church, Lewes. He 'wrote and translated many tracts, enu^ 
merated by Wood, but of very little value* He was an ad- 
mirer of the mysterious philosophy of John Dee. Among 
his other publications he completed Phaer*s translation of 
the yEneid, with Maphaeus's thirteenth book^ in 158S; 
translated Lhi)yde'S'" Breviary of Britayne, &c.;" and was 
editor of his father's work "De rebus Albion icis," which 
be dedicated to lord Buckhurst. He also wrote some con- 
temptible rhimes,. then called poetry.^ 

TWYNE (Beian), $oii of Thomas, and grSmdson of John 
Twyne, was born in 1579, and admitted a scholar of Corpus 
Cbristi college in December 1594. After he had taken the 
degrees in arts, he was admitted probationer fellow in 1605, 
and entering into holy orders took the degree of bachelor 
of divinity in 1610. In 1614 he was made Greek reader of 
his college, in which office he acquitted himself with credit, 
bpt about 1623 left college to avoid being involved in some 
dispute between the president and fellows ; because in this 
affair. Wood informs us, he could not vote on either side 
without the hazard of expulsion, having entered college on 
a Surrey scholarship, which, it seems, was irregular. He 
was afterwards presented to the vicarage of Rye in Sussex 
by the earl of Dorset, but seldom resided, passing most of 
his time in Oxford, where be had lodgings in Penverthitig 
or Pennyfarthing street, in the parish of St. Aldate. He 
lived here in a kind of retirement, being, as Wood says, of 
b melancholy temper, and wholly given to reading, writing, 
and contemplation. Laud had a great regard for him, and 
employed him in drawing up the university statutes, all of 
which he transcribed with bis own hand, and was rewarded 
with the p\?ice oi custos archivorumy founded in 1634. He 
died at his lodgings in St. Aldate's, July 4, 1644, aged 
sixty-five, and was buried in Corpus chapeL 

Twyne, who was an indefatigable collector of every do- 
cument or information respecting the history and antiquities 
pf Oxford, produced the first regular account of it, which 

* Ath. Ox. vol. I. ^?ew tdit.— Warton'» Hist, of Poetry, — Genghis Topography. 

T W Y N E. • 128 

was published in 1608, under the title'of ^'Antiquitatis 
Academiae Oxoniensis Apologia^ in tres libros divisa," O^on. 
4to. The chief object of this work was to refute what Kaye 
or Caius had asserted in bis history of Cambridge on the 
antiquity of that university, proving it to be 1267 y^ars 
older than Oxford. So absurd an assertion would scarcely 
now be thought worthy of a serious answer, but Twyne 
was an. enthusiast on the question, and mere antiquity was 
thought preferable to every other degree of superiority. 
He therefore produced hb ^^Apologia,'' in which he revives 
and endeavours to prove that Oxford was originally founited 
by some Greek philosophers, the companions of Brutus, and 
restored by King Alfred in 870. Smith, in his history of 
University college, has very ably answered his principal 
argiimeotfl on this question, which indeed has nothing more 
than t tradition on its side. He was a young man when he 
wrote this, book, and intended a new edition; but his inter- 
leaved copy for this purpose, with his additions, &c. was 
unfortunately lost in a fire at Oxford, which happened some 
time after his death. He left, however, several volumes of' 
MS collections to the university, of which Wood availed 
himself in his history.' 

TWySDEN (Sir Roger), the second baronet of the fa- 
mily, of Roydon hall. East Peckham, in Kent^ was born in 
1597. His father, William Twysden, esq. was one of those 
who conducted king James to London, iwben he first came 
from Scotland, to take possession of the English crown, 
' and was first knighted and afterwards created a baronet by 
bis majesty. Sir William bad a learned education, under- 
stood Greek and Hebrew well, and accumulated a valuable 
collection of books and MSS. which he made useful to the 
public, both in defence of the protestant religion and the 
ancient constitutions of the kingdom. He died in January . 
1627-8. Sir Roger, his eldest son, had also a learned edu- 
cation, and was a good antiquary. He assisted Mr. Philpot 
in his Survey of Kent, who returns him acknowledgments, 
as a person to whom, ^* for his learned conduct of these his 
imperfect labours, through the gloomy and perplexed path^ 
of antiquity, and the many difficulties that assaulted him, 
he was signally obliged." He was a man of great accom- 

1 Alh, Ox. Tol. II.— Smith's Hist, of Uoi?. College, p, 174, 195, 227.— Strype'i 
preface to hii Life of Pirkcr, p. 4, and Life, p. 280.— Letters by eminent PersoM, 
1813, 3 vols. 8vo. 

124 T W ¥ S D E N. 

pHshmentSy tveU*Tersecl in the learhed languages^ and ex- 
emplary in his attachment to the church of England. He 
fiiade many important additions to his father's library, which 
seems seldom to have been unemployed by hil^ family or hi{^ 
descendants. His brother, Thomas, was brought up to the 
profession of the law, and became one of the justices of the 
'King^s Bench after the testoration, and was created a ba- 
roilet, by which he became the founder of the faioily of 
Twisdens (for he altered the spelling of the name) of Brad* 
bourn in Kent. Another brother, JoRK, was a physician, 
and a good mathematician, and wrote on both sciences. 

Sir Roger was loyal to hi& unfortunate ftorereign, tod 
detesting the undutiful behaviour of many of bis ^ubjeets, 
was not content to sit still, but was one of the first to op- 
pose their arbitrary proceedings, which drew on him a se- 
vere persecution. He wats confined seven yeiars in prison, 
his estate sequestered, his timber cut down, and paid a fine 
of 1300/. when he was restored to his estate. When lie 
came again to his seat he lived retired, and his greatest 
comfort was, conversing with the learned fathers of.the pri- 
mitive church, and the ancient laws and constitution of his 
country, which he lived to see restored. The appearance 
of the "Decem Scriptores," with other collections, were 
owing to his endeavours, and be wrote a Learned preface 
to them. He was also the author of ** The Historical D6« 
fence of the Chiirch of England." This worthy baronet 
died Jun^ 7, 1672, in the seventy-fifth year of his age.* 

TY£ (CHitisTOPHBR)y a musician of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, born at Westminster, and brought up in the royal 
chapel, was musical preceptor to prince Edward, and pro- 
bably to the other children of Henry YIII. In 1 545 he was 
adnoitted to the degree of doctor in music at Cambridge ; 
and in 1548 was incorporated a member of the university 
of Oxford ; in the reign of queen Elizabeth he was organist 
of the royal chapel, and a man^of some literature. In muisic 
be was excellent; and notwithstanding that Wood, speaking 
of his compositions, says they are antiquated, and not at all 
iralued, there are very few compositions for the church of 
equal merit with his anthems. 

In an old comedy, or scenical history, whichever it is 
proper to call it, with the following whimsical title, " When 
you see me you know me,'* by Samuel Rowley, printed in 

> Collias, and Betham's Baronetage. 

T Y E. 125 

1623, wherein are represented in the manner of a dirama 
some of the remarkable events daring the reign of Henry 
VIIL is a conversation between prince Edward and Dr. 
Tye on the subject of music, which, for its curiosity, sir 
John Hawkins has transcribed at length. The *^ Acts of 
the Apostles," mentioned in this dialogue, were never 
completed ; but the first fourteen chapters thereof were^ in 
1553, printed by Wyllyam Seres, with the following quaint 
title : *^ The Actes of the Appostles, translated into En« 
glyshe metre, and dedicated to the kynges most excellent 
majestye by Christofer Tye, doctor in musyke, and one of 
the Gentylmen of hys graces moste honourable Chappell, 
wyth notes to eche Chapter, to syng and also to play upon 
the Lute, very nec^ssarye for studentes after theyr studye, 
to fyle theyr wyttes, and alsoe for all Christians that can* 
not synge to reade the good and godiye storyes of the liuet 
of Christ hys Apostles." The dedication is, *^ To the ver« 
tuous and godiye learned prynce Edwarde the VI.'* and is 
in stanzas of alternate metre. The reader will find some 
account of it in the ^^ Bibliographer," vol. I. 

The " Acts of the Apostles," set to mysic by Dr. Tye, 
were sung in the chapel of Edward VI. and probably in 
other places where choral service was performed ; but the 
success of them not answering the expectation of their au* 
tbor, he applied himself to another kind of study, the 
composing of music to words 'selected from the Psalms of 
David, in four, five, and more parts ; to which species of 
^harmony, for want of a better, the name of Anthem, a 
corruption of Antiphon, was given. In Dr. Boyce*s collec- 
tion of cathedral music, lately published, vol. II. is an 
anthem of this great musician, ** I will exalt thee," a 
mo&t perfect model fpr composition in the church-style, 
whether we regard the melody or the harmony, the ex- 
pression or the contrivance, or, in a word, the general 
effect of the whole. In the Ashmolean MS. fol. 189, is 
the following note in the hand-writing of Antony Wood : 
^ Dr. Tye was a peevish and humoursome man, especially 
in his latter days ; and sometimes playing on the organ in 
the chapel of Qu. Eliz. which contained much music, but 
little delight to the ear, she would send to the verger to tell 
him that he played out of tune ; whereupon he sent wotd, 
that her ears were out of tune." The same author adds, 
that Dr. Tye restored chqrch-music after it had been aU 
most ruined by the dissolution of abbeys. What sir John 

126 T Y E. 

Hawkins, from whom this article appears to have h^eti 
taken by our predecessors^ has said of Tye» is confirmed 
by Dr. Boniey, who says that he «vas doubtless at the 
head of all our ecclesiastical composers of that period. 
IThis eminent musical historian adds, that Dr. Tye, *^ if 
compared with his contemporaries, . was perhaps as good a 
poet as Sternhold, and as great a musician as Europe then 
could boast; aird it is hardly fair to expect more perfection 
from him, or to blame an individual for the general defects 
of the age in which he lived.'* • 

TYERS (Thomas), a miscellaneous writer of consider- ' 
able talents, was one of the two sons of Mr. Jonathan 
Tyers, the original embellisher of- Vauxhall gardens, of 
which be was himself a joint proprietor till the end of the 
season of 1785, when he sold his share to his brother's fa- 
mily. He was born in 1726, and being intended for one 
of the learned professions, was sent very early in life to the 
university of Oxford, where he entered of Exeter college, 
and was so young when he took his bachelor's degree that 
be was called the boy bachelor. That of master of arts he 
completed in April 1745, when he was only nineteen. In 
1753 he was admitted a student of the Inner Temple, and 
became, after he had kept his terms, a barrister in that 
bouse ; but he tells us that, although his father hoped he 
would apply to the law, take notes, and make a figure in 
Westminster-hall, he nevef undertook any causes,- nor 
tvent a single circuit. Hd loved his ease too much to ac- 
quire a character in that or any other profession. It is 
said that the character of Tom Restless (in the Idler, N* 48) 
was intended by Dr. Johnson for Mr. Tyers, but he was 
certainly a man of superior cast to the person described 
under that name. It could not be said of Mr. Tyers that 
he sought wisdom more in conversation than in his library, 
for few men read more, and he was heard to say, not long 
before his death, that for the last forty years, be badtibt 
been a smgle day, when in health, without a book or a 
pen in his hand, *^ nulla dies sine linea." 

He began early to write, and when at college, or very 
soon after, published two pastorals, *^ Lucy,^* inscribed to 
lord Chesterfield, and " Rosalind,'' to earl Grenville. He 
was also the author of a great deal of vck:al poetry,, or 

> Htwkint*! Hist of Masic— Barnty's Hist. toIs. II. aod 111.— Philip's The* 
afnim, by tir E. Biydges, p. '79.— Wartoa^i Hist, of Poetrj.^BibMofrap&er,, 
vol. 1«— Alb* Ox. Tol. I.«-Taiuier. 

T Y E il S. K7 

what be called '^ sin^ song,^' principally for VauxhaU-gar^ 
dens.^ and the satisfactory description of Vauxhall, pub- 
lished in Mr. NichoIs's/^History of Lambeth/' wasdrawnup 
by htm. Having inherited from his father an easy fortune, 
and from nature an inclination to indulge in learned leisure, 
he was happily enabled '^ to see what friends and read what 
books he pleased.*' He was, if any man could be said to 
be sOy most perfectly master of his own time, which be 
divided at his pleasure between his villa at Ashted, near 
Epsom, and his apartments in Southampton-street. Inde« 
fatigable in reading the newest publications, either of belles 
lettres or politick, and blest with a retentive memory, he 
was everywhere a welcome guest; and, having the agree- 
able faculty of always repeating the good-natured side of a 
story, the anecdotes he retailed pretty copiously were 
rarely found either tedious or disagreeable. In the coun- 
try he was considered by all the surrounding gentry as a 
man of profound learning, who had some little peculiarities 
in his manners, which were amply atoned for by a thousand 
good qualities both of the head and heart. In London he 
was in habits of intimacy with many whom the world have 
agreed to call both great and good. Dr. Johnson loved 
him, lord Hardwicke esteemed him, and even the mitred 
Lc vth respected him. The. literati in general had more 
regard for him than authors usually have for each other; 
as Mr. Tyers, though known for many years to have been 
a wHter, was rather considered by them as an amateur than 
a professor of the art. He was certainly among the num- 
ber ofc, " gentlemen who wrote with ease;" witness his 
'^ Rhapsodies"^ on Pope and Addison; and particularly bis 
Biographical sketches of Johnson, warm from the heart 
when his friend was scarcely buried, and which have not been 
exceeded by any one of our great moralist's biographers* 
The " Political Conferences" of Mr. Tyers, however, will 
place him in a liigber point of view; in that production^ 
much ingenuity and sound political knowledge are dis- 
played ; and the work has received the plaudits it so well 
deserved, and passed through tw6 editions. One part of 
Mr. Tyers's knowledge he would hav*e been happier had he 
.not possessed. He had a turn for the study of medicine, 
and its gperations on the human frame, which gave him 
somewhat^ of a propensity to hypochondriasm, and often 
led fr5m imaginary to real ailments. Hence the least va- 
riation of the atmosphere had not unfreqiiently an efifeet 

128 T Y E R S/ 

both on his oaind wod body. The last year or two of his 
life were ^Iso embittered by the death of several near and 
dear friends, whose loss made a deep impression on his 
sensibility, particularly that of a very amiable lady, to whom 
be was once attached, and that of his only sister, Mrs. Ro- 
.gers, of Southampton, who died but a few months before 
him. He died at his house at Ashted, after a lingering ill- 
nessy Feb. 1, 1787, in his sixty-first year. * 

TYNDALE, or TINDALE (William), otherwise 
named Hitchins, one of the first publishers of the Holy 
Scriptures in English, was born in 1500, about the bor-* 
ders of Wales, in what county is not mentioned. He was 
brought up from a child in grainmar, logic, and philo* 
sophy at Oxford, for the most part in St. Mary Magdalen's 
hall, where there is still a painting of him, but accounted 
an indifferent performance. Here he imbibed the doc•^ 
trine of Luther, and privately taught it to some of the ju« 
nior fellows of Magdalen college, and to other scholars. 
His behaviour was such, at the same time, as gahied him 
a high reputation both for morals and learning, so that he 
was admitted a canon of cardinal Wolsey's new college, 
now Christ-church. But as he made bis opinions too 
public to remain here in safety, and, according to Tan<» 
ner and Wood, was ejected, he retired to Cambridge, 
where he pursued his studies, and took a degree. After 
some time he went and lived at Little Sudbury, in Glou-t 
cestershire, with sir John Welch, knight, who bad a great 
esteem for him, and appointed him tutor to his children. 
Here be embraced every opportunity to propagate the 
new opinions. Besides preaching frequently in and about 
Bristol, he engaged in disputation with many abbots and 
dignified clergymen, whom he met at sir John^s table, on 
the most important points of religion, which he explained 
in a way to which they had not been accustomed, and by 
references to the Scriptures, which they scarcely d^i/md 
to search. Unable to confute him, they complained to 
the chancellor of the diocese, who dismissed him after a 
severe reprimand, accompanied with the usual threatenings 
against heresy. 

Finding that this situation was no longer convenient, 
and that his patron could not with safety continue his pro* 
tection, Tyndale came to London, and for some time 

t Nichols's Bowyer, toI. VIIL 

T Y JN D A L E. 12» 

preached in the church of St. Dunstan's in the West. While 
here, having conceived a high opinion of Dr. CutbbertTun* 
stall, who had been promoted to the bishopric of Londoa 
in 1522, on account of the great commendations bestowed 
on him by Erasmus, he wished to become one of his chap-* 
lains. With this view he applied to sir Henry Guildford, 
master of the horse, and controller to king Henry VIIL 
who was a great patron of learned men, a particular friend 
to Erasmus, and an acquaintance of sir John Welch ; and 
presented to him ah oration of Isocrates, translated from 
the Greek ; an undoubted proof of his learning at a time 
when Greek was understood by very few in England. Sir 
Henry readily complied with Mc. Tyndale^s request, but 
the bishop's answer was, ** That his house was full ; he had 
no more than he could well provide for; and therefore 
advised our author to seek out in London, where, he 
added, be could not well miss employment.'* Not being 
able to obtain any, however, he was supported by Mr. 
Humphrey Monmouth, alderman of London, and a fa- 
vourer of Luther's opinions, with whom he remained for 
half a year, living in the most abstemious manner, and ap- 
plying closely to his studies. His thoughts were at this 
time bent upon translating the New Testament into Eng- 
Ksh, as the only means to enlighten the minds of the 
people in the knowledge of true religion ; but being sen- 
sible he could not do this with safety in England, he went 
abroad, receiving very liberal pecunia^ry assistance from 
Mr. Monmouth and other persons. He first went to Sax- 
ony, where he held conferences with Luther, and his 
learned friends, then came bacl^ into the Netherlands, and 
^ttled at Antwerp, where there was a very considerable 
factory of English merchants, many of whom were zealous 
adherents to Luther's doctrine. Here he immediately 
b egan his translation of the New Testan^ent, in which he 
halreie assistance of John Fryth, and William Roye, the 
former of whom was burnt in Smithfield for heresy, July 
1533, and the latter suffered that dreadful death in Por- 
tugal on the same accusation. It was printed in 1526, in 
octavo, without the translator's name. As there were only 
1500 printed, and all the copies which could possibly be 
got in England, were committed to the (lames, this first 
edition is. exceedingly rare. The industrious Mr. Wanley 
could never procure a sight of it ; but there was one ia 

Vol. XXX. K . 

130 T Y N D A L E. 


Ameses collection, which was sold alter his death, for four<* 
teen guineas and a half. 

When this translation was itnported into England, the 
supporters of f)opery became very much alarmed ; they 
asserted that there were a thousand heresies in it; that il 
was too bad to be corrected, and ought to be suppressed^ 
that it was not possible to translate the Scriptures into Eng- 
lish ; and that it would make the laity heretics, and rebels 
to their king. It is more painful, however, to record that 
such men as William Warham, archbishop of Canterbury^ 
and Cuthbert Tunstall, bishop of London, issued their or- 
ders and monitions to bring in all the New Testaments 
translated into the vulgar tongue, that they might be burnt. 
To destroy them more effectually, Tunstall being at Ant- 
werp in 1526 or 1527, procured Augustin Packington, aa 
English merchant, to buy up ail the copies «f the English 
Testament which remained unsold ; these were accordingly 
brought to England, and publicly burnt at Paul's cross* 
But this ill-judged policy only took off many copies which 
lay dead upon Tyndale's hands, and supplied him with 
money for another and more correct edition, printed i^i 
1534, while the first edition was in the mean while re- 
printed twice, but not by the translator. Of Tunstall's 
singular purchase, the following fact is related : ** Sir Tho- 
mas More being lord chancellor, and jiaving several per- 
sons accused of heresy, and ready for execution, offered 
to compound with one of them, named George Constan* 
tine, for his life, upon the easy terms of discovering to him 
who they were in London that maintained Tyndale beyond 
the sea. After the poor man had got as good a security 
for bis life as the honour and truth of the chancellor could 
give him, he told him it was the bishop of London who 
maintained Tyndale, by sending him a sum of money to 
buy up the impression of his Testaments. The chancellor 
smiled, saying that he beFieved he said true. Thus was 
this poor confessor's life saved." Strict search, however, 
continued to be made among those who were suspected of 
importing, and concealing them ; of whom John Tyndale^ 
our author's brother, was prosecuted, and condemned to 
do penance. Humphrey Monmouth, his great patron and 
benefactor, was imprisoned in the Tower, and almost ruined* 

But these rigorous measures not producing the intended 
effect ; and burning the word. of God* in any shape, being 
regarded by the people as a' shocking pro&nation^ sir 


Thbmaft More wiU induced to take up the pen. In 1529^ 
be published ^^ A Dyaloge," in which he endeavoured to 
prove that the books burnt were not New Testaments, but 
Tyndale's or Luther's testaments ; and so corrupted and 
changed from the good and wholesome doctrine of Christ 
to their own devilish heresies, as to be quite another thing* 
In 1530, Tyndale published an answer to this Dialogue^ 
and proceeded in translating the Five Books of Moses^ 
from the Hebrew into English ; but happening to go by 
sea to Hamburgh, to have it printed there, the vessel was 
wrecked, and he lost all his money, books, writings, and 
copies, and was obliged to* begin anew. At Hamburgh he 
met with Miles Coverdale, who assisted him in translatinsr 
the Pentateuch, which was printed in 1530, in a small oc^ 
tavo volume, and apparently at several presses. He after* 
wards made an English version of the prophecy of Jonas, 
with a large prologue, which was printed in 1531 ; but )ie 
translated no more books of the Scripture, as Hall, Bale, 
and Tanner, have asserted. 

From Hamburgh he returned to Antwerp, and was 
there betrayed into the hands of his enemies. Henry VIIL 
and his council employed one Henry Philips on this dis« 
graceful commission, who first insinuated himself into 
Tyndale's acquaintance, and then got the procurator-ge« 
neral of the emperor's court at Brussels, and other ofE-* 
cers, to seize him, although th/s procurator declaii'ed that 
be was a learned, pious, and good man, and convey him to 
the castle of Villefort, where he remained a prisoner 
about a year and a half. The body of the English mer- 
chants procured letters from secretary Cromwell to the 
court at Brussels, for his release ; but, by the farther 
treachery of Philips, this was rendered ineffectual, and 
Tyndale was brought to trial, where he pleaded his own 
cause* None of his arguments, however, being admitted, 
he was condemned, by virtue of the emperor's decree 
made in the assembly at Augsburg ; and being brought io 
execution in 1536, he was first strangled and then burnt. 
His last words were, ^' Lord, open the king of England's 

Besides his translations, he wrote various theological and 
controversial tracts, which were collected together, and 
printed by John Day, 1572, in one volume folio, together 
with John Fryth's and Barnes's works. Bale and Wood 
attribute some other pieces to him, and some tran^latioiis 

K 3 

132 t Y N D A L E. 


itoxxx Luther. He was one of tfae ablest writers of bU 

Of bis translation of the Scriptures, Dr. Geddes says^ 
that ^^ tboqgh it is far from a perfect translation, yet fevr 
£rst translations will be found preferable to it. It is asto* 
jiisbing, bow little obsolete the language of it is, even at 
tbis day : and in point of perspicuity and noble simplicity^ 
propriety, of idiom, and purity of style, no Englisb ver- 
sion bas yet surpassed it.*' He elsewhere deolares, tbar> 
if be bad been inclined to make any prior English version 
the ground«work of his own, it would certainly have been 
Tyndale's : and that perhaps be should have done this, if 
their Hebrew text had been the same. The edition of the 
iEnglish Bible printed in 1537, usually called Matthew's^ 
wits, in Mr. Wanley's opinion, Tyndale's- to the end of 
Chronicles, and the whole of the New Testament; and 
this edition, by Cranmer's solicitation, was permitted by 
the king. ' 

TYRANNIO, a celebrated grammarian in the time of 
Pompey^* was of Amisa in the kingdom of Pontus, and was 
a disciple of Dionysius of Thrace, at Rhodes* In tfae year 
70 B. C. be fell into the hands of Lucullus, when that 
general of the Roman an;iay defeated Miithridates, and 
seized bis dominions; but his captivity was no disadvantage 
to him, since it procured htm an opportunity of becoming 
illustrious at Rome, and raising a fortune. This he partiy 
expended in collecting a library of above 50,000 volumes ; 
and it is probably owing to bis care in collecting books 
that the writings of Aristotle have not perished together 
with innumerable other monuments of antiquity. The 
late of that great philosopher's works, as it is related by 
Strabo, is very remarkable. He left them, with his school 
and his other books, to bis scholar Theophrastus ; and 
Tbeophrastus left bis library to Neleus, who had been his 
as well as Aristotle's scholar. Neleus conveyed his library 
to Scepsis, a city of Troas, and in bis country' ; and left 
it to his heirs, who, being illiterate persons, took no other 
care of it than to keep it shut up close : and when they 
were informed of the diligence with which the kings of 
Pergamus, whose subjects they were, sought out for 
books, they buried those of Neleus under ground. A con- 

1 Fox's Acts and Monuments. — Biog. Brit— Lewis and Newcombe'c Hist of 
' Translations of the Bible, — Tamieo Alb. Ox. Tot 1.— -Wordsworth's EccT. 
Biog. fol. II. 

T Y R A N N I Q. l« 


Biderable time after, their deseendaots took them out of 
their prison, much damaged, and sold those of AristotU 
and Theophrastus to one Apellicon, who caused them to 
be copied, but with an infinite number of errors. Aftev 
the death of Apeiiicon, his library was conveyed from 
Athens to Rome by Sylla, whose library^keeper permitted 
Tyrannio, a great admirer'of Ai;^stotle, to take the writing 
of that philosopher ; and from nim they came into the p^r 
session of the public. 

Tyrannio had many scholars at Rome : Cicero^s son and 
nephew were under him. Cicero employed him to put- his 
library in order ; and Tyrannio wrote a book which. Atticus '^ 
admired, but this^ has not reached our time. Strabo also 
had been his scholar, as he himself informs us. Tyrannio 
died very old, being worn out with the gout. ^ 

TYRRELL (James), an English historian, descended 
from an ancient family, was the eldest son of air Timothy 
Tyrrell, of Sbotover near Oxford, knt. by Elizabeth his wifi^ 
sole daughter of the celebrated archbishop U^her. > He waA 
born in Great Queen-street, Westminster, in May. 1642^ 
and educated chiefly at the free school of Gaoiberwell in 
Surrey. In \ 651 he was admitted a. gentleman commoner 
of Queen's college, Oxford, where he continued three years . 
under the tuition of Mr. Thomas TuUy and Mr. Timothy 
Halton. After going to the Temple to study law, he re- 
turned to Oxford in September 1663, and was created 
M. A. In 1665 he was called to the bar, but did not prao 
tise, employing his time chiefly in historical researches, 
particularly respecting the history and constitution of 
England. Having an independent fortune, he resided 
chiefly on his estate at Oakeley, near Brill in £iickingham>- 
shire, and was nuide one of the deputy lieutenants and jus- 
tices of the peace for that county ; in which offices be con- 
tinned till king James IJ. turned him and the rest out of the , 
commission, tor not assisting in taking away the penal laws 
and test. On the revolution, he zealously espoused king 
William^s interest, and wrote with great effect in vindicatioii . 
of bis right to the crown. 

Having formed the pla^n of a History of England, he came 
to reside chiefly at Shotover, near Oxford, for the sake of 
easy access to the libraries in the university ; and the re- 
mainder of his life appears to ha?e beeu devoted to that 

I Q«n. Diet.— Strabo, Ub. XII. and XlH. 


and bis other literary pursuitir. He died in 1718, in bis 
seventy-sixth year, and was buried in Oakeley church. Ho 
married Mary daughter and heir of sir Michael Hutchinson, 
of Fladbury in Worcestershire, knight, by whom he had 
lieutenant-general James Tyrrell, of Shotover, esq. governor 
of Gravesend and Tilbury Fort, &c. who died in August 
1742, leaving his estate from the Tyrrell famify to his kins* 
man Augustus Schutz. 

Mr. Tyrrell's first appearance as an author was in the 
dedication of a posthumous work of archbishop Usher's. 
Wood says he published this, but the publisher was bishop 
Sanderson. It was entitled ^^The Power communicated by 
God to the Prince, and the obedience required of the Sub-* 
ject,'* Lond. 1661, 4to. At this time Mr. Tyrrell was very 
^oung, and bad not probably left Oxford, or was but just 
beginning his studies in the Temple ; but it might perhaps 
be thought creditable to appear as the nearest relative of 
the venerable author, and he might not be sorry to have an 
early opportunity of paying his court to th^ restored mo- 
narch. This much we may infer from the dedication itself, 
which he concludes in these words : << I shall now make this 
my most humble suit to your majesty, that as tlie reverend 
author in his life-time publicly professed his loyalty to his 
sovereign, and constantly prayed for your majesty's happy 
and glorious return to these your kingdoms, and in all 
things shewed himself your loyal subject, so jrou would be 
pleased to own him as such, by affording your gracious 
countenance to this his posthumous work, which will eter^ 
nize the' memory of the deceased author, and thereby con^p 
fer the greatest temporal blessing on your majesty's most 
loyal and obedient subject, James Tyrrell.'* 

In 1686 appeared bis vindication, of his father-in-law, 
printed at the end of Parr's ** Life of Archbishop Usher,'' 
under the title of ^^ An Appendix, containing a vindication 
of his opinions and actions in reference to the doctrine and 
discipline of the Church of England, and his conformity 
thereunto, from the aspersions of Peter Heylin, D. D. in 
his pamphlet called Sespondet FeimsJ^ This pamphlet of 
Heylin's was his answer to Dr. Bernard's book entitled 
^< The Judgment of the late Primate of Ireland, &c. as he is 
made a party by the said Lord Primate in the point of the 
Sabbatb," Lond. 1658, 4to. (See Heylin, p. 442 and 443.) 
Mr. Tyrrell's notions in politics were adverse to those of 
some of his contemporaries, who were for carrying tho 




prerogative to its height, and vindicated passive obedience 
and non-resistance : be was clearly for a monarchy, but a 
limited monarchy, and therefore answered sir Robert Filmer 
in a small volume entitled '* Patriarcha non Monarcha, or 
the Patriarch unmonarched, &c.*' 1681, 8vo. This was ani- 
mad-verted upon by Edmund Bohun, in the preface to the 
second edition of sir Robert's ^^ Patriarcha ;'' but Mr. Tyr-i 
reirs opinions on this and other subjects connected with it 
are most fully displayed in his political dialogues, which 
were first published at different times, in 1692, 1693, 1694, 
and 1695, in quarto, until they amounted to fourteen. 
They were afterwards collected into one volume folio, 
about the time of his death, and published under the name 
of ^' Bibliotheca Politica, or an Enquiry into the ancient 
Constitution of the English Government, with respect to the 
just extent of the regal power, and the rights and liberties 
of the subject Wherein all the chief arguments, both for 
and against the late revolution, are impartially tepresented 
and considered. In fourteen dialogues, collected out of 
the best authors, ancient and modern,'* Lond. 1718, re* 
printed 1727. It appears also that subjects of the religious 
kind sometimes employed his attention, as in 16 92 he pub- 
lished an abridgment of bishop Cumberland's work on the 
laws of nature, with the consent and approbation of the 
right reverend author. This, which was entitled ^*A brief 
Disquisition of the Law of Nature, &c." was reprinted in 
1701. But the work which had employed most of Mr.Tyr^ 
reli's time was his ^^ General History of England, both ec» 
clesiastical and civil, from the earliest accounts of time,"/ 5 
vols. fol. generally bound in thre^e, Lond. 1700, 1704. He 
intended to have brought this down to the reign of William 
III. but what is published extends no farther than that of 
Richard II. and of course forms but a small part of the 
whole plan. It is thought that be left another volume or 
more ready for the press, but this has never appeared. His 
chief object seems to be to refute the sentiments of Dr. 
Brady in his ^^ History of England," particularly where he 
asserts that '^ all the liberties and privileges the people can 
pretend to were the grants and concessions of the kings of 
this nation, and were derived from the crown ;" and that 
*^ the commons of England were not introduced, nor were 
one of the three estates in parliament, before the forty-ninth 
of Henry III. Before which time the body of commons of 
England^ or freemen collectively taken, had not any share 



or votes in making laws for the goYernment of the kingdoin^ 
nor had any cominunication in affairs of state, unless they 
were represented by the tenants in capiteP In refuting these 
opinions Mr. Tyrrell will probably be thought not. unsuc-> 
eessful ; but the work is ill digested, and less fit for reading 
than for consultation. As a jbompilation it will be found 
useful, particularly on account of bis copious translations 
from our old English historians, although even there he has 
admitted some mistakes.^ 

TYRT.SUS, an ancient Greek poet, who flourished in 
the seventh century B. C. was born at Miletus, but lived at 
Athens, and became celebrated by all antiquity for the 
composition of military songs and airs, as well as the per-« 
formance of themj and the success of his verses has ad<* 
Tanced his tiame to the rank of the greatest heroes as well as 
the noblest poets. The Lacedaemonians, during the second. 
Messenian war, about 685 B. C. by advice of the Pythian 
Oracle, applied to the Athenians for a general: The Athe<« 
nians sent them Tyrtaeus, perhaps in ridicule ; for, besides 
his occupation, utterly remote from military affairs, he is 
reported to have been short and very deformed, blind of one 
eye, and lame. But a memorable victory which they ob<* 
tained over the Messenians is attributed to the animating 
sound of a new military flute or clarion, invented and played 
upon by TyrtsBUs; and bis military airs were constantly 
sung and played in the Spartan army, to the last hour of 
the republic. The poems of Tyrtaeus were first printed in 
a collection by Frobenius in 1532, and separately in 1764 
by Klotz. His U War Elegies" have been versified in £ng<<» 
lish by Mr. Polwhele, and imitated by the late Mr. Pye, 
with a reference to the late war.' 

TYRWHITT (Thomas), one of the most eminent scho- 
lars and critics of the last century, was the son of the rev« 
Dr. Robert Tyrwhitt, of a very ancient baronet's family in 
Lincolnshire, a gentleman of considerable eminence in the 
church, who was rector of JSt, James's, Westminster, which 
be resigned in 1732, on being appointed a canon residen* 
tiary of St. Paul'^. He held also the prebend of Kentish- 
town, in that cathedral, and was archdeacon of London. In 
1740 he obtained a canonry of Windsor, and died June 15, 
1742, and was buried in St. George's chapel, Windsor. He 
married the eldest daughter of, bishop Gibson, and so well 

1 Atl). Ox. voU lI.<wBio£:. Brie < Fabric Bibl. Qrec«»Saxii OnomasU 

T Y R W H I T T, iS» 

imitated the liberality and hospitality of that prelate, that, 
dyiog at the age of forty- four years, be left a numerous 
£amily very moderately provided for. 

Thomas Tyrwhitt, the subject of the present article, th6 
eldest son of Dr. Tyrwhitt, was born March 29, 1730, and 
had his first education at a school at Kensington, to which 
be was sent in iiis sixth year. In 1 741 he removed to Eton-. 
Here, as well as afterwards, he manifested the strongest pro- 
pensities to literature, at an age when other boys are em* 
ployed, every moment they can*steal from books, in pursuit 
of pleasure. But Mr. Tyrwhitt, it has been justly said^ 
never was a boy, his calm and contemplative disposition 
always leading him to manly and scholar-like studies. After 
a residence of six years at Eton, he was entered of Queen^s 
college, Oxford, in 1747, and took the degree of bachelor 
of arts in 1750. He removed to Merton college, in conse-^ 
quence of being elected to a fellowship in 1755, and the 
following year took his degree of M. A. He remained on 
his fellowship until 1762, when he left the university, car<^ 
rying'with him an extensive fund of various knowledge, to 
which he afterwards added by most unwearied application. 

He was now made clerk of the House of Commons, in the 
room of the deceased Jeremiah Dyson,, esq. and resigned 
bis fellowship. This, however, was not his first step in pub- 
lic life. He had ^previously resided for some time in the 
Temple, and had studied law; and in December 1756 was 
appointed deputy secretary at war, under his noble friend 
and patron, lord Barrington, with whom and his family he 
preserved, and highly valued, the most intimate friendship 
to the last hour of his life. If the too constant fatis^ues 
and late hours of his oflfice, as clerk of the House of Cgkh- 
mons, bad not proved too much for his constitution, it is 
thought that some of the higher offices of the state were 
within his reach. But after getting through one long par- 
liament, he resigned in 1768, or, as he says in a short list 
of the dates of his life now before us, he vidiS liber /actus j 
and retired to his beloved books. The remainder of his 
life was devoted entirely to literary pursuits. Besides a 
knowledge of almost every European tongue, he was deeply 
conversant in the learning of Greece and Rome, and in the 
old English writers ; and as his knowledge was directed by 
a manly jodgmentj his critical efforts to illustrate the text 
of Chaucer and Shakspeare are justly ranked among the 
happiest efforts of modern skill. The profundity and acute- 

iS8 T Y R W H I T T. 

ness of bis remarks also on Euripides, Babrius, tfaePseodo* 
Kowley^ &c. bear sufficient witness to the diligence of bis 
researches and the force of his understanding. His mod« 
of criticism is allowed to have been at once rigorous and 
candid. As he never availed himself of petty stratagems 
in support of doubtful positions, be was vigilant to strip his 
antagonists of all such specious advantages. Yet contro- 
versy produced no unbecoming change in the habitual gen- 
tleness and elegance of his manners. His spirit of inquiry 
was exempt from captiousness, and his censures were as 
void of rudeness, as his erudition was free from pedantry* 
In private life he was a man of great liberality, of which 
some striking instances are given in our authorities. In one 
year it is said he gave away 2000/. ; and for such generous 
exertions he had the ability as well as the inclination, for 
he had no luxuries, no follies, and no vices to maintain. 
Of such a man it is unnecessary to add that he died la- 
mented by all who knew the worth of his friendship, or en- 
joyed the honour of his acquaintance. His constitution 
had never been of the athletic kind, and therefore easily 
gave way to a joint attsrck from two violent disorders^ 
which ended his life, Aug. 15, 1786, in his fif'ty-sixth year. 
He died at his bouse in Weibeck-street, Cavendish- square, 
and was interred in St. George's chapel, Windsor. He 
had for many years been a member of the Royal So- 
ciety and the Society of Antiquaries. In 1784 be was, 
without the slightest private interest or solicitation, elected 
a curator of the British Museum, in the duties of which 
office, the highest, honour that can be enjoyed by a lite- 
rary man, he was indefatigably. diligent. 

"Jhe publications of this excellent scholar were, 1. ** An 
Epistle to Florio (Mr. Ellis, of Christ-church) at Oxford^" 
Lond. 1749, 4to. 2. '< Translations in Verse; Pope's Mes- 
siah ; Philips's Splendid Shilling, in Latin,'^ and *^ the 
eighth Isthmian of Pindar, in English,'* 1752, 4to. 8. 
'* Observations and Conjectures on some passages in Shak- 
speare,'' 1766, 8vo. Mr. Tyrwhitt afterwards communi- 
cated many judicious remarks on our national bard to Mr* 
.Steevens and Mr. Reed for the editions of 1778 and 1785. 
4 ^* Proceedings and Debates in the House of Commons^ 
in 1620 and 1621, from the original MS. in the library of 
Queen's college, Oxford, with an appendix, printed at the 
Clarendon jpress, 1766, 2 vols. 8vo. 5. **Tbe manner of 
holding parliaments in England ; by Henry Elsynge, Cler. 
Par. corrected and enlarged from the author's original 

T Y R W H I T r. 130 

MS.^^ Lond. 1768, 8vo. With a v\fiw to raise a spirit of 
research into ancient classical MSS, his first critical pub- 

. lication in literature was, 6. ** Fragmenta duo Plutarcbi^ 
1773, from an Harleian MS. 5612/* He observes himself 
of this, that it had no great merit, and was only published 

' to stimulate similar inquiries. 7. ^ The Canterbury Tales 
of Chaucer,'* in 4 vols. Svo, to which he afterwards added 
a 5th volume in 1778. There has since been a splendid 
edition printed at Oxford in 2 vols. 4to. This is certainly the 

. best edited English classic that has ever appeared. S. ** Dis« 
sertatio de Babrio, FabuUrum iEsopicarum scriptore. Inse<^ 
runtur £abalse qua^dam ^sopese nunquam antehac editse et 
cod. MS. Bodl. AcceduntBabrii fragmenta. 1776.*' Theob* 
ject of this publication, which, though small in size, evinced 
th^ greatest critical acumen, was to shew, that many of the 
fables which pass under the name of £sop, were from ano« 
ther antient writer of the name of Babrius, whose fragments 
are preserved in Suidas. in verse. 9. " Notes on Euripides,*^ 
which, in Dr. Harwood's opinion, form the most valuable 
part of Musgrave*s edition, 1778. 10. ^^ Poems, supposed 
to have been written at Bristol in the 15th century, by 
Rowley and others ; with a preface, an* account of the 
Poeais, and a Glossary,** This was tv^ice re-published in 
1778, with an appendix tending to prove that they were 
written, not by any antient author, but by Chatterton« 
This became the subject of warm controversy, which, hdw* 
ever, was settled, by 1 1 • *^ A Vindication of the Appendix to 
the Poems called Rowley's, in reply to the dean of Exeter, 
Jacob Bryant) esq. and others, by Thomas Tyrwhitt** Mr. 
Tyrwbitt*s next work was of a different kind, namely, 12. 
** IIEPI AI0AN; de Lapidibus, Poema Orpheo a quibusdam 
adscriptum, Grasce et Latine^ ex edit. Jo. Matthasi Ges- 
neri. Recensuit, notasque adjecit, Thomas Tyrwhitt. Si« 
niul prodit auctarium dissertationis de Babrio.** Mr. Tyr* 
whitt in this critical work, refers the poem ** on Stones** to 
the age of Constantius. He next printed for his private 
friends, 13. ^'Conjectural in Strabonem;** and he also su« 
perintended, 14. ''Two Dissertations on the Grecian My^ 
thology, and an examination of sir Isaac Newton*s objec- 
tion to the Chronology of the Olympiads,** by Dr. Mus** 
grave. For this work a very liberal subscription was raised 
for the doctor's family, entirely by the exertions of Mr. Tyr* 
whitt, who had before given up to the widow a bond for 
several hundred pounds which the Doctor had borrowed of 
liiAi. Jlis last literary labour was, 15. ^* A newly discovered 

140 T Y E W H I T T. 

Oration of Isseas against Menecles/* which Mr. Tyrwhitt 
revised in 1785, and enriched with valuable notes, at th« 
request of lord Sandys. These few specimens are from the 
Medicean Libra,ry, and are sufficient to shew Mr. Tyrwhitt^s 
powers^ and to make us regret that his modesty declined 
the proposal made to him of directing the publication of 
the second volume of Inscriptions collected by Mr. Chis-> 
bully and first laid open to the public by the sale of Dr. 
Askew's^MSS. How he succeeded in the illustration of 
such subjects will best appear by that most happy expla* 
nation of the Greek inscription on the Corbridge altar, 
which had baffled the skill of all prece;ding critics, and will 
be a lasting proof how critical acumen transcends elaborate 
conjecture. (See Archseologia, vol. III. p. 324, compared 
with vol. II. pp. 92, 93.) Nor must his observations on 
come other Greek inscriptions in Archsologia, vol. III. p. 
230, be forgotten. 

Mr. Tyrwhitt left many materials for a new edition of 
Aristotle^s " Poetics," which were prepared for the press 
by Messrs. Burgess and Randolph, afterwards bishops of St. 
David's and London, and were published in 1794, at the 
Clarendon press, in a sumptuous 4to form, with an edition 
also in 8vo, less expensive. This is a very elegant and 
accurate edition, and contains I'yrwhitt's commentaries, 
as well as his version, i^hich is close and faithful. ' * 

TYSON (Edward), a learned physician, the son of 
Edward Tyson, of Clevedon, in Somersetshire, gent, was 
born in 1649, and admitted commoner of Magdalen Hall, 
Oxford, in 1667, where, after taking the degree of M. A. 
he entered on the study of medicine, was made fellow of 
the royal society, and proceeded M. D. at Cambridge in 
1680. Soon after this he became fellow of the college of 
physicians, reader of the anatomical lecture in surgeons*- 
ball, and physician to the hQspitals of Bethlem and Bride- 
well, London, in which station be died Aug. 1, 170S. He 
was a skilful anatomist, and an ingenious writer, as appears 
by bis essays in the Philosophical Transactions, and Mr. 
Hook's collections. He published also '^The anatomy of 
a Porpoise dissected at Gresham college," Lond. 1680. 
*^ The anatomy of a Pigmy, compared with that of a Mon- 
key, an Ape, and a Man,'* Lond. 4to, with a " Philoso- 
phical essay concerning the Pygmies of the ancients," ibid.' 

< Nichols'f Bowyer, vols. III. and IX. 

* Atb. Ox. voj. iL^Maiters's Hist, of C. C. C. C. 

TYSON. * Ui 

TYSON (Michael), a learned divine and ingenious 
artist, ,was the only child of the rev. Michael Tyson, deaa 
of Stamford, archdeacon of Huudngdon, &c. who died in 
179i4>, a^ed eighty-four, by his tirst wife, the sister of 
Noah Curtis, of Woisthorp, in Lincolnshire, esq. He 
was born in the parish of All Saints, in Stamford, Nov. 19, 
1740, and received his grammatical education in that co'un* 
try. He was then admitted of Bene^t college, Cambridge, 
and passed regularly through his degrees ; that of B. A. ia 
1764, of M. A. in 1767, and of B. D. in 1775; and after 
taking his bachelor's degree was elected a fellow of his 
college. In the autumn of 1766 he attended a young gen* 
tieman of his college, Mr. Gough (afterwards the celebrated 
antiquary) in a tour through the north of England and 
Scotland, and made an exact journal of bis several stages, 
with pertinent remarks on such places as seemed most in- 
teresting. At Glasgow and Inverary he had the freedom 
of the corporations bestowed upon him. After his return, 
in the following year he was elected a fellow ^ the society 
ef antiquaries, and in 1769 a fellow of the royal society. 
In 1770 he was ordained deacon at Whitehall chapel, by 
Dr. Green, bishop of Lincoln. In 1773, his father being 
promoted to the archdeaconry of Huntingdon, he gave the 
officiality of it to his son, which was worth about 50/. per 
ann. and about the same time, being bursar of the college, 
ke succeeded Mr. Colman in the cure of St. Benedict's 
church, in Cambridge, as he did also in 1776, in the 
Whitehall preachership, at the request of the late Dr. Ha«> 
* Aiilton, son-in-law of bishop Terrick, who had formerly 
bee A of Bene't college. 

' In the same year, 1776, he was presented by the col* 
lege to the rectory of Lambourne^ near Ongar, in Essex ; 
but, it being the ^rst time that the college presented. to it, 
the family from which it came litigated the legality of the 
society's claim, which, however, after a suit in chancery, 
was determined in favour of the college. But when they 
threatened another prosecution, Mr. Tyson, who was eager 
to settle on his living, as he had an intention of marrying, 
injudiciously entered into a composition with the parties, 
which, but for the liberality of the college, might have 
involved his family in debt. He died of a violent fever. 
May 3, 1780, in the fortieth year of his age, and was in- 
terred in Lambourne church. He left an infaqt son, wbo 
died in 1794. * 

14* • TYSON. 

. In his early days Mr. Tyson amused himself with 66m0 
poetical attempts, of which two were published, one ** On 
the birth of the prince of Wales," the other ^^ An Ode oil 
Peace." He was a good classical scholar, and studied 
with great success the modern languages, particularly Ita^ 
lian, Spanish, and French. He was also a skilful botanist, 
but his principal researches were in history, biography, and 
antiquities, which he very ably illustrated both as a draughts- 
man and engraver. His taste in drawing and painting is 
said to have been exquisite. There are several etchings 
by his band, particularly the portrait of archbishop Parker, 
taken from an illumination by T. Berg, in a MS. preserved 
in the library of Bene^t college, and prefixed to NasmitVs 
catalogue of the archbishop^s MSS. Strutt also mentions 
the portrait of sir William Paulet ; and of Jane Shore, 
from an original picture at King^s college, Cambridge. To 
these we may add that of Michael Dalton, author of ^^ The 
Country Justice," Jacob Butler, esq. of Barnwell, Mr« 
Cole, and qfhets his private friends. He occasionally cor- 
responded in the Gentleman's Magazine, but bis publica-* 
tions were few, as his career was short. In the Archaeolo** 
gia are two articles by him, a description of an illuminated 
picture in a MS. in Bene^t college, and a letter to Mr, 
Gough, with a description and draught of t^e old drinking* 
born in Bene't college, called Goldcorne's born. His skiU 
was always liberally bestowed on his friends ; and his contri^ 
butions to works of antiquity, &c. were frequently and rea- 
dily acknowledged by his learned contemporaries.^ 

TYTLER (William)) an ingenious writer on historical 
and miscellaneous subjects, was born at Edinburgh, Oct. 
12, 171 1. He was the son of Mr. Alexander Tytler, wri-* 
ter (or attorney) in Edinburgh, by Jane, daughter of Mr« 
William Leslie, merchant in Aberdeen, and grand-daugb* 
ter of sir Patrick Leslie of Iden, provost of that city. He 
^as educated at the high schooj, and at the university of 
Edinburgh, and distinguished himself by an early profi* 
ciency in those classical studies, which, to the latest period 
pf his life, were the occupation of his leisure hours, and a 
principal source of his mental enjoyments. At the age of 
thirty-one^ Mr. Tytler wa« admittisd into the society of 
writers to his majesty^s signet, and continued the practice 
of that profession with very good success^ and with equak 

* NichoU's Bowytr, toU. VI and Vlli.— Cold's MS AtbeiM ia Brit. Muk 

T Y T L E R. 14$ 

Tiespect from his clients and the public, till his death, 
which happened Sept. 12, 1792. 

With the duties of his profession he combined a more 
than common share of classical learning, historical know- 
ledge, and a singularly correct taste in the 'sister arts of 
poetry, painting, and music; all of which he continued to 
cultivate and enjoy to the close of his long life. To his 
other studies, he added those of metaphysics and moral 
philosophy ; hy means of which he had early become ac** 
quaintt:d with Dr. Beattie, whom, as the biographer of the 
latter informs us, he loved and respected as an able cham- 
pion of truth, and with whom he ever after continued to 
live oh the footing of the most intimate friendship. He 
also possessed the esteem and regard of many of the most 
distinguished literary characters of the age, as lord Mon-< 
boddo, lord Kaimes, Dr. John Gregory^ Dr. Reid, Prin- 
cipal Campbell, Dr, Gerard, and others. As an author, 
Mr. Tytler was first and principally distinguished for his 
** Inquiry, historical and critical, into the evidence against 
Mary queen of Scots, and an examination of the Histories 
of Dr. Robertson and Mr. Hume, with respect to that evi- 
dence,** 1759, 8vo, frequently reprinted, and in 1790 ex- 
tended to 2 vols. 8vo, with large additions. In this work^ 
be displayed an uncommon degree of acuteness in the ex- 
amination of a question, which has been maintained on 
both sides with great ability, but not always with the tem- 
per and manners which guided Mr. Tytler^s pen. As a 
supplement to this work, he read in the Society of Anti- 
quaries in Scotland, of which society he was a warm friend 
and protector, and for many years vice-president, *^ A 
dissertation on the marriage of queen Mary to the earl of 
Bothwell,'* which forms a distinguished article in the first 
Tolmne' of the transactions of that society published in 
1791, iu 4to. 

His other publications were, 1. "The Poetical remains 
of James I. of Scotland, consisting of the King^s Quair in 
six cantos, and ' Christ's kirk of the green,' to which is' 
prefixed a dissertation on the life and writings of king 
James,*' Edinburgh, 1783. This dissertation forms a va- 
luable morsel of the literary history of Europe : for James 
tanked still higher in the literary, world as sl poet^ than in 
the political world as apnnce. Great justice is done to his 
memory in both respects in this dissertation : and the two 
morsels of poetry here rescued frgm oblivioi), will be 

144 T Y T L E R. 

esteemed by men o£ taste, as long as the latigdage in which 
they are written can be understood. 2. " A Dissertation 
oxi Scottish music," first subjofned to Arnot's " History of 
Edinburgh." 5. " Observations on the Vision, a poem,*' 
first published in Ramsay's Evergreen, now also printed in 
the Transactions of the Society of. Antiquaries of Scotland. 
This may be considered as a part of the literary history of 
Scotland. 4. " On the fashionable amusements in Edin- 
burgh during the last century,'* ibid. He also contributed 
No. 16 to tho periodical paper called " The Lounger." 

Mr. Tytl^r was father to the hon; Alexander Frazer 
Tytler, lord Woodhouselee, one of the judges of the su- 
preme civil court of law in Scotland, to whom the public 
is indebted for a valuable and truly original ** Essay on the 
Principles of Translation ;" ** Elements of General His- 
tory," the " Life of Lord Kaimes," and other ingenious 
works. This very excellent scholar and upright judge 
died very lately, but we have not seen any tribute to his 
memory of which we could avail ourselves, although some- 
thing of the kind may very naturally be expected from tho 
same pen which has recorded the talents and virtues of his 
father. * . 

TZETZES (John), a celebrated grammarian of Con- 
stantinople, died about the end of the twelfth century. 
Being put under proper masters at fifteen, he learnt not 
aniy the belles lettres, and the whole circle of sciences, 
but even the Hebrew and Syriac tongues. He had a pro- 
digious .memory,, and, it is said, was able to repeat all the 
Scriptures by heart. He seems to have been a most Ac- 
complished person, who understood almost every thing; 
but was a severe critic on the performances of others, and 
not without a considerable share of vanity. He wrote 
" Commentaries upon Lycophron's Alexandria^" which he 
published first under the name of his brother, Isaac Tzet-^ 
zes : they are inserted by Potter in his edition of this poet 
at Oxford, 1697, in folio. He wrote also " Chiliades," or 
miscellaneous histories, in verse, which Fabricius calls his 
most celebrated work, as abounding with political and civil 
knowledge ; " Scholia upon Hesiod ;" " Epigrams and other 
Poems;" "Pieces upon Grammar and Criticism." He 
mentions also " Allegories upon Homer," which he dedi- 

1 Memoir of Mr. Tyiler, by Mr. Mackenzie, in the Transactions of ibe Royal 
Society of Edinburgh, vol. IV,— Forbes't Life 6f Beattie. 

T Z E T Z E S. US 


cated to the empress Irene, wife of Manuel Comnenus, 
This empress was married in 1143, and died in 1158, 
which nearly ascertains the age of Tzetzes. The ^^ Alle- 
gories'^ of this author were published by Morel,, Paris, 16 1 6y 
Svo, and the '^ Chiliades/' at Basil, 1546, foh^ 


UbALDI (GaiDO), was an Bininetit matHemaiiciaii in. 
Italy, in the end of the sixteenth and early part of the 
sreventeenttl century, but no particulars are known of hii 
life, nor when he died. Tbefollowingoct^ur in catalogucfis 
as his works : !• ^* Mechanica,'* Pis. 1577, fol. atid Yen. 
1615. '2. ^< Planisphseriorum universalium Tbeorica,'^ 
Pis. 1579, fol. and Col. 158 U 8lro. 3. << Paraphrasis ia 
Archimedis ^quiponderantia/' Pis. 1588, fol. 4. Per« 
spectiva," ibid. 1 600; fol. 5. ^^ Problemata Astroniomica,*' 
Yen. 1609, fol. 6. « De Coeblaea,*' ibid. 1615, foL* 

UBALDINI (Petbuccio), an illuminator on vellum, 
who was in England in the reign of queen Elizabeth, ap* 
pears to have been a native of Florence, and, while here, 
a teacher of the Italian language* ' Yertue speaks of some 
of his works as extant in his time^ or as having very lately 
been so ; as the Psalms of David in folio, with an inscrip- 
tion by Ubaldini to Heinry earl of Arundel, whom he calls 
bis Maecenas. The date is, London, 1565. There was- 
another book on vellum, written and illuminated by him^ 
by order of sir Nicholas Bacon, who presented it to the 
ladjr Lumley. This is, or was, at Gorhambury, There 
were other specimens of his skill in the royal libi;i^ry, now 
in the British Museum, and he appears also to^feai^ been 
an author. Walpole mentions one of his MSS. in the Mu- 
seum, entitled ^' Scbtias descriptio a Deidonensi quodam 
faoto, A. D. 1550, et per Petruccium Ubaldinum transcripta 

1 Votiittji de Hist Gr«c.«-Sijcit OiMmwt. f Mo^tacla* 

Vol. XXX. L 

146 U B A L t) I N 1. 

A. D. 1576," which was published afterwards iti Itatiait, 
withc^his name, at Antwerp^ 1588, fol. The Museum cata- 
logue attributes also the fbllovving to Ubaldini : I. ** Dis* 
cbur^e cioncerping of the Spanish fleet invading England 
in 15S8 and overtbrowen,*VLond. 1590, 4ta. 2. **Le Vite 
delle Donrje illustri del regno d*Inghilterra'/e del regno 
di Scotia, &c/' ibid. 1591. Walpole, who appears to l^ve 
examined tbis work, gives, as a specimen of Petruc€hio*s 
talents for history, two of his beroiiies* The first was Chem- 
brigia, daughter of Gurguntius, son of king Bellinus, who^ 
having married me Cantabro, founded a city, which, front 
a mixture of both their names, was called Cambridge. Tiie 
other illustrious lady he styles expressly cbnna senza nonie, 
and this nameless lady, as Walpole says, was the mother 
of Ferrex.and Porrex in lord Dorset^s "Gorboduc," who> 
because one of her sons killed the other that was a fa- 
vourite, killed a third son in a passion. 3. '*^ Precetii 
moral], politici, et economici,'* 1592, 4t04 4. '^ Scelca di 
ajcane Attioni, e di varii Accideftti," 1595', 4to. 5. " Rime,'* 

1596, 4to* 6. << Militia del Gran Duca di Toscano,'* 

1597. 7. "Vitadi Carlo Magno^" 1599, 4to; and, 8* 
** Lo Stato delle tre Corti," 4to. 

- Thus far we have gathered from WaIpole*s Anecdotes, 
who kdds, that Ubaldini seems to have been in great favour 
at court, and is frequently mentioned in the rolls of new 
years-gifts, which used to be deposited in the jevVel*ofBce«. 
There is a notice of this kind as far as 1588, but bow much 
longer he lived is not known. But we find Baretti giving 
other particulars of Ubaldini. He says he was a noblemaa 
of Florence, who lived many years in England^ in the ser- 
yice of Edward VI. The " Lives of Illustrious Ladies**^ 
l^e penned with great gallantry and elegance, and he must 
certainly have been the favourite of the British (English) 
belles of bis time, having been as handsome in his figure^, 
and as valiant with his sword, as^he was able athis pen. Ba- 
retti also informs us that in th#^ preface to his Life of Charles* 
the Great, he says it was the first Italian book that was* 
primed in London; the date is 1581^ printed by Wolf^ 
and consequently tfaye date given abote from the Museum' 
catalogue must have been a subsequent edition. Ubaldini 
adds, that he wrote it, because, *' having seen how many 
fables^-and dreams the poets have writ of that emperor, be 
ihought it the duty of a man, born to be useful to others, 
to ex|>lodes «s muipl^ ai possible, $Edsefaood fr6m the world, 

U B A L D 1 N I. Hf 


and substitute truth instead/' Baretti informs lis that in 
the Fosoarini library at Venice there is a manuscript history 
of Ubaldini, written with his own hand, of the reigir of his 
master Edward.' 

UBERTI (Fazio^ or Boniface), an Italian poet ot the 
fourteenth century, .was the descendant of an illostrious 
family of Florence, the Ufoerti, who, when the Guelphs 
became rictorious, were banished from Florence, and theii^ 
property divided among their enemies. Our poet was born 
in the poverty and obscurity to which his family had been 
reduced, and although the Florentines allowed him to re* 
turn and reside in the country of his forefathers, he tkefet 
became rich, and was obliged to attend- the courts of th6 
nobility, and gain a subsistence by chaunting bis verses* 
Of those- he composed a great many in the form of songs 
and other small pieces which were admired for their no- 
velty ; be is even thought to have been the inventor of thd 
ballad species* In. more advanced age^ be undertook his' 
*^ Dittamondo," in imitation of Dante, who in his visioa'. 
takes Virgil for his guide ; Uberti takes Solinus, who con*^ : 
ducts him over the whole habitable globe. By means of 
this fiction he includes geographical and historical matter, 
which has induced some to call his poem a geographical 
treatise. It i§ said to be written with energy and elegance, 
and was first printed, or at least a part of it, at Vicenza in • 
1474,.fol. and reprinted at Venice in 1501. Both are 'rare, 
and chiefly valued for their rarity. Vilkni, who gives us 
a sort of eloge rather than a life of Uberti, says that he ' 
died at an advanced age in 1370.' 

UDAL (E^^haaim), a loyal divine, although of the pn^ 
ritan stamp, was the son of John Udal, an eminent non- 
conformist of the suxteenth century, and a great sufferer 
for his nonconformity, being frequently silenced attd* 
ituprisoned, and at last condemned to die for writing, 
a seditious book called <^A Demonstration of Disci« 
plin«;*^ but he appears to. have been respited, and died- 
in the Marsbalsea prison about the end of 1592. He wvck^^ 
^ A Commentary pn the Lamentations of Jeremiah f * 
*' The State of the Church of England laid open in a con- 
ference,. &c. ;^* and probably the work above-mentioned for ' 
whidi be was condemned ; but he is better known in the* 
learned worlds fs the author ot the first Hebrew grammar' 

1 Walpolefi ADetdoteji.-«BareHt> IUXmu Library. » Tinfaoschi. 


148 U D A L. 

in Englisb, published under the tide of a ^< Key to the 
Holy Tongue,*' with a Hebrew Dictionary, which is omit-- 
ted in the second edition. The 6rst is dated 1593, a year* 
after his death. 

' When his son Ep^raim was born, does not appear^ but 
he was educated at Emanuel- college, Cambridge, where 
he took his decree of A. 6. in 1609, and that of A. M. in 
1614. His only preferment in the church appears to have 
been the rectory of St. Augustine% Watling-street^ but 
the time of his admission is not stated by Newcourt or 
Walker. He was sequestered, however, in 1643, although 
be had always been accounted, and indeed admired as a 
preacher of puritan principles* The truth was, that be 
early pen:eived the real designs of the republican party, 
and exerted himself to oppose them. In a sermon at 
Mercers* chapel, he addressed himself to some of them in 
these words, '^ You desire truth and peace ; leave your 
lying, and you may have truth; lay dowa your arms, 
and you may have, peace.'* He went farther than even 
this, by declaring openly for episcopacy and the litur- 
/ gy, and publishing a learned . treatise against sacrilege, 

entitled.** A Coal from the Altar;" and another, "Com- 
nkunion comeliness," in .which he recommended the placing 
of rails around the communion-table. He also published 
a sermon, called **Noli me tangere," containing many 
loyal, sentiments, and much attachment to the church. 
Criotes like these were not to be forgiven ; and accordingly 
bis house was plundered, bis library and furniture carried 
oflF, and his old and lame wife literally turned into the 
street. Mr. Udal died about the latter end of May 1 647. 
His funeral sermon was preached by the rev. Thomas 
Beeve, B; D. who was neither ashamed. nor afraid to give. 
• him; what he seems to have deserved, ^ high character for 
piety and zeal.'. .... 

. UDAL (Nicholas), an eminent scboolntaster of the six- 
ttonth. century, styled by Leland, in his • f' £ncomta/* 
Odovallus, was bom in Hampshire in 1506, and was ad- 
mitted scholar of Corpus Ghristi college^ Oxford, June 18, 
1.520. He then took the degree of bachelor of ans^ and 
1>ecame probationer fellow 8ept« 3, 1524; bi|t was pre- 
vented taking the degnee of master soon afterwards^ on 
accvHifit of his inclination to the tenets of Lmhen He then 

. I Alh. Oz. Tol. I.— Wftlker'a Su£Mii80.*^eiit M«g« vdI. UXIL 

U D A'L. 149 

obtaitieil the mastership, of Eton school, and, in 'tbe per-r 
fofmance of bis duty there, behaved, as Thomas Tosser 
th<e poet tells us, with great severity. He proceeded in 
aits in 1534, but in 1541 was near losing bis place, being 
snspiected of some concern in a robbery of plate belonging 
to tbe college, with two of his scholars. For this fact he' 
was examined by the kiog^s council, but we do not know 
tbe result of their inquiries. Tbe charge probably was disr 
covered to be ^iUgrounded^ as he was at this time in pps-* 
session of the living of Braintree in Essex, which he did 
not resign till 1 544, • and in 1552 was preferred to the rec* 
tory of Calbourne in the Isle of Wight. He afterwards 
was servant to queen Catherine Parr, and^ in the begin* 
uiiig of Edward VI.'s time, was promoted to a canpnry at 
Windsor. The time of his death is not known, unless by 
a manuscript note on a copy of Bale, in which that event 
is.said to have taken place in 1.557, and that he wa!^ buried 
at Westminster* In 1555 he bad been appointed head> 
master of Weatminster-scbool, a circumstance not noticed by 
Wood. He is said to have written several comedies, and 
Bale mentions '* The Tragedy of Popery.*' But none of 
these now exist.' A specimen, however, of his abilities in 
this way, may be seen in a long quotation from a rhiming 
interlude by him, printed in Wilson's '^ Art of Logicke," 
1587, and reprinted in the new edition of Wood's Athenae. 
.Hi« more useful works were, 1. '^ Flowers for Latin speak- 
ing, selected and gathered out of Terence, and the same 
translated into English," &c. often printed, particularly in 
1533, 1538, 1568, and 1575. Both Leland and Newton 
wrote encomiastic vierses on this book. 2. A translation of 
the ^' Apophthegms" of. Erasmus, 1542 and 1564^ 8vo. 
3. '^ Epistotae et carmina ad Gul. Hormannum et ad Job. 
Lelandum." 4. A transla,tion of Erasmus's '* Paraphrase 
on the Gospels and Acts of the Apostles," 1551, fol. 5. 
A translation of Peter Martyr's ** Treatise on the Sacra- 
ment.*' He also d.rew up ^^ An answer to the sixteen arti- 
cles of the Commons of Devonshire and Cornwall," a MS. 
10 the royal collection. ^ 

UDINE (GiOYANNA da), an eminent artist, called Gio. 
AA NAKKIt or RlCAMAToai, as Vasari promiscuously calls 
^hioi, was: born in 149.4, at Udine in the Friul,. and passed 
from .the school of Giorgione to that of Raphael Sanzio, 

' AUk Ox. ToL Ljiew edit.— TanAertrT-Balc-rGAnt. Mag, toI. tXXX. : 


uDcler whose direction he executed the greater part of the 
stuccoes and grotesque ornaments in the Logge and various 
apartments of the Vatican. In this bnncb of the art be is 
not only considered as the first, but as an inventor: ibr 
though under Alexander VI. Morto da Feltro had begun to 
paint in grotesq'ie, he was not acquainted .with stucco, 
which was first discovered in the baths of Titus, and sac**- 
cessfully imitated by this arti^ His bowers, plants, and 
foliage, his aviaries, mews, birds and fowls of every kind, 
impose on the eye by a truth of imitation less the resultof 
labour than of sentiment : his touch is all character, and^ 
never deviates into the anxious detail of fac-^siqni lists. After 
the saccage of Rome he visited other parts of Italy, and left 
various specimens of his art at Florence, Genoa, and Udine. 
He died in 1564.^ 

UFFEMBACH, or UFFENBACH (Zachary Conrade 
J^)f a very learned German, was born at Frankfort Ftob. 22, 
1683, and was the son of a counsellor of that city, of an 
antient family. In 1 694 he was sent for education to this 
college of Rudelstadt, whiere he applied with such ardour 
that his master was obliged to check him, and especially 
prevent his studying by night, to which he was much ad- 
dicted. Besides the classics, which, young as he was, he 
always read with a pen in his hand, making such remarks 
or extracts a^s struck his fancy, he studied also the Hebrew 
language, and logic, and metaphysics, to which he soon 
added history, geography, chronology, &c. In 1698 he 
was obliged to return home to recover his health, which 
had probably been injured by intense application, and he 
for some time confined himself to lessons on history at>d 
geography from Arnold, then rector of the college of 
Frankfort. He was afterwards sent to the university of 
Strasburgh, where he studied the sciences, attended the 
anatomical lectures, &c. ; but his leading object was literary 
history and bibliography, in pursuit pf which he passed 
much of his time in the public libraries. In 1700 bd had 
the misfortune to lose both his parents, which obliged him 
to return to Frankfort When his grief bad in some degree 
subsided, he went to Halle, and continued bis studies there . 
about two years. In 1702 be took his degree of doctor of 
laws, and returned to Frankfort with a copious library^ 
which be bad collected in the course of his studies. He 

^ Ai^eQTilltf Tof, I.— Ballvt'f Academie dea Scieiiee«.'«»Pilkhigton ^ Filseli't 

U F F E MtB 4 C H. J5| 

tben visited acmie of the inostfatnou^ universities on th^ 
CQQiinent; but in 1704 settled at Frankfort, where the li- 
brary he formed was. then considered among the best in 
Eu^rope. To make it still more conrplete appears to hay^ 
^een the object of his ambition, and he re-commenced his 
travels for that purpose in 1708 and 1709. In one of those 
years he was at Oxford, and had some inducement to settle 
there, but imagined that the climate would not agr^e with 
his health. When be returned to Frankfort from these 
tours in 1711, he brought an addition of four thousand 
books to his collection. In 1721 he was made a senator pC 
1^ native city, but became now so diligent in his civip du- 
ties as to have littjie time to spare to his studies, which in- 
clined him in 1729 to publish a catalogue of his library, 
with a view to dispose of a considerabJe part of it. He died 
Jan.^y 1734, universally regretted. He had begun several 
learned works, which his employments as a magistrate, ^n^ 
afterwards hi&bad state of health, prevented his finishings 
among these were, 1. ^^ Glossarium Germanicuni m^dii 
aevi." 2. A history of his life, in Latin. 3. " Selecta his-j 
torts litterarias et librarian," in several volumes. These he 
bequeathed to John George Schelhorn, along with his lite- 
rary correspondence in eighteen large quarto volumes. In 
1736 John Christ. Wolff printed an account of two cpllepr 
tion&made by UfFembach, which he had just purchased ; the 
first consisting of an immense quantity of letters, mo«t^ 
originals, written by the eminent men of the two or thrcje 
preceding centuries ; the second comprized various curious 
MSS* on literary subjects. Schelhorn, in his "AmqenitateSp 
Utterance," has availed himseff much of Uffembach's col- 
lections; and in vol. IX. has an article entitled /^De pri- 
mitiis typQgraphicis, quae Haerlemi in civica et Francoforti 
in bibliotheca Uffembachiana adservantur,'*. And he after- 
wards published a Life of Uffembacn, prefixed to bis 
^'Commevcii Epistolaris Uffeftibachiani Selecta, &c." 5 voU« 
J753— 1756, 8vo.» . 

UGHELU (FERDmAND), an ecclesiastical historian, ws^s 
bori;^ Msircb 21, 1595, at Florence, of a good family. After 
piljTStting his studies with great credit, he entered among 
the CistertiapB, and held several honourable posts in, his 
orden He was appointed abbot of Trois Fontaines at 
Ronae^ jp^Qcurator in his province,, and counsellor t<d the 

1 Chatifepift.— Saxii Onomast, 

152 U G H E L L L 

congregation of tbe Indes:. The popes Alexander VII, 
and Clement IX. esteemed Ughelli, and gave bim a pension 
of 500 crowns ; but be refused several bishoprics that were 
offered. He died at Rome, in his abbey, May 19, 1670, 
aged seventy-five. His principal work is, *< Italia sacra, 
sive de Episcopis Italiae, et Insularum adjacentium,'' &c. 
Rome, 1642— -1^62, 9 vols, folio. This work, which is es-. 
teemed of gdod authority, was reprinted at Venice, 1717 — » 
-1722, 10 vols, witb considerable additions; but this second 
edition is very incorrectly printed. A third, which is said 
to be free from this objection, and is very much enlarged^ 
was published at Florence, 1763, &c. by the abb6 del 
Riccio. Ughelli's other works are the Lives of tbe cardi- 
nals of the Cistertian order, and some genealogical family*' 

ULLOA (D,ON Aktonio), a celebrated Spanish matbe^ 
maticiad, and a Commander of the order of St. Jago, was 
born at Seville Jan. 12, 1716. He was brought up in the 
service of the royal marines, in which he at length obtained 
the rank of lieutenant-general." In 1735 he was appointed, 
with Don George Juan, to sail to South America, and ac-* 
company the French academicians who were going to Peru 
to measure a degree of the meridian. On his return home 
in I744I, in a French ship, he was taken by two English 
vessels, and after being detained some time at Louisbourg 
in Cape Breton, was brought to England, where his talents 
recommended bim to Martin Folkes, president of the Royietl 
Society, and he was the same year elected a member of that 
learned body. Qn his return to Madrid he published his 
•* Voyage to South America," which was afterwards trans** 
lated into German and French. There is also an English 
translation, in two vols. 8vo, 1758, but miserably garbled 
find inaccurate. In 1755 be made a second voyage to 
Aiperica, where he collected materials for another work, 
whicb however did not appear until 1 772, under tbe title of 
^^Entretenimientos Physico-historicos." He travelled after- 
' wiirds over a considerable part of Europe to collect inform- 
ation respecting such improvements in arts and DQanoiisc- 
tures as might be serviceable to Spain, and was tbe means 
of introducing many which had not before been known in 
Spain, or very imperfectly carried on. He died on July 5, 
1795. There are a few of bis papers in the ^^Pfailosopbical 
Transactions.'' • 

} Moreri«— NiceroD, t^I XIJ,<!P»Tiraboschi, f Diet, Qist, 

U L P H I L A S. lit 



ULPHILAS, or GULPHILAS, a Gothic bishop, and 
the first translator of a part of the Bible into that language, 
flotirished in the fourth century, and during the reign of 
Yaleus, obtained leave of that emperor that the Goths 
should reside in Thrace, on condition of his, the bishop's, 
embracing the Arian faith. Little else is known of this 
prelate, unless that he translated the Evangelists, and per- 
haps some other books of the New Testament, into the Go- 
thic language, which he achieved by inventing a new al«> 
•phabiet oi' twenty-six letters* This translation is now in the 
library Of Upsal, and there have been three editions of it, 
the best' by Mr. Lye, printed at Oxford in 1750. Many 
disputes have been carried on by the learned both as to the 
antiquity and authenticity of this version. Of later years, 
however, another fragment of Ulphilas's translation was dis- 
covered in the library at Wolfenbuttle,. containing a portion 
of the Epistle to the Romans, This has been published by 
Knitel, archdeacon of Wolfenbuttle, who seems of opinion 
that Ulphilas translated the whole Bible.' 


UPTON (James), a classical scholar and editor, was the 
fourth sou of a gentleman of Cheshire, and born at Wim- 
slow, in that county, December 10, 1670. He was edu- 
cated at Eton, and became a fellow of King^s college. Cam* 
bpidge, where he proceeded B. A. 1697, andM. A. 170U 
He afterwards, at the request of Dr. Newborough, the head 
master, returned to Eton, where he was tutor to the famous 
sir William Wyndham, and was .an assistant teacher at the 
school. He married the daughter of Mr. Proctor, who 
kept a boarding-house at Eton, hut afterwards removed to 
Ilminster, in Somersetshire, upon the invitation of several 
gentlemen of the county, and particularly of the earl Pow- 
lett, to whom be was afterwards chaplain, and all whose 
sons were itnder his tuition at Taunton. He remained a 
few years at Ihninster, and taught the learned languages 
there till he was elected to the care of the free grammar- 
scfabolin . Taunton : which he coiiducted with the highest 
.reputation, and raised to be the largest provincial school at 
ttbatriime ever known in England. The number of his 
%pupils amounted to. more than 200; and many of them 
'.were ;frc»n;. the .first .families in the West of England. He 
- served' fon many years the church of Biahop's-HuU, in which 

1 Pictf Hist, — Sazii Ooomast, 

15* UPTON. 

parish the school is situated. So early as 1711 he vras in 
possessron of the rectory of Brimptoti, near Yeovil^ in tb^ 
presentation of the Sydenham family. In 1712 he was 
presented by sir Philip Sydenham to the rectory of Monk- 
silver, 14 miles frbm Taunton. He died August i3> 174^^ 
aged seventy-nine. 

In 1696 he published, at Cambridge, an excellent edi* 
tion of Aristotle ^' de Arte Poetica," with notes. In 1 702, at 
Eton, Dionysius Halicarnassensis *^ de Structura Orationis.*' 
In 17 1 1, a revised and corrected edition of Roger Ascbam's 
'^ School-Master,'- with explanatory notes. In 1726 bis 
'^ Novus Historiarum Fabellarumque Delectus;" a' very 
useful and much approved selection of passages from Greek 
authors, with a Latin translation. He was also the author 
of several single sermons, and there is a Latin ode of his 
writing in the Gent. Mag. for Oct. 1737. 

He had two sons, one a captain of the navy> who died 
in the same year with his father ; the other, Jobk Uptok, 
born in 1 707, who, after receiving a classical education at 
his father's school at Taunton, was entered of Exeter coU 
lege, Oxford, of which be was elected fellow in 1728, and 
proceeded M. A. in 1732. In the same year the celebrated 
critic Toup became his pupil, and during the whole of his 
residence in the university had no other tutor. In 1736 
he vacated his fellowship. Having been tutor to tlie sons 
of lord chancellor Talbot, that nobleman gave him a pre* 
bend in the cathedral of Rochester ; besides which be had 
the rectory of Sevington cum Dinnington, in Somerset* 
shire, by the gift of the earl Powlett ; afterwards the rec^ 
tory of Great Rtssington, in Gloucestershire, conferred 
upon him by earl Talbot, who, as just mentioned, had 
been one of his pupils ; and lastly, he was also rector of 
the sinecure of Llandrillo, in Denbighshire, in the diocese 
^f St. Asaph, given to him by the bishop. He never married, 
^nd died at Taunton, Dec. 9, 1760, in the fifty-third year 
of bis age. 

Mr. Upton's chief publit^ation was an edition' of Arriaa's 
<^ Epictetus," printed at London, 1739-^41, 2 vols. 4to. 
This Harwood accounts the most perfect edition that ever 
was given of a Greek ethical writer. There is bisowwt oopy 
ef this edition in the possession of a gentleman of £xeter 
college, with his cura sectoulaff written .by bim in tbe« mar- 
gins, and they are very copious and frequent. In 1758 
he published an excellent edition of Spencer's *'Fairie 

U P T O N, 1$^ 

<lueene/* with a glossary and notes, explanatory an4 eriti^ 
cil, 2 vols. 4to; and "Observations on Shakspeare/' of 
which Dr. Johnson, in his preface to his edition of that 
bard, gives no very favourable opinion, nor indeed a just 
one. * ' « 

URBAN VIII. (Pope), one of^hose pontiffs who desertte 
some notice' on account of his learning, and attention to 
the interests of literature, was born at Florence in 1568. 
His family name was MafFei Barbarini, and his family was 
of the most ancient aad honourable. His father dying 
while MafFei was an infant, he was entrusted to the cafls of 
his uficle Francis, a prothonotary of the Roman court, who 
sent for him to Rome, and placed him for education in the 
Jesuits- college. Here he made great proficiency in clas- 
sical studies under Tursellino and Benci, and was parti- 
cularly distinguished for his taste for poetry. But as hw 
ifncle intended him for active life, he took him from his 
beloved studies, aod sent him to Pisa, where he might ac- 
quire ^ knowledge of the law, so neoessary then to those 
who Vi^ould rise to preferment; and here he applied with 
such diligence, that in his twentieth year the degree of 
doctor was deservedly conferred upon him. He then re^ 
turned 'to Rome, where his uncle received him with the 
greatest kindness, and having always treated him as his 
son, bequeathed him, on his death, which happened soom 
after, a handsome fortune, as his sole heir. His first pa- 
tron was cardinal Farnese, and by his interest and his own 
talents he soon passed through the various gradations of 
preferment which led, in 1606, to the rank of cardinal, 
bestowed on him by Paul V. In 1623^ while cardinal le- 
gate of Bologna, he was elected T^ope, and took the name 
of Urban VIII. It is not our intention to detail the histori- 
cal events in which he was concerned. The errors in his ' 
government, which were fewer than might have been ex-r 
pected in one so zealous for the church, arose from two 
circumstances, his early attachment to the Jesuits, and his 
nepotism, or family partiality. The latter was so powerful, 
that he bestowed on his relations red bats and temporal 
employm^nits with a very liberal hand, and often entrusted 
the matiagement of affairs to them ; and the chief errors 
of his pontificate were imputed to them by the candid*, 
althMgh'b^ omly was blamed by the people at large. 

I' Hatrwood's Altitimi Eton^nsM.—- Memoirs by TouTmin, intended for (be eOB« 
Unuation of bis History bf Taaotou. — Qent* Mag, vols. LX. I^XXII. 

1S6 XJ R B A N. 

As' a man of learning, and a patron of l^rne4 oi^n, tie 
has generally been praised ; but be was no antiquary, and 
was justly censured for having destroyed some Roman an** 
tiquities, which the barbarous nations had spared when 
masters of Rome ; and this gave occasion to the famous 
pasquinade, ^' Quod non feceruot ^arbari, fecerunt Bar- 
berini.^' He wrote many Latin poems in an elegant style, 
of which an edition was published at Paris in 1642, fol. and 
a very beautiful one at Oxford, in 1726, 8vo, edited by 
Joseph Brown, M. A. of Queen's college, and afterwards 
provost of that college, with a life and learned notes. Ur- 
ban's patronage of learned men was very liberal, and be re- 
ceived those of all nations with equal respect. Among others 
be extended his patronage to Ciampolo, Cesarini, Herman 
Hugo, and to Dempster and Barclay, two learned Scotch- 
men* The latter has celebrated him .in his ^^ Argenis'' 
under the name of Ibburranis, the transposition of Bar* 
berini. Urban published a remarkable edition of the Ro>- 
mish breviary, and several bulls and decrees which are in 
^^ Cherubini bullarium." Among tbe.most noticeable is 
that which abolishes the order of fet^ate Jeauits, and cer- 
tain festivals ; and others which relate to image worship ; 
those by which, in compliance with the Jesuits, he con«- 
demns Jansenius ; and. that by which the title of eminence 
was conferred upon the cardinal-legates, the three eccle- 
siastical electors, and the grand master of Malta. Among 
his foundations was the college *^ De propaganda fide." 
In the article of cardinals he was profuse^ for he created 
no less than seventy-four. He died July 29, 1644, and 
was buried in St. Peter^s, in the stately tomb erected by 
his own orders by the celebrated Bernini. ^ 

URBAN, Henry. See CORDUS, Euaicius. 

URCEUS (Anthony CoDrus), a learned Italian, was 
born at Rubiera in 1 446. He gave himself the name of 
Codrus, a poor poet in Juvenal, in reply to a speech made 
to him. After a very learned education, he was invited to 
Forli, to teach the languages, and while here met with an 
accident which appears to have affected his brain. He had 
an apartment in the palace, but his room was so very dark, 
that he was forced to use a candle in the day«*time; and one 
day, going abroad without putting it out, his library was 
set on. fire, and some papers which he had prepared for the 

> Life hgr Pr.Brown.-^Bower, Rycaut, and WaJeh'i BUU of tke Fopts. 


pre«K.wer^ farnnied. The iostant lie was informed of. thi% 
he ran furiously to the palace, and vented bi» rage in thiO 
most blasphemous imprecations, after which he rushed from 
the city, and passed the whole day in a wood in the vicinity, 
wii^ut uourishihent. He returned next day, and shut him- 
self up for six months in the bouse of an artificer. After a 
residence of about thirteen years at Forli, he wiks invited to 
Bologna, where he was appointed professor of grammar and 
eU>quence, and where be passed the remainder of his day^ 
iiuth credit. He died at Bologna in 1500. His works, 
printed at Basil in 1540, conskst of speeches, letters, and 
poems : to wbieh is jMrefixed an account of his life. He 
appears to have been rnudi esteemed by his learned coq- 
temporaries,, but modern critics seem less disposed to rank 
Idm among, the- ornaments of his^age. * . 
r URF£' (HoNoa£^ D*), a writer of romances, was born 
February «11^ 1567, at Mqjrseilles, and w|is. descended from 
an illustrious bouse of Forez, originally of Soabia. He was 
edaeatedanioi>g the Jesuits, and Malta, but (^turned 
to Forez;. • in 1574 Anne d*Urf<6, his brother, married Di- 
ana de Cbiteau-Morand, a rich lady, sole heiress of that 
house; but having procured his marriage to be declared 
mill in. 15^6, be took the ecclesiastical habit, and Honor^ 
d!Urf6, whose intjerest it was to keep Diana's very large for- 
tune in bis own family, married her, about 16Q1. Thejr 
union did not however, prove happy, for the lady, then 
above forty, bad rendered -herself otherwise disfgusting by 
haying her apartments always filled- with great dogs, and as 
she brought him no children, he left her, and retired to 
Piedmont^ where he died, 1625, aged 6fty*eight. His prin- 
cipal work is a celebrated romance, entitled ^^ L' Astr^e,!* 
4 vols. 8vo, to which Baro, his secretary, added a fifth. It 
was reprinted, 1733, 10 vols. l2mo, and was read through- 
out Europe at one time as the first work of the kind, and 
was perhaps relished by some from the notion that it con- 
tained an account of the gallantries of Henry the Fourth's 
reign. . Hts other works are : a poem, entitled ^^ La Si- 
rene,'- 1611, 8vo;." Epttres morales," 1620, 12mp; "La 
SavoysiadCy*' & poem, of which only part is in print ; a 
pastoral in blank verse, entitled ^^ La Sylva.niere," 8vo, apd 
some '^ Sonnets." Anne d'Urf^, bis eldest brother, was 
ceupt de Lyi^n^ lived in a very exemplary majiner^ a^d 

> Jiraboschk^-iQeft. Pict. Suppltia^Bt,— Koscoe^s Iso* 

|«8 U R F r. 

died 16^1 J aged sixty ^six. He also was a literary TOan^'and 
has left ^^ Sonnets," *^ Hymns,'' and other poetical pieces, . 
1«08, 4to. * 


URSINS <JoHN Juvenal, or rather Juvei^aldes), an emi^ 
nent archbishop of Rheiros, in the fifteenth centur}% brother 
of Williamdes Ursinsj baron de Traynel, and chancellor of 
FraDoe, was descended frosn an illustrious family of Cbam^ 
pagne. After having distinguished himself in several posts^ 
being master of requests, be took the ecclesiastical babir, 
became bishop of Beauvais in 1452, of Laon in 1444, and 
archbishop of Rheims in 1449, in which see be succeeded 
bis brother James Juvenal des Ursins. He was one of those 
appointed in 146 i to revise the sentence pronounced against 
the famous Maid of Orleans. He died July 14, 14/73, aged 
eighty-five, leaving a '^ History of the Reign of Charles 
VL" from' 1 380 to 1422, printed at the Louvre, folio. This 
family has produced several other great men. ' 

UR8INUS (FuLVius), an eminent classical scholar and- 
antiquary, wns the illegitimate son of a commander of the- 
order of Malta, of the Ursin family, and was born at Rome 
Dec. 2, 1529. His education would probably have been 
neglected, as bis mother and himself were turned out of 
doors by the unnatural father, and were in great poverty,'^ 
had not some early appearance of talents recommended him 
to the notice of a canon of the Lateran, Gentilio Delfini^ ' 
who took bim under his protection, and instructed him in • 
classical literature ; after which, by this benevolent patron's 
interest, he obtained considerable preferment in the church 
of St; John of Lateran^ His talents afterwards made him 
be taken into the service of the cardinals Rauutius and 
Alexander Farnese, who rewarded^ him liberally; and- by < 
this means an opportunity was afforded him of collecting. a' 
great number of books and ancient manuscripts, and em-^ * 
ploying them for the benefit of literature. He was in ha-* 
bits of correspondence with the most eminent literary cha« - 
racters of Italy, and he contributed much valuable assist- * 
ance to the authors of that period. He bad attained to 
great skill in discovering the antiquity and value of MSSi^ 
which he seems to have considered as an important secret^ • 
Cardinal Frederic Borromeo, being once in bis company, * 
requested Ursinus to point out from a book that lay beft;>re; 

< Moreri.— Diet. Ht«t. t Moreri.-^iot Hht 

U R S I N U S. 1^9 

thein, the rules by which he distingoisbed ancient ftom 
modern manuscripts ; but be iminediately shut the beok^ 
and turned the discourse. He died at Rome Jan. 18, 1600, 
-it the age of seventy. He was author of several learned 
wqrksy as " De Fainiliis Romania ;'' and an Appendix to 
Ciaconio's treatise *^ De Triclinio.'* He ' also published 
notes^bn Sailust^ Ca)sar, Livy, and most of the Roman his- 
toriansi the wHters de Re Rustica, Cicero, &c. He alto 
paused engravings to be made of a large collection of sta- 
tues, busts, and other montmients of antiquity, and pub- 
Irsbed tbem under the title of ^' Imagines et Elogia Vi- 
rorum iUustrinm et eroditorum ex antiquis lapidibus et nu- 
xaismatibus expressa, cum annotationibus Fulvii Ursini." 
Mr«. Pinkerton^ however, saj's that this work is not to be 
depended on, and prefers that of Canini, which is better^ 
although far from perfect. Ursinns, in order to keep, to- 
gether the books which, with great labour and at vast eir- 
pence, he had accumulated, bequeathed them to the Va- 
tican. Castalio published a Life of Ursinus, at Rome, 1 657, 
8vo. In his will, which is appended to this Life, be be«- 
queaths two thousand crowns to Delfini, bishop ^f Came- 
rino, probably a near relation of his early patron.' 

URSINUS (ZachaRy), one of the most celebrated Pro- 
testant divines of the 16th century, was born at Breslau, 
ia Silesia, July 28, 1534. He had already made a con- 
siderable progress, for one so young, when he was seot'to 
Wittemberg in 1550, wh^re he studied seven years, and, 
as bis father was not rich, he was assisted by gratuities 
bdth private and public, and by the profits of taking pu- 
pils. At the same time, he applied himself so closely to 
study, that he acquired great skill both in poetry, lan- 
guages, philosophy, and divinity. Melancthon, who was 
the ornament of that university, had a. particular esteem 
and. friendship for him. Ursinus accompanied him in 1557 
to the conference of Worms, whence he went to Geneva, 
and afterwards to Paris, where he made some stay, in order 
to learn French, and improve himself in Hebrew under 
tiie learned John Mercerus. He was no sooner returned 
to Melanctbon nt Wittemberg, than he received letters 
from the magistrates of Breslaw in September 1558, ofTer-^ 
log him the mastership of their great school ; and having 
accepted it^ be discharged the duties of his employment 

* NioeroDi ?ol. XXJV,— 'Moreri. 

160 U R S I N U S. 


in so laudable a manner^ that be might have contitnied iii. 
it as long as be pleased, bad he not beeo prosecuted by 
the clergy> the instant they perceived be was not a Lu« 
tberan* When he explained Melanctbon's book, ^* Ve 
examine ordipandorum ad Ministerium/' be handled the 
subject of the Lord's supper in such a maoDer, as iDade- 
the demagogues or factious orators (for so the author of 
bis Life calls them) term him Sacramentarian. He wrot^^ 
however, a j ustification of himself, in which he discovered 
what bis opinions were with regard to Baptism and the 
Lord's Supper; and when be found that this did not pa- 
cify his adversaries, he obtained an honourable leave ifrom 
the magistrates ; and as he could not retire to his master 
Melanctbon, be being dead a little before, in April 15^0, 
he went to Zurich, where Peter Martyr, Bullinger, Sim.- 
ler, Gesner, and some other eminent personages, had a 
great friendship for him. From this place he was soon re- 
moved by the university of Heidelberg, which was in 
want of an able professor; and in September 1561 ws^ 
settled in the Collegium Sapiential (College of Wisdom) 
to instruct the students. He also attempted to preach, 
but finding he had not the talents requisite for the pulpi^, 
he laid that [aside. As a professor, he evinced, in the 
most eminent degree, the qualifications requisite : a lively 
genius, a great fund of knowledge, and a happy dexterity 
in explaining things, and therefore, besides the employ- 
ment he already enjoyed, he exercised the professorship 
of the loci communes, or common places in that university. 
To qualify him for this place, it was necessary for him, 
agreeably to the statutes, to be received doctor of divinity, 
and accordingly he was solemnly admitted to that degree 
the 25tb of August, 1562, and he was professor of the 
common places till 1568. It was be who wrote the Cate- 
chism of the Palatinate, which was almost universally adopt- 
ed by the Calvinists, and drew up an apology for it by or- 
der of the elector Frederic HL in opposition to the cla- 
moiirs which Flacius Illyricus, Heshusius, and some other 
rigid Lutherans, hadpublisbed in I56'i, The elector|. find- 
ing himself exposed, not only to the complaints of the 
Lutheran divines, but likewise to those of $ome princes, as 
if be bad established a doctrine concerning the Eucharist, 
which was condemned by the Augsburg Confession, was 
obliged to cause to be printed an exposition of the 
true doctrine concerning the Sacraments. Ursiuus the 

U R S I N U S. 161 

following year was at the conference of Maulbrun> where 
he spoke with great warmth against the doctrine of Ubi- 
quity. He afterwards wrote on * that subject, ' and against 
some other tenets of th& Lutherans. The plan atid statutes 
which he drew up for the elector, for the establishment of 
some ischools, and several other services, raised him so 
high in his esteem, that finding him resolved to accept of 
a professorship in divinity at Lausanne in 1571, he wrote 
a letter to him with his own hand, in which he gave several 
reasons why it would not be proper for him to accept of \ 
that employment. This prince's death, which happened 
in 1577, produced a great revolution in the palatinate; 
prince Lewis, his eldest son, who succeeded him, not per- 
mitting any clergyman to be there, unless he was a sound 
Lutheran; so that Ursinus and the pupils educated by 
him /in the Collegium Sapientise* were obliged to quit it. 
He retired to Neustadt, to be divinity-professor in the il- 
lustrious school which prince Casimir, son to Frederic IIL 
founded there at that time. He began his lectures there 
the 26th of May, 1578. He also taught logic there in his 
own apartment; published some books, and was preparing 
to write several more, when his health, which had been fre- 

.quently and strongly attacked, occasioned by his incredible 
application to study, yielded at last to a long sickness, of 
which he died in Neustadt, the 6th of March, 1583, in the 
fprty-ninth year of his age. His works were collected after 
his death, by the care of his only son, a minister, and by 
that of David Parens and Quirinus Reuterus, his disciples ; 
and to the last pf these we are indebted for the publication 

of them in 1612, 3 vols, folio. 

Ursuius was not unknown to our English divines, and 
some of his works were translated into English ; as, his 
" Catechism," or rather, his lectures upon the catechism, 
entitled ** The Summe of the Christian Religion," trans- 

. lated by Henry Parrie, 1587, 4to. There were also at 
least two abridgments of it ; and a translation of ** A col- 
lection of learned Discourses," 1600, &c. Ursinus was a 
very laborious student ; and, that no interruption Alight be 
given, he caused the following inscription to be placed on 
the door of his library : 

Amice> quisquis hue venis 
Aut agito paucis^ aut abi. 

Sir Philip Sidney, while at Heidelberg, was particularly 
anxious to cultivate the friendship of Ursinus. " From this 
Vol. XXX. M 

lez U R S 1 N l> ». 

eminent acbolar/' says Dr. Zoacb, '^ Mr. Sidney learned 
to estimate the value of time : he learned how criminal it 
is to waste the hours of Kfe in unedifying discoui^et and 
much more so in vitious pursuits or guilty indulgences.*' 
Dr. Zouch observes^ that Ursinus's moral character was 
still more excellent than bis literary one. He was all hu- 
mility, attributing nothing to himself^ and perfectly uncor- 
nipted by avarice or ambition. 

Among other authors of the same name, was John Henr v 
UasiNUS, a learned Lutheran divine, superintendant of the 
phurcbes of Ratisbon, where he died May 14, 1667, leaving 
^^ Parallela Evangelii ;'* '^ Comment in Joel, Amos, Jonam, 
Ecclesiasten ;'* "Sacra Analecta;'* *^ De Cbrisiianis Offi- 
ciis ;'* "Arboretum Biblic. ;" " Exercitationes de Zoroastre, 
Hermete, Sanchoniatone,*' Norimbergs, 1661,3vo; " Sj'lva 
Theologiae Symbolic®," 1685, 12mo; " Jeremis© virga vi- 
gilans i^^ " De Ecclesiarum Germanicarum engine et pro* 
gressu," 1664, 8vo. &c. His son, George Henry Ursinus, a 
learned philologist, who died Sept. 10, 1707, aged sixty, 
left the following works : " Diatribe de Taprobana, Cerue 
et Ogyride veterum ;" "Disputatio de locustis ;** " Obser- 
vationes Philologicse ;'' " De variis vocum etyoiologicis et 
significationibus,*' &c. ; ^' De Creatione mundi ;'* " Notulse 
Critics ad Eclogas Virgilii;*' '* Annotationes in Senecse 
Troada ;'* " De primo et proprio Aoristorum usu ;" " Dio- 
nysii Terrae orbis descriptio cum notis.'' He must be. dis- 
tinguished from George Ursinus, a learned Danish divine, 
who acquired honour by bis ^* Hebrew Antiquities.'* ^ 

UasiUS (John Joseph). See ORSI. 

URSUS (Nicolas Raimarus), a writer distinguished for 
his skill in astronomy, was born at Henstedt in Dithmarsen^ 
which is part of the dukedom of Holstein, about 1550. He 
was a swineherd in his younger years, and did not begin to 
read till he was eighteen; and then he employed all the 
hours he could spare. from his labours in learning to read 
and write. He afterwards applied himself to the study 
of the languages ; and^ having a good capacity and. 
memory, made a very swift progress ifn Latin and Greeks 
He also learned the French tongue, mathematics, astrono- 
my, and philosophy; and most of them without the assist- 
ance of a master. Having left his native country, be gained 
\ a liyelibood by teaching ; which he did in Denmark in 1584^ 

1 Meicttiofr Adam*— Gtn- Dio^.--'Zoack'f Life of Sir P. Sidnty, p. n$^ 

u R s u a 16* 

l^nd on the frontiers of Pomerania and Poland in 1585. It 
was in this last place that be inrented a new system of as- 
tronomy, very little different from that of Tycbo Brahe. He 
communicated it in 1586 to the landgrave of Hesse, which 
gave rise to an angry dispute between him and Tycbo Brahe* 
Tycbo charged him with being a plagiary ; who, as he re- 
lated, happening to come with his master into his study^ 
saw there, on a piece of paper, the figure of his system ; 
and afterwards insolently boasted, that himself was the in- 
ventor of it. Ursus, upon this accusation, wrote with great 
severity against Tycbo ; called the honour of his inven- 
tion into ^question, ascribing the system which he pre- 
tended, was his own to Apoilonius Pergseus ; and made use 
of such language, as almost brought on prosecution. He 
was afterwards invited, by his imperial majesty, to teach the 
mathematics in Prague, from which city, to avoid the pre- 
sence of Tycbo Brahe, be withdrew silently in 1589, -and 
died soon after. He made some improvements in trigone* 
metry, and wrote several works, which discover the m^irks 
of his hasty studies ; his erudition being indigested, and his 
style incorrect^ as is ala\ost always the case with those wh6 
begin their studies late in life. ^ 

USHER (James), a most illustrious prelate, and as he 
has been justly styled by D|r. Johnson, the great luminary 
of the Irish church, was descended from a very antient fa- 
mily, and born at Dublin, Jan. 4, 1580. His father, Ar- 
nold Usher, was one of the six clerks in chancery, a gen« 
tlemap of good estate and reputation, and descended of a 
very ancient family, which in England bore the name of 
Nevily till the reign of Henry I], when it was changed by 
one of bis ancestors, who about 1185, passing with prince 
(afterwards king) John in quality of usher into Ireland^ 
settled there by the name of his office, a practice very 
common in those early ages, and probably occasioned by 
the ambition of founding a family ; and his descendants^ 
spreading into several branches, filled the most consider- 
able posts in and about Dublin for many ages, to the time 
of our author, who gave fresh lustre to the family. His 
mother -was the daughter of James Stanyhurst (father of 
Richard the poet. See StanyhurstJ thrice speaker of the 
House of Commons, recorder of the city of Dublin, and 
one of the msMiters in chancery. This gentleman^ of whom 

{ Gen. Ptct'^Mdreri.— *HattoA's Dictionary^ 

M 2 



we took some notice in our account of his son, is yet mortf 
memorable for haVing first moved queen Elizabeth to found 
and endow* a college and university at Dublin ; in which 
he was vigorously seconded by Henry Usher t> archbishop 
of Armaob»- who was James Usher's uncle. James dis- 
covered great parts and a strong passion for books from 
his infancy : and this remarkable circumstance attended 
the beginning of his literary pursuits, that he was taught te 
read hy two aunts, who had been blind from their cradle, 
but had amazing memories, and could repeat most part of 
the Bible with readiness and accuracy; C^corurh mens ocu- 
latissima. At eight years of age he was sent to a school, 
which was opened by Mr. James Fullerton and Mr. James 
Hamilton, two young Scots gentlemen, who were placed 
at Dublin by king James I. then Only king of Scotland, to 
keep a correspondence with the protestant nobility and 
gentry there, in order to secXire an interest in that king- 
dom, in the event of queen Elizabeth's death : but her ma- 
jesty being very sone upon this point, and unwilling to 
think of a successor, this was a service of some danger, and 
therefore it was thought expedient for them to assume the 
disguise oT school-masters, a class of men which was very 
much wanted in Ireland at that time. Mr. Fullerton was 
afterwards knighted, and of the bed-charaber to king James; 
and Mr. Hamilton was created viscount Clandebois. 

Having continued five years under these excellent mas« 
ters, of whom he ever afterwards spoke ^ith honour, and 
having made a progress far beyond his age, he was ad-> 
mitted into the college of Dublin, which was finished that 
very year, 1593. He was one of the first three students 

* Rather restore the old foundation 
of Alexander Bicknor, archbishop of 
Dublin in 1320^ which had been en- 
tirely lOfit. 

•j- Henry Ushe* was a natiye of 
Dublin, and received part of bis edu- 
cation at Cambridge. Wood says that 
\m 1572 he removed to University 
coliega, Oxford : and in July of that 
year was incorporated B. A. which de- 
, gree be had taken at Cambridge. He 
adds that he here *' laid in a sfftre foua* 
dntiun in divinity, by the aid of Dr. 
Huoaphrey, Dr. Holland, and others." 
His iiist promotion was to the trea- 
surership of Christ-church, and in 1580 
he was admitted into the chapter- 
house, and installed archdeacon of 

Dublin. In. reward of the pains he 
took in r«-fbundiag the university of 
Dublin, ha was made the first fellow 
of it. From the archdeaconry of Dub" 
lin he was advanced to the see of Ar- 
magh in 1595. He had before that 
bceir employed by the dean and chap, 
ter of St Pa tricks, to . prevent the 
suppression of that church, when at- 
tempted by the lord deputy Perrot ; 
and by his prudence, wisdom, and 
vigilance, was successful. He died, 
an Old man, April 2, 1613, and was 
buried at Drogheda io St. Peter's 
church* I Eleven years afierwards he^ 
was succeeded in the primacy by his 
celebrated nephew. 

U S H E Ri 16^ 

who mrere admitted ; and his name stands to this day in the 
first line of the roll. Dr. Bernard seems to hint that he was 
the firsjt graduate, fellow, and proctor, which we doubt, at 
least as to the fellowship, bis uncle being first fellow, and 
his tutor at this time senior fellow, according to Harris. 
Here he learned logic, and the philosophy of Aristotle, 
under Mr. Hamilton, his tutor, anrd though, as we are told, 
his love of poetry and cards retarded bis studies for some 
time, yet he soon recovered himself from these habits, ap- 
plied to books again with great vigour, and at the same 
time acquired that pious turn which was ever afterwards a 
distinguishing feature in his character. He is said tp have 
been wonderfully affected with that passage in Cicero, 
^' Nescire quid antea quam natus sis acciderit, id est. sem« 
per esse puerum ;" that is, " to know nothing of what hap- 
pened before you were born is to be always a boy." About 
this time, from meeting with Sleidan's little book " De 
quatuor imperils," be contracted an extreme fondness for 
the study of history, which he afterwards pursued with 
equal depth and preciseness. At fourteen years of age he 
began to make extracts from all the historical books^he 
could meet with, in order to fix the facts more firmly in his 
memory ; and, between fifteen or sixteen, he had mad^ 
such a proficiency in chronology, that he had drawn up in 
Latin an exact chronicle of the Bible, as far as the book of 
Kings, not much differing from his "Annals," which have 
since been published. The difference chiefly consists in the 
addition of observations and the parallel chronology of the 
heathens. Before he was full sixteen, he had entered upon 
theological studies, and perused the most able writers, on 
both sides, on the Romish controversy. Among the Ro- 
manists, he read Stapleton's " Fortress of Faith ;" and, 
finding that author confident in asserting antiquity for the 
tenets of Popery, and in taxing our church with novelty in 
what it dissented from theirs, he kept his mind in suspense, 
till he could examine how the truth stood in that particular. 
He took it for granted, as his historian says, that the ancient 
doctrines must needs be the right, as the nearer the fountain 
the purer the stream; and that errors sprang up as the ages 
succeeded, according to that known saying of TertuUian, 
** Verum quodcunque primum, adulterum quodcunque 
posterius." Bishop Jewel had adopted the same principle 
before him-; and too much deference to the authority of 
the fathers prevailed in their days and long after. Yet 

166 USHER. 

they were far from being ignorant, as had been absurdly 
imputed to them, that the question concerning doctrines is 
not how ancient, but how true those doctrines are. The 
dispute was purely historical. Stapleton quoted the fathers 
as holding the doctrines of popery. Usher thought this 
impossible, and rather bt^lieved that Stapleton had mis- 
quoted them, at least had wrested and tortureti them to his 
own sense. . Thi's m^de him then take up a firm resolution, 
that in due time (i^ God gave him life) ht* would himself 
read all the fathers, and trust none but his own eyes ifi 
searching \>ut their sense: which great work he afterwards 
began at twenty years of age, and finished at thirty*eight ; 
strictly confining himself to read a certain portion every 
day, from which he occasion to divert him. 

In 1598, when the earl of Essex came over lord-lieute* 
nant of Ireland, and chancellor of the university of Dublin, 
there was a solemn philosophy-act for bis entertainment ; 
and Usher, being then bachelor of arts, was apponited re- 
spondent, in which he acquitted himself with great suc- 
cess. But, while he was busily employed in these studies 
and great designs to fit himself for the ministry, his father's 
inclinations lay towards the common law. He had all along 
designed his son for this study, and was about to send him 
over to the English inns of courts, in order that he might 
there cultivate it the better, but he died in 1588, and thus 
left him at liberty to pursue his own inclinations, which in- 
variably led him to divinity. The paternal inheritance that 
was now fallen into his hands did not give the lea^t inter- 
ruption to his purpose; for, finding it somewhat incum- 
bered with law-suits -and sisters portions, and fearing those 
might prove a hindrance to his studies, which were all his 
care, he gave it up to his brothers and sisters ; only reserv* 
ing so much of it as might support him in a studious life at 

Being now settled to. his liking, and freed from worldly 
connexions and cares, he devoted himself entirely to the 
pursuit of >every species of literature, human and divine; 
He was admitted fellow of the college, and acknowledged 
to be a model x>f piety, modesty, and learning. About 
this time, the learned Jesuit Fitz-simons (See Fitz-simons), 
then a prisoner in Dublin-castle, sent out a challenge*, 

* This challenge by Fiiz-Simoos h inaintaia such particulars as were 
in the dcdicatioD of a piece written by thought by the Protestants to be the 
kioii wher* he dteUres he offereii to weakest in the Romish doctrine, and 



defying the ablest champion that should come against him, 
to dispute with him about the points in controversy between 
the Roman and the Protestant churches. Usher, though 
but in his nineteenth year, accepted the challenge i and 
when they met, the Jesuit despised him as but a boy ; yet, 
after a conference or two, was so vl?ry sensible of the 
quickness of his wit, the strength of his arguments, and 
his skitl in disputation^ as to decline any farther contest 
with him. This appears from the following letter of Usher, 
which Dr. Parr has inserted in his life ; and which serves 
also to confute those who have supposed that there was not 
any actual dispute between them.. *^ I was not purposed, 
Mr. Fitz-simons, to write unto you, before you had iBrst 
written to me, concerning some chief points of your reli- 
gion, as at our last meeting you promised ; but, seeing 
you have deferred the same, for reasons -best known to 
yourself, I thought it not amiss to inquire farther of your 
mind, concerning the continuation of the conference be- 
gun betwixt us. And to this I am the rather moved, be* 
cause I am credibly informed of certain reports, which I. 
could hardly be persuaded should proceed from him, who 
in my presence pretended so great love arid affection unto 
me. If I am a boy, as it hath pleased^ you very con- 
temptuously to name me, I give thanks to the Lord, that 
my carriage towctrds you hath been such as could minister 
unto you no just occasion to despise my youth. Your 
spear belike is in your own conceit a weaver^s beam, and 
your abilities such, that you desire to enfcounter with the 
stoutest champion in the host of Israel ; and therefore, like 
the Philistine, you contemn me as being a boy. Yet this 
I would fain have you know, that I neither came then, 
nor now do come unto you, in any confidence of any 
learning that is in me ; in which respect, notwithstanding, 
I thank God I am what I am : but I come in the name of 
the Lord of Hosts, whose companies you have reproached, 
being certainly persuaded, that even out of the mouths of 

to attack all those pointt wbich they 
thought to be the strongest in their 
doctrine. ** But nobody would hear 
me, (says he) though t called with a 
▼pice as loud as Stentor to the contest. 
Only there once came to me a youth 
of aboat eighteen, very forward in his 
understand iag, who shewed a very 
strong desire of disputing upon the 
most abstruse points of divinity, though 

he had not completed his course of 
philosophy, nor arrived to manhood* 
Bat when I asked him if he had leave 
from his superiors, promising in that 
case to enter the li^ts with him, the 
young man, not being honoured with 
any such commission, bad nothing to 
shew, and returned no more.'^ Th.e 
fallacy of this representation appears 
by the account in the texit 

168 ' USHER. 

babes and sucklings he was able to shew forth bis own 
jpraises. For the farther mauifestatLon thereof, I do again 
earnestly request you, that, setting aside all vain compari- 
sons of persons, we may go plainly forward in examining 
the matters that rest in controversy between us ; otherwise 
I hope you will not be displeased, if, as for your part you 
have begun, so I also for my own part may be bold, for 
the clearing of myself and the truth which I profess, freely 
to make known what hath already passed concerning this 
matter. Thus intreating you in a few lines to make known 
unto nie your purpose in this behalf, I end ; praying the 
Lord, that both this and all other enterprises that we take 
in hand may be so ordered as may most make for the ad- " 
vancement of liis own glory and the kingdom of his sou 
Jesus Christ. " Tuus ad Aras usque, 

" James Ush^r." 
In 1600 he was received master of arts, appointed proc- 
tor, and chosen catechetical lecturer of the university. In 
1601, though under canonical^age, yet oh account of bis 
extraordinary attainments, he was ordained both deacon 
and priest by his uncle Henry Usher, then archbishop of 
Armagh. Not long after, he was appointed to preach con- 
stantly before the state at Christ-churph in Dublin on 
Sundays in the afternoon ; when he made it bis business to 
canvass the chief ppints in dispute between the papists and 
. the protestants. He vehemently opposed a toleration, 
which the former werelhen soliciting, and some were con- 
senting to ; of which he gave his opinion from these words 
of Ezekiel, <' And thou sbalt bear the iniquity of the bouse 
of Judah forty days; I have appointed thee each day for a 
year :" iv. 6. They are part of EzekiePs vision concern- 
ing the destruction of Jerusalem and of the Jewish nation,* 
which* he applied thus to the state of Ireland : " From this 
year I reckon forty years ; and then those, whom you noiv 
embrace, shall be your rviin, and you shall bear their ini- 
quity." This being then uttered in a serm^on, says Dr. 
Parr, seemed only the random-thought of a young man, 
who was no friend to popery ; but afterwards, at the end of 
forty years, namely in 1641, when the Irish rebellion 
broke out, and many thousand of protestants were mur- 
dered, it was considered by many as even prophetical. On 
other occasions he was thought to betray an extraordinary 
foresight, and there was a treatise published " De predic- 
tionibus U^serii." 


In 1603 he was sent over to England with Dr. Luke 
Challoqer,. in order to purchase books for the library at 
Dublin ; the English army, who defeated the Spaniards at 
Kinsale^ having contributed the sum of 1800/. for this 
purpose. On his arrival he found sir Thomas Bodley at 
London, employed in the same manner for his newly- 
erected library at Oxford, and they are said to have mu- 
tually assisted each other. It was during his absence upon 
this occasion that his mother was reconciled to the Romish 
religion, which gave him the most afflicting concern, and 
the more as she continueci obstinate to the last, djiog at 
Drogheda in the communion of that church. It appears 
also, that her father, the recorder, though outwardly a 
conformist tc the new religion, after its establishment by 
Q. Elizabeth, yet still retained his old affection for popery, 
as appears from his supporting first in his owji house Ed- 
mund. Campian, afterwards the famous Jesuit, then a re- 
fugee from England, and in the next place recommending 
bim to a friend in the country, where he might be secure 
from the danger of being seized and brought to justice for 
treasonable practices, in drawing her majesty^s subjects 
from their allegiance. The recorder took care however to 
conduct himself so prudently, as to give no umbrage to the 
government, and by that means continued unpiolested ia 
his post. 

In 1606, the necessity of purchasing bookstand paanu- 
scripts relating to English history (in which study our au- 
thor was then engaged) brought him again into England. 
He now contracted an intimate acquaintance and friendship 
with several learned men, and among others, sir Robert 
Cotton, Thomas Allen of Oxford, and Mr. Camden, which 
last, designing a new edition of his ^^ Britannia," consulted 
with him about publishing Ninias, St. Patrick, and Congal, 
and other writers or documents relating to the ancient state 
of Ireland and the city of Dublin, a great part of the an- 
swers to which were inserted in the edition of the " Britan- 
nia," published in 1607, with this elogy of our author: 
^^ For many of the^e things concerning Dublin I acknow- 
ledge myself indebted to the diligence and labour of James 
Usher, chancellor of the church of St. Patrick, who in va- 
rious learning and judgment far exceeds his years." The 
fpUo^ng year, 1607, he proceeded bachelor of divinity, 
and was cbpsen professor of that faculty in his college* He 
was also promoted to the chancellorship of the cath^d^aJ of 

ira tj s H £ R. 

St. Patrick the same year, by Dn Loftas the archbishop, 
la his office of divinity-professor he continued thirteen 
years, reading lectures weekly throughout the year. In 
1609 he made a third voyage to England, and became ae^ 
quainted with other eminent and learned men, Selden, sir 
Henry Savile, Briggs, Ward, Lydial, Dr^Davenanl, &c.; 
after which he constantly came over into England once in 
three years, spending one month at Oxford, another at 
Cambridge, and the rest of his time at London, chiefly in 
the Cottonian library. In 1609 he wrote a learned treatise 
concerning the ** Herenach, Termon, and Corban lands, 
anciently belonging to the chorepiscopi of England 'and 
Ireland; which was held in great esteem, and presented by 
archbishop Bancroft to king James. The substance of it 
was afterward translated into Latin by sir Henry Spelman, 
in his '< Glossary,'' and by sir James Ware in the 17th 
chapter of his Antiquities ; but it never was published. The 
MS. is in the Lambeth library. In 1610 he was unani- 
mously elected provost of Dublin college ; but refused to 
accept that post, being apprehensive of its hindering him 
in those great designs he was then meditating for the pro- 
motion of learning and true religion. 

In 1612 he took his doctor of divinity^s degree; and the 
next year, being at London, his first publication appeared, 
entitled '< De Ecclesiarum Christianarum Successione & 
Statu,*' in 4to. This is a continuation of bishop Jewel's 
^Apology," in which that eminent prelate had endeavoured 
to shew that the principles of protestants are agreeable to 
those of the fathers of the six first centuries. Usher s design 
was to finish what JeWel had begun, by shewing that from 
the sixth century to the reformation, namely, for 900 years, 
Christ has always had a visible church of true Christians, 
untainted with the errors and corruptions of the Roman 
church ; and that these islands owe not their Christianity 
to Rome. This work is divided into three parts.' The first 
reaches to the tenth century, when Gregory VII. was raised 
to the popedom. The second was to have reached from that 
period to the year 1S70. And the third was to bring it to 
the reformation. How faf he had brought it in this edition 
is stated in the following extract of a letter written to his 
brother-in-law, Thomas Lydiat, dated at Dublin, August 
16, 1619 : " You have rightly observed," says he^ " that in 
my discourse * De Christianarum Ecclesiarum Successione 
eit Statu,' there is wanting, for the accomplishment of the 


USHER. 171 

second part, a hundred yean [from 1240 to 1370, vix. the 
last chapter of this part] ; which default, in the continuation 
of the work is by me supplied. I purpose to publish the 
whole work together, much augmented, but do first expect 
the publication of my uncle Stanyburst's answer to the 
former, which, I hear, since his death, is sent to Paris, to 
be there printed. I am advertised, also, that even now 
there is one at Antwerp who hath printed a treatise of my 
oounttyman De sacro Bosco j(Holy wood), * De veree Eccle- 
sie investigatione,' wherein he bath some dealing with me. 
Both these I would willingly see before I set about re- 
printing my book, meaning, that if they have justly found 
fault with any thing, I may amend it; if unjustly, I may 
defend it." His uncle's answer, however, was never pub- 
lished, nor did our author publish any-other edition of his 
work, as he here purposed ; probably prevented by the dis« 
traction of the times. It was reprinted at Hanover in 1658, 
8vo, without any amendments. In the last edition of 1687, 
containing likewise his Antiquity of the British Churches, 
are these words in the title-page: '^Opus integrum ab 
. Auctore auctum et recognitum ;'' which, Dr. Smith observes, 
was a trick of the bookseller. Usher's work was solemnly 
presented by archbishop Abbot to king James, as the emi- 
nent first fruits of the college of Dublin. 

The same year, 1612, upon his return to Ireland, he 
married Phoebe, only daughter of Dr. Luke Cballoner, who 
died this year April the 12th, and in his last will recom- 
mended our author to his daughter for a husband, if she was 
inclined to marry. In 1615 there was a parliament held at 
Dublin, and a convocation of the clergy, in which were 
composed certain articles relating to the doctrine and dis- 
cipline of the church, These articles were drawn up by 
Usher, and signed by archbishop Jones, then lord chan- 
cellor of Ireland, and speaker of the house of bishops in 
convocation, by order from James I. in his majesty's name. 
Among these articles^ which amount to the number of one 
hundred and four, besides asserting the doctrine of pre- 
destination and reprobation in the strongest terms, one of 
them professes that there is but one catholic church, out of 
which there is no salvation; and another maintains- that the^ 
sabbath*day ought to be kept holy. Upon these accounts 
Dr. Heylin called the passing of these articles an absolute 
plot of the Sabbatarians and Calvinists in England to make 
ibemselves so strong a party in Ireland as to obtain what 


J73 U S H E R. 

they pleased in this convocation. Our author was well 
known to be a strong asserter of the predestinarian {)rinci- 
ples; and being besides of opinion that episcopacy was not 
a distinct order, but only a different degree from that of 
presbyters, be certainly cannot be exculpated from the 
charge of puritanism. However, as he always warmly as- 
serted the king's supremacy, and the episcopal form of 
church government established, and all the discipline of it, 
it has been said that all the objections to him, as inclined 
to puritanism, were the effect of party, the church begin- 
ning about this time to be divided between the Calvinistic 
and Arminian principles upon the quinquarticular contro- 
versy. Dr. Parr tells us, his enemies were of no great re- 
pute for learning and worth ; and that our author, hearing 
pf their attempts to deprive him of his majesty's favour, 
procured a letter from the lord deputy and council of Ire- 
land to the privy council in England, in defence of his 
principles, which he brought over to England in 1619, and 
satisfied his majesty so well upon that point, that in 1620 
he promoted him to the bishopric of Meath. In November 
1622 be made a speech in the castle-chamber at Dublin 
upon the censuring of certain officers, concerning the law- 
fulness of taking, and the danger of refusing, the oath of 
supremacy ; which pleased king James so well that he 
wrote him a letter of thanks for it. In 1623 he was con- 
stituted a privy counsellor of Ireland, and made anolber 
voyage to England, in order to collect materials for a ^ork 
concerning the antiquities of the churches of England, 
Scotland, and Ireland, which the king himself had em- 
ployed him to write ; and soon after his return to Ireland 
was engaged in answering the challenge of Malone, an 
Irish Jesuit of the college of Louvain. 

He was again in England, when kmg James, just before 
he died, advanced him to the archbishopric of Armagh ; 
but, as be was preparing to return to Ireland, he was seized 
with a quartan ague, which detained him nine months. 
Before he left England he had a disputation with a popish 
priest at Drayton in Northamptonshire, the seat of lord 
Morda^uht, afterwards earl of Peterborough. He was scarce 
recovered from his ague, when. this lord Mordaunt, then 
9^ zealous Roman catholic, being very desirous to bring bis 
l^dy into the pale of that church, concluded that th^re 
could oe no better or more certain way than to procure a 
disputation to be held between two learned and principal 

U a H £ R. 17S 


petsons, one of each side, at which his lady should bd 
present. In that resolution he chose, for the cham{>io[i of 
his own cause, the Jesuit Beaumont, whose true nan>e was 
Rookwood, being brother to that Rookwood who was exe« 
cuted for the gunpowder treason. Against this antagonist 
lady Peterborough chose our primate, who, notwithstanding 
his health was not sufficiently confirmed to engage in such 
a task, yet from the ardent zeal for the reformed doctrine 
with which he was constantly animated, and to save a sout 
from falling into the wiles of an artful Jesuit, he did not 
refuse to comply v/ith her ladyship's request. The place 
appointed for holding the disputation was my lord^s seat at 
Drayton, a place very proper for the business, as being 
furnished with a most copious library of the writings of ail 
the ancient fathers of the church, which were ready at 
hand, if it should happen that any of them should be re- 
ferred to in the engagement. The heads of the dispute 
were agreed to be upon transubstantiation, the invocation 
of saints, of images, and the perpetual visibility of the 
church. After it had been held for three days, five hours 
each day, in which our primate sustained the part of re- 
spondent, ^hat office for the fourth day lay upon Beau- 
mont, according to the regulation settled by himself. But 
he sent a letter to the baron, with an excuse, alleging, 
"that all the arguments which he had formed had slipt out 
of his memory, nor was he able .by any effort to recollect 
them, imputing the cause of the misfortune to a just judg- 
ment of God upon him, for undertaking of his own accord^ 
without the licence of his superiors, to engage in a dispute 
with a person of so great eminence and learning as the 
primate." Such a shameful tergiversation sunk deeply 
into the mind of lord Mordaunt, so that, after some con- 
ferences with the primate, he renounced popery, and coo- 
tinued in the profession of the protestant faith to the end' 
of his life. 

This account is given in the life of our archbishop by 
Dr. Nicholas Bernard, who says he had it from an eye and 
ear witness. And it is in a great measure confirmed by the 
reproach thrown upon Beaumont by Chaloner, a secular 
priest, who in a piece wrote against the Jesuit ^'admonishes 
him to beware of Drayton-house, lest he should there 
chance to light upon another Usher, and he again put to 
flight, to the great disgrace both of himself and his profes- 
^n.'' As to the primate, the eminent service done by 

17i ir S H E B« 

tAiis disputation to lady PeterboVougb could not but be werf 
sensibly felt by ber ; and that it was so, she gare bis grice' 
suflBcient proofs in that extraordinary kindness and respect 
wbich she shewed to him all his life after. 

In the administration of his archbishopric Usher acted, 
as he bad acted in every other station, in a most exemplary 
manner; and vigorously opposed the design of granting. & 
more full toleration to the Irish papists. An assembly of 
the whole nation, both papists and protestants, had been 
called by the then lord deputy Falkland, for the considera^ 
tion of that point ; when the bishops, by the lord primate^s 
invitation, met first at. his house, and both* he and they 
subscribed a protestation against a toleration of popery. 
About the same time, observing the increase of Armioi- 
anism^ which be considered as a very dangerous doctrine, 
be employed some time in searching into the origin of the 
predestinarian controversy ; and meeting with a curiosity 
upon that subject be published it, in 1631, at Dublin, 4to, 
under the title '^Gotescbalci et predestinarianas controversial 
ab eo niotsB historia,'* which is said to have been the first 
Latin book ever printed in Ireland. He published another 
work in 1632, concerning the ancient Irish church, entitled 
<< Veterum Epistolarum Hibernicarum Sylloge,*' a collec* 
tion of letters out of several ancient manuscripts, and other 
authors, to and from Irish bishops and monks, from anno 
5S2 to 1180, concerning the affairs of the Irish church; 
which shew the great esteem, as well for learning as piety, 
\n which the bishops and clergy of that church were held 
both at Rome, France, England, and elsewhere : with se- 
veral matters relating to the great controversies of those 
times about the keeping of Easter, and also every thing 
relating to the ecclesiastical discipline and jurisdiction of 
the church of that kingdom. 

In 1634, the parliament of Ireland being ready to meet, 
there arose a dispute between the archbishops of Armagh 
and Dublin concerning precedence; but Usher asserted 
his right with such clearness and evidence that the point 
was determined in his favour. The convocation meeting 
at the same time with the parliament, he had the principal 
band in composing and establishing the Irish canons, in 
which the liberties of that church were maintained by him 
against Dr. Bramhall (See Bramhall), who was for the 
ICnglish canons, and was probably influenced by archbishop 
Laud. For when they were passed in convocation. Laud 

USHER. 175 

thus wrote to Ush(pr : *^ For your canons^ to speak tratfa^ 
and mth liberty aod freedom, though I cannot but think 
the English canons entire (especially, with some amend- 
ments) would have done better, yet since you and that 
church have thought otherwise, I do very easily .submit to 
it." His grace afterwards writes thus : '* As for the parti^ 
cular about subscription, I think you have couched that 
very well, since, as it seems, there was some necessity to 
carry that article closely ; and God forbid' you should upon 
any occasion roll back upon your former controversy about 
the articles.'* To explain his grace's meaning, it must be. 
observed, that those canons of the thirty-nine articles of 
the church of England were received, and declared to be 
the confession of the faith of the church of Ireland, to 
which every clergyman was obliged to subscribe. Upon 
which Dn Heylin asserted, that the Irish articles of 1615 
above mentioned were now repealed. But he recalled this 
error when he found (the truth) that the Irish articles were 
still retained and confirmed in these very canons. . The 
doctor indeed observed, that the inconsistency of the several 
articles proved the virtual repeal of the Irish ones : yet it 
is plain that this was not so ^understood at that time, nor 
for several years after, since both the primate and all the 
rest of the Irish bishops, at all ordinations, took the sub- 
scription of the party ordained to both sets of articles, till 
the Irish rebellion put a stop to all ordinations. However, 
since the restoration of king Charles 11. a subscription only 
to the thirty-nine articles of the church of England is 

AH this while he kept a correspondence in every countfy 
for the advancement of learning, and procured in 1634 a 
very good copy of the Samaritan Pentateuch from the East; 
besides one of the Old Testament in Syriac, and other va- 
luable manuscripts. It was one of the first of those Penta- 
teuchs that ever were brought into these western parts of 
Europe, as Mr. Selden and Dr. Walton acknowledge ; and 
the Syriac Testament was much more perfect than had 
hitherto been seen in these parts. The other manuscripts 
were procured by the means of one Mr. Davies, then a 
merchant at Aleppo. The archbishop collated the Sama- 
ritan with the Hebrew, and marked the differences, after 
which he intended it for the library of sir Robert Cotton.' 
But this, as well as the other manuscripts, being borrowed 
of him by Dr. Walton, and made use of by him in the 

175 USHER. 


edition of the Polyglot Bible, were not recovered out of t!i6 
hands of that bishop's executors till 1686, and are novr in 
the Bodleian library. And notwithstanding the necessary 
avocations in the discharge of his episcopal office, he pro- 
secuted his studies wi^th indefatigable diligence, the fruits 
ef which appeared ih 1638, when he published at Dublin, 
in 4to, his " Emmanuel, or a treatise on the Incarnation of 
the Son of God ;" which was followed by his " Britanni- 
carum Ecclesiarum Antiquitates" in the ensuing year. This 
history contains a most exact account of the British church : 
From the first planting of Christianity in twenty years after 
our Saviour's crucifixion, he brings it down both in Britain 
and Ireland, to the end of the Seventh century. The piece 
was of great service, particularly to Dr. Lloyd and bishop 
Stiliingfleet, his followers upon the same subject. 

In the beginning of 1640 he came into England with 
his family, intending (as before) to return in a year or two 
at farthest. Soon after his arrival he went to Oxford for 
the more convenience of pursuing his studies : but these 
were unhappily interrupted by the urgent necessity of the 
times, which put him upon writing some pieces that were 
published at Oxford in 1641, on the subject of episcopacy : 
These were, 1 . " The Judgment of Dr. Reynolds concern- 
ing the original of Episcopacy defended." 2. ** The Ori- 
ginal of Bishops, or a chorographical and historical disqui- 
sition touching the Lydian and proconsular Asia, and the 
seven metropolitan churches contained therein." The de- 
sign of this treatise is to prove, from Acts xix. 17, supported 
by Rev. ii. 1. and confirmed by ecclesiastical history, that 
bishops and metropolitans were instituted by the apostles ; 
meaning only with regard to their superiority in degree; 
for he did not hold episcopacy to be a superior order to 
presbytery. He also endeavours to prove that the bishop 
of Ephesus was not onlj^ the metropolitan of the procon- 
sular Asia, but the primate, or exarch, of all the provinces 
that were comprehended within the compass of the whole 
Asian diocese ; and that he acted suitably to the patriarchal 
jurisdiction, which was in effect conferred upon him. In 
the prosecution of the argument he shews> 1. That the stars 
described in the Revelations are the angels of the seven 
churches. 2. That these angels were the several bishops 
of those churches, and not the whole college of presbyters. 
3. That each of these seven dhurches was at that time a 
metropolis* 4. That these bishops were ordained by the 

Us HER. l?t 

ipostles £ts constant permanent officers io the'churcb, and s0 
in a sort jure divino^ not to be dispenseil with except in cases 
of necessity. These tracts were printed, with others on 
the same subject, under the title ** Certain brief Treatises,'* 
fcc. Ozf» 1641, 4to. It was about this time also that he 
drew up his treatise on " The Power of the Princd and the 
Obedience of the Subject,'' which, as we have mentioned 
in our account of bis grandson, James Tyrrell, was pub- 
lished after the restoration. 

Archbishop Usher was a maii of too much note, and of 
too high a station, not to be deeply involved in and af^ 
fected with the succeeding troubles. He -is charged J[>7 
some writers with having advised the king to consent to 
the bill against the earl of Strafford, but is cleared by 
others 3 and Dr. Parr tells us, that when the primate lay 
extremely ill, and expected death at St. Donate*s castle in 
1645, he asked his grace concerning it, who flatly denied 
it, and said it was wrongfully laid to his charge ; for, that 
be neither advised nor approved it» In the rebellion in 
Ireland be was plundered of everything except his library 
and some furniture , in his bouse at Drogheda, whence the 
library was conveyed to England. On this the king con- 
ferred on him the bishopric of Carlisle, to be holden.iti 
commendafn ; the rerenues of which, however, were re- 
duced to almost nothing by the Scots and EngUsh arniies 
tjuarterin^ upon it. 'When all the lands belonging to the 
English bishoprics were seized by the parliament, they 
voted bicn a pension of 400/. per annum; which yet he 
never receive aoove once or twice. It is said that he was 
invited into France by cardinal Richelieu, with a promise 
of the' free exercise of his religion, and a considerable 
pension ; and likewise by the Stares of Holland, who of-* 
fered him the place of honorary professor at Leyden. Dn 
Smithy, one of bis biographers, seems to doubt these facts^ 
especi^ly the firsU But Dr. Tarr thinks it not tinlikely, 
from an instance of respect which Richelieu had before 
sbewh to the archbishop, by sending him, in return for a 
copy lof the ^^ Antiquity of the British Churches," which the 
author bad presented to his eminence, a letter of much 
kindness and esteem, accompanied with a gold medali 
which Dr. Bernard says ^' is still preserved.'* It was in 
possession of the Tyrrell family in 1738, and was then ex« 
hibited to the society of antiquaries. The date is 163 1 *. 

* From a MS note In Mr. Oovgh's copy of the BiOsrapbia Britaiinioa, now 
kthe editor's possession* 

Vol. XXX. N 

178 U.S H E R. 

In 1642 the archbishop reipoved to Oxford, not long 
before the king came thither, and preached every Sunday 
atsodoe of the churches, principally All SaiiUs. In 1643 
he was nominated one of the assembly of divines at West* 
minster, but refused to sit among them : and. this, together 
with some of bis sermons at Oxford, in which he bad spoke 
against their authority, giving offence to the parliament, 
thj^y ordered his library to be seized, and it would have 
been sold, bad not Dr. Featly, who sat among those di- 
vines while his heart was with, the church and king, ob- 
tained it by means of Mr. Selden for his own use, and 
so secured it, to the. right owner, or at least the greater 
part, but some valuable articles were stolen, and qever 
recovered. In 1644 he published at Oxford his valuable 
edition of *' JPolycarpi et Ignatii Epistols.^' 

The king^s. affairs declining, and Oxford being threat- 
ened with a ?iege, he left that city, and retired to Car- 
diff, in Wales, to the house of sir Timothy Tyrrell, who 
bad married his only daughter, and who was then gover« 
nor and general of the ordnance. He continued six months 
here in tranquillity, prosecuting his studies, particularly 
his *^ Annals,'' and then went to the castle of St. Donate, 
^whither he was invited by the lady dowager Stradling ; but 
in his jouri\ey thither fell into the hands of the moun- 
taineers, who took away his books and papers.; yet these 
were, by the kindness of the gentlemen/and clergy of that 
country, in a great measure restored. Before this had 
been achieved, and while his MSS, the labour of so many 
years, see^led irrecoverable, be was observed to be more 
concerned than at all his former sufferings. At St. Donate's 
he found an excellent library : but a fit of sickness pre- 
vented him froin making all the use of it he proposed. His 
sickness was of an extraordinary nature ; it was at first a 
suppression of urine, .with extremity of torture, ending in 
a violent bleeding at the nose fornear forty hours, . with- 
out any intermission ; ^ut when ^ was every moment ex- 
pected to die, the bleedins stopped, and be geadually re^ 
covered. He went to Lonaon in 1.64.6, upon an invitation 
from the countess of Peterborough, to make her house his 
home ; and, in 1647, was chosen preacher of Lincoln's Inn. 
llns society ordered him handsome lodgings, ready far* 
nisbed, and several rooms for his library, which was about 
this time brought up from Chester, being almost all the 
remains t)f his substance that had escaped the rebels. . Mr. 

U- S la E R. 17& 

(afterwards lord chief justice) Hale was then abedolier of 
the society, and probably had the chief hand in procuring 
him this place ; and it happened that the society ivas weU 
rewarded for it by that treasure lodged in this library by 
the lord chief justice in four volumes, which were extracted 
from the primate's manuscripts; of which Dr. Parr has 
subjoined to his Life of the primate a catalogue, consisting 
of thirty-three very curious books. Here the primate con- 
stantly preslched all term-time for almost eight years, till 
at last, his eye-sight and teeth beginning to fail him, he 
could not well be heard in so large a congregation^ and 
was forced to quit this place about a year and a half iiiefore 
his death, to the great regret of the society. In the mean 
time, amidst all the convulsions of the times, he continued 
bis studies, and the year he was chosen to Lincoln's Inn, 
published bis treatise ** De Komanse Ecclesise Symbols,** 
which he followed by his *^ Dissertatio de Macedohum et 
Asianorum anno solari** in the beginning of 1648, 8vo. In 
this tract, besides fixing the exact time of St. Polycarp^s 
martyrdom, he compares the Grecian and Macedonian 
months with the Julian apd other nations ; and, having laid 
down the method and disposition of the Macedonian and 
Asiatic year, he adds rules for finding out the cycles of 
the sun and moon, and Easter for ever, with several cu-* 
riMs accounts of the celestial motions according to the 
ancient Greek astronomers, Melon, Calippus, Eudoxus, 
and bthers. To which is annexed an Ephemeris, ^or entire 
Greek and Roman calendar for the whole year, with the 
rising and setting of the stars in that climate. 

About this time be was sent for to the Isle of Wight by 
his majesty, to assist him in treating with the parliament 
upon the point of episcopacy ; when he proposed an ex^ 
pedient, which he called '^ Presbyterian and Episcopal Go^ 
vemment conjoitied,*' which the king approved as the like* 
liest mieans of* reconciling the then differences. But no 
proposals, how moderate soever, were able to satisfy the 
Presbyterians, tillhis majestj^ was taken but of their hands 
by the army, and brought to the scaffold^ the sight of 
which struek ouir primate with the utmost horror. The 
countess of Peterborough'shouse, where the primate then 
lived, being exactly opposite to Charijig Cross, several of 
the family, at the time of the king's execution, went u^ 
to the leads of theliouse, which commanded a full view of 
Whitehall ; and, as soon as his majesty came upon the 

N 2 


fteaffold, some of them went down and told the prkntl^ 
ftsking him it he wduid not see the king once more before 
be W4« put to death. Though unwilling at fiKst, yet he was 
persuaded at length to goup, as well out of a desire lo see 
the king once again, as from curiosity, since he could scarce 
believe what they told him. When be came upon the leads 
his majesty was iahis speech. The primate stood still, aiid 
said nothing) but sighed ; and> lifting his hands and eyes 
full of tears towards heaven, seemed to pray earnestly^* 
But when the king had done speaking, and had taken off 
bis cloaths and doublet^ and stood stript in his waistcoat, 
and the executioners in vizards began to put up the king^s 
hair, he grew pale, and would have fainted if he bad not 
been immediately carried off. He kept the 30th of Ja«» 
nuary as a private fast as long as he lived; In 1650 be 
published the first part of his ^^ Annals of the Old Testa* 
ment,'^ and the i^econd in 1654. The two parts were 
printed together, under the title of ^^ Annales Veteris et 
Novi Testament!,'* at Paris, 1673, and at Geneva, 1722, 
in folia- In 1652 he published bis '^ Epistolfi ad Ludovi« 
cum Capellum de variantibus textus Hebraici lectionibus,'* 
Lond. 1640. 

His great reputation having excited in Cromwell a cu- 
riosity to see him, the primate, upon the usurper's intima- 
tion of it to him, went, and was received with great civility : 
Cromwell made him also many promises, but never per- 
formed them, and it was on this occasion that the pFimate 
predicted the restoration, in a conversation with Dr. P^rr, 
his biographer. *<Thts false roan hath broken his word 
with tee, and refuses to perform what he promised.' Well, 
he will have little cause to glory in hit wickedness ; for he. 
will not contiaiie long. The king will return : Though I 
shall not live to see it, you may. The government, both 
in church and atate, is in c<mfusioii. The papists are ad- 
vancing their projects, and making sudh advttnl»gea as will 
hardly be prevented.^' The same year, 1654, he published 
his last j^iece, ^ De Grssca SeptQagtnta loterpretnm ve- 
rum Syntagma,*^ &e. ; «nd preached Mr. Selden^s funeral- 
sermon in the Temple-ehiircb. On March £0, 1655-6, he 
was taken ill^ and died the day followiog, in the eottotess 
6f Peterborough's bouse at Hyegate io Surrey. Though 
he was seveoty-slx, his iUneas proved to be a pleurisy : for, 
i^pon opening bis i»pdy^ a great deal of coagulated blood 
was found settled io his left sid«r. P^-qparatioas were .making 

USHER. lit 

to bmy him privateiy; but Craoiw^ll ordered him to b^ 
interred with great magnificence in Eraioitts'g chapel in 
Westmimter^abbey, the funeral service being iierformed 
according to the liturgy of the church of England. This 
was a great indulgetice, but the usurper nteaiit to make 
himself popular, fknowing what a high repotaiioo the de^ 
ceased had among all orders of men ; yet was politic enough 
to throw the expence of the fuoeral upon- bis relations, who 
were ill able to bear it. His faeeral sermon was preached 
by Dr. Nicolas Bernard, who had formerly been his chap- 
lain^ and was then preacher of Gray Vina : it was printed, 
and contains many particulars of his life, related with the 
ceetion then necessary. 

• Usher left hk library, beiag the chief part of bis pro* 
perty, as a portion to his only daughter, who had been 
ti^ mother of a numerous offspring. It was first bought 
by the officers and soldiers of Cromwell's army in Ireland, 
uod lodged in DubUn-castle, where it lay, though not 
witbeut being much pillaged, till the restoration ; wbich 
briaging it into the posseitsian of king Charles il. he gave 
it, according to the primate's first intention, to Dublin- 
college, where tt now remaiiis. This, in truth, had been 
the primate's first intention ; bat, upon the loss of every 
thiBg else espept his books, he was compelled to consider 
the neceseities of his family, his daughter having before 
bed nothing from him except some pieoea of gold present- 
ed t9 him by Mr. Seiden's eKeoutors and other persons of 
qwility. The library consisted of ten thousand volumes 
pcJAt^ and mafiaecript, and cost the primate many thou-> 
sand piMittds. Both the king of Denmark and cardinal 
llaaaiiee ^ffesed a good price for it by their aigents here ; 
but the exeiMitors were forbidden, by an order from Oliver 
aad bis conueil, to sell it to any one without his consent ; 
so it was at last bought by the soldieni and officers of the 
then emy in irelaiMl, who, out of emulation to the former 
ooUe action of queen Elizabeth's army, were incited by 
some men of pubUc spirit to the like performance, and 
thegr bad. it for mnch leas than the real worth, or what ha^i. 
been offered for it before by the agents above mentioned. 
They bad also wtbbitall the manuscripts which were not 
of kje own hand^ writings and a choice though not numerous 
collection of ancient coins. But, when this library was 
carried over into Ireland^ the usurper and his son, who 
then commanded ii^ chief there^ would not bestow it upon 

182 US HER. 


the college, lest perbape the gift diQuld not appear so con<* 
siderable there as it would do by itsrif ; and themfore tbey 
gave cut that they iutended it for a new collie or hall 
which tbey said they, intended to build and endow. But it 
proved that, as these were not times, so they were not per- 
sons capable of any such noble or pious work; and this 
Ubrary lay in the castle of Dublin till Cromweirs death ; 
and, during. the anarchy and confusion that followed, 
the rooms where it was, kept being left open, many of 
the books, and most of the best manuscripts, were stolen 
away, or else embezzled by those that were intrusted with 

. Archbishop Usher was tall, well-shaped, and walked ap« 
right to the last His hair was brown, his complexion san- 
guine, his countenance full of good*-nature as well as gra» 
vity : yet, Dr. Parr says, the air of his face was hard to hit, 
and that, though many pictures were taken of him,* h& 
never saw but one like him, which was done by sir Peter 
Lely. He was a man who abounded in all graces, moral 
asr well as spiritual ; wblch» joiiied with the greatest abili* 
ties and learning, made him upon the whole a very com- 
plete character. . Among hia MSS. were many notes and 
observations upon the Writings and characters of the fathers 
and ecclesiastical authors, which he designed as the foun- 
dation of a large and elaborate work, to be called *^ Tbeo- 
logica Bibliotheca ;*' and this was indeed,, of all bis works^ 
that which he had most set bis heart upon : yet the cala-» 
mities of the times would not suffer him to finish it. He 
left these papers, bomver, to Dr. Gerard Langbaine, pro- 
vost of Queen's college, as the only osan on whose learn- 
ing as well as friendship be could rely, to render them fit 
for the press : but Langbaine, while pursuing his task in 
the public library, got so severe a ccJd, that he died in 
1657; and nothing farther appears to have been done, 
though Dr. Fell afterwards made some attempts, to. get it 
finished. A copy of it is lodged in the Bodleian library^. 
, Th^ i^orks from his MSS. published after h» death, 
jwere; i. ^' Cbronologia sacra ; seu Annorum & toA^tmiag 
Patriarcharum, mmpomia^ Israditarum in j£gypto ; Annorum 
etiam Judicum, HegumJuds^ Israelis, MoSnl^f Chronologica," 
Oxford, 1660^ in 4tOy published by Dr. Thomas Barlow, 

* There is oae work of very com- tlie Christian Religion," 1654, foLpnb* 
imon occurrence, called his '* Body of lished without his Consentj and on\f 
PiTmity« or the Sum and Substance of partly bis. 

t7 lg H E R. 183 

afterwards bishop of Lincoln. 'Reprinted with the Annals 
of the Old and New Testament at Genera, in 1722, folia; 
This chronology is 'imperfect, the author dying while 4]e 
was engaged in it. He proposed to have' subjoined 'to it a 
tract ^* De • primiti?o & veterum Hebrseorum Kalendario." 
2. A collection of pieces published by Dr. Nicholas Bier* 
tiard at London, in 1658, 8vo, under the title of ^^ The 
Judgment of the late Archbishop/' &c. 3. Dr. Bernard 
.published likewise at London in 1659 our author's << Judg- 
mi^nt ami sense of the present 8ee of Rome from Apocal. 
itviii. 4." 4. ^^ The power of the prince and obedience of 
the subject stated ;'' with a preface by Dr. Robert Sander* 
son, published by James Tyrrell, esq. grandson to our au- 
thor, at London, 1661. 5. A volume of << Sermons,'* 
preached at Oxford before his majesty, and elsewhere. 6^. 
*< Hiistoria Do^matica Controversise inter Orthodoxoa & 
Pontiiicios de Scripturis & sacris Vernaculis. Aceessere 
^Qsdem Dissertationes duss de Pseudo-Dionysii scriptis & 
Je Epistolft ad Laodicenos. Deseripsit, digessit, & Noiis 
atque Auctario locupletavit Henricus Wharton," London, 
1 690p 4to. 7. *< A Collection of three hundred Letters writ- 
ten to James Usher lord archbishop of Armagh, and most 
of the eminente^t persona for piety and learning in bis time 
both in England and beyond the seas. Collected and 
piAlished from original copies under their own hand^ by 
Richard Parr,' D. D. bis lOTdsbtp'a cfaaplatn u the time of 
his d^ith, with whom the care of all his papers were in* 
trusted by his lordship,^' London, 16S6, folio. To this Dr. 
Parr has prefixed the Ufa of the archbishop, collected from 
authentic documents, and with the. assistance of the Tyrrell 
family, his only descendants. This volume forms the best 
monument yet erected to bis memory, and from the very 
names of his correqMindents, gives us a high idea of the 
4respeci in which he was held, attd the high place he filled 
in the literary woirhl.* ^ 

USHER (Jamxs), an ingeniotts writer, was the son of a 
gentleman-farmer in the county of Dublin, where he was 
j^om about 1720. He was descended from the venerable 
prelate of whom we have just given an account, but was of 
aHomau catholic family^ He received a good classical 
edw£stio% though with no view to any of the learned pro** 

1 Life by Parr.— Life itt Smilb's Vitn Eruditif8iiaoruiD.--Sios. Brit.— Har- 
ris's Ware.— Fdieral Sermon \j Dr. Bernard, 1C37> Idmo. 

t84 y S H £ R. 

fessions. When growo up, be becaoid 9^ hM^r^'m imitA* 
tioii of his father, but after some years* eupcrieiicei bad 
Uttle success, and having sold bis farm,, stock, jcc. settled 
for some time as a linen-draper in Dublin r for this btttt% 
ness, however^ beseems to have been as Uttle <)ualified aa 
for the other, and was a great loser. In truth he had that 
secret love of literature about him which geueraliy tospined 
a train of thQugbt not very compatible with the atteutijOii 
which trade requires : and finding himself, after someyear% 
{I, widower with a family of four children, and but little 
prospect of providing for them in any business, he took 
orders in the church of Rome, sent his three sons for edii^ 
cation to the collie of Lombard in Paris, and his daughler 
to a monastery, where she soon after died. He then came 
.to London, and while revolving plans for his support, and 
the eduication of bis children, ,Mr« MoUoy, an Irish gentle^ 
man, who had formerly been a political writer against tie 
Kobert Walpole, died, and left him a legacy of three hau«> 
dred pounds. . With this noney Mr. Usher thought of set- 
Mug up a school, as the. most likely way of providing ftxr, 
bis. sons ;, and with this view he communicated his inten- 
tions to the late Mr. John Wajker, author of the Pronouu- 
cing Dictionary, and mauy other approved works 00 the 
construction ^nd elegance of the English language. Mr. 
Walker not only. approved the plati, but joined him as a 
partner in the business, and they opened a school uodte 
this firm at Kensington Grayel^fiits. Mr. Usher^s acquaint^ 
ance with Mr. Walker cpmmenced during the fomer'a ex<« 
cursions from Dublin, to Bristol, which latter plaee Mv* 
Walker's business led him^o tisit oecasiooaUy. Their ac^^ 
quaintance soon grew into a friendship^ which continued 
unbroken and undiminished to the close of Mr. Usb^^alUb. 
But the school these grotleo^en were eonbasked in^ did not 
stkogetjber answer Mr. Walkitt^s purposes* Whether the 
profits were too Uttle to divide, or whether he thought he 
4;duld do better a^ a private teacher, it is difficult to aliy ; 
i^ui Mr. Walker, after trying it for some tune, quilted liie 
eaisHiectioni and codamenced a private teoither, wfaioii hb 
very successfully eourtinued to the laal. They {mited, innr- 
ever^ with the same casdiality they commenced^ and the 
ctvilittes. and fri£Qdship3 of life were mutually ooAlsnited.. 

Mr. Usher being now sole master of the school, be culti-< 
Yated it with dillgelhte and ability, and with tolerable suc- 
cess, for about four years ; when n^ died of a consumptiopji 

U S B E R. 184 

«i tbe age of ftfty^tfro^ in 1772. Mr. Usber'^ firit publi* 
ofttion iiras m' •mall pamphlet ealled ^ A New System of 
Phiicnopby/* in which be ceosnret Locke, as leaning too 
iftvcii towards naturalism, a doctrine which he coosideKKl 
as the bane of every thing sublime, elegant, and noble* 
He next wfote some letteni in the Public Ledger, signed 
*^ A Free Thinker/' in which he shews the incont istency 
and impolicy of the perseeutions at that time going oa 
against the Roman catholics. His next publieation «ms 
eotilled ^ Clio, or a discourse on Taste, addressed to a 
young lady;*' in whiek be endeavours to prore, that there 
ia in several respects an unif^ersal standard of taste in the 
soul of man^ which, though it may be depraved or cor^ 
mpted by edeeation and habit, can never be totally eradi- 
cated. To this vtfj ingenioiis emay, which is toecfaed with 
elegaiice and observatioo, though, perhepa, with too nuich 
refioemont, he afterwards add^ *^ An Inlroduetion to the 
Theory ef the Human Mrnd,'* intendMasa refutation of 
those deists who atiaek revealed religion under an apparent 
bppeal to philosophy, bet, by the occasional shtftieg of 
principles and systems, and a dcKterous use of equivocal 
language, draw the dispute into a kind of labyrinth, in 
which the retreats are endless, and the victory always in** 

UVEDALE (RoBEET), a learned botanist, was born- in 
the parish of 8t. Margaret, Westminster, May 25, 1642.; 
educated at Westminster school under Dr. Busby ; whence 
be was elected to Trinity college, Cambridge ; B. A. 1662; 
M.A, 1666; LLtD. Com. Reg. 16H2; and was master of 
the grammar school at Enfield about 1670. He resided in 
the old manor-house in that town called Qneen Elizabeth's 
Palace ; and, being much attached to the study of botany, 
had a v^ry curious • gatden there ; and planted, among 
ether trees, a oMar ef Liksmus, wtiich (till within these few 
years) Witf one of the 6»est in the kingdom, measuring {vet 
Octeber 1793) 12 feet in the g«rth.^-4n an aeoount of tte 
most remarimUe gardens, ;near Looden in 1691^ ky J. Gib^r 
son, fMrimedie the ArMiiBstogia^ vol. Xli. p. 18^ Dr. Uve^ 
dete h saM to liwre << «he greatest and ehokest cellec(icn ef 
*e«otics ttet pevhsps was «iny wheie in this bind.'*~Dr^ 
Pttlfeetiey, in his %t4ef memeirs of Or, Leonard Plakoaet^ 
say^i ^ I regret tbsi i cannot collect; any viaDerial anec* 

1 BofOf, Msf. fQt 1796, 

IM U V E D A L E. 

dotes relating to bis friend and fellow eollegian Dr; Uve^ 
dab, of whom Plofcenet ever speaks in a style wbk^in* 
dicates that iie held hioi in great esteem."*^^* The gacdea 
which be cultivated at Enfield appears to have, been rich 
in exotic productions; and though be is not known among 
those who advanced the indigenous. botany of Britain, yet 
lib merit as a botanist, or hia patronage of the society at 
large, was considerable enough to incline Petiver to apply 
bis name to a new plant, which Miller retained in- his Die* 
fionary, but wbicb has since passed intothe genus tolym* 
fifff, of tlie Linnssan system ; tfaeautbor of which has never- 
theless retained UvedMlia, as . tbe> triivial mane." In the 
British Museum (Bibi. Sloan^ 4064,- Phit 28 F.) are fifteen 
letters from him to sir Hans Sloaae ; also letters fi^om him 
to Dr. Sherard, and . Mr. James Betirer. . Dryden, Dr. 
Uvedale, and other learned men, having ageeed to trans* 
late Piutarch*s Lives from tl^. original Greek, Dr.Uve* 
dale translated the Life of Dion, and the work was pub* 
lished in 1684. A whole length portrait of bim, and ano- 
ther of his wife, were in the possession of the late admiral 
Uredale, of Bosmere-hoose, Suffolk J i 


V ADE" (John Joseph), a French poet of the lower or* 
der, was born January 1720, at Ham in Picardy, and carried 
to Paris, at five years old, by his father^ a small tradesman, 
but be was so headstrong, wild, and dissipated in bis youth, 
that nothing could make him attend to literature. This his 
biographers seem willing to consider as an advantage^ and 
as giving a degree of originality to bis works ; yet they tell 
us that be afterwards read all the best Freooh bopks. He 
invented a new species of poetry, which his countrymen 
called le genre Poissard (the Billingsgate style). labring- 

1 HatchiiiB'B Hut. of Dorsetshire.— FuRcney's Sketches. 

V A P Ef. 187 

kig this 8t]4e to perfection, be e«ref«l1y studied the man«^ 
Iters i»f the fish*>wonieny and their diidect, aiid introdaeed 
it in his most popular performances^ aiid obtained from his 
aMiaiirerS'tlie title of the Teniers of poetry. His Tsrioas 
Potsaard operas, songs, parodies, &c. bad great success ; 
but were* mostly recommended by bis manner of reciting 
or singing them ; for then, say our authorities, it was not 
imitation, it was nature herself. But this nature, this Pois- 
sard s^le, this freedom of phrase, and licentious espres-* 
sions, render the works of VadA very dangerous, and always 
disgusting to hearers of taste. They also exposed him to 
all the temptations of dissolute company ; and his passion 
for gaming, convirial pleasures, and women, shortened bis 
days. He was become sensible of his errors, and had re« 
soked tohe wiser and better^ but bis resolution eame late^ 
and he was cut off in his tl^rty-sereoth year, July 4, 1 757. 
Hia collected works were poblished in 1758, 4 vols. 8ro, 
and^siuce, in 17S6, in 4to, with plates, but apparently only 
aselection^ and probably as much as modern taste could 

VADIANUS (Joachim), in German Von Watte, one 
of the most learned men of his nation or time, was born at 
St. Gal, Nby. 29, 1484, of which city his father, Joacbim 
Von Watte, was a senator. After some education at home 
be was sent to Vienna to pursue the higher studies, but 
for some time entered more into the gaieties of the place, 
and was distinguished particularly for his quarrels and his 
duels, until by the sensible and atfectionate remonstrances 
of a .merchant of that city, to whose care his father had 
confided him, he was induced to devote his w4fble time and 
attention to books, and never relapsed into his former fol- 
lies. When he had acquired axompetent share of learning 
be imbed to relieve bis father from any farther expence, 
and with that honourable view taught a school at Viliach/ 
in Carinthia; but finding this place too remotle from literary 
soci^y, be returned to Vienna, and in a short • time wa« 
chosen professor of the belles lettres, and acquitted him«^ 
self with such credit, and gained such reputation by some 
poetry which he published, that the emperor Maximitiaft 
I. honoured him with the laurel crown at Lintz m 1514.: 
After some hesitation between law and physic, both of 
which he had studied, he determined in favour of the latv 

* Diet. Hist.— Moreri. 

I»8 Y A D I;A N U S 


ler, as a prbfession, and took hU doctot's degvcto «t V^na 
in 1518. He appears to have practised in that city^ and 
afterwards at St.Gal| until the controversies arose respect^ 
ing the reformation. After examining the arguments of 
the contending parties, he embraced the .cause of iiie re« 
formers ; and besides many writings in favour of th^ir ptm^ 
cipies, befriended them in his rank of senator, to which lie 
had been raised. In 1526 he was fanher promoted io the 
dignity of consulof St.Gal, the duties of which he perfarmed 
so much to the satisfaction of his coMtiuiaats that he was 
re-elected to the same office seven times* Ha died April 
6y 1551, in his sixty -sixth year. He beqoaatbad his books 
to the senate of St. Gal, which ware ordered to be placed 
in the public library of the city, with an inscription, ha- 
nourable both to bis character imd talents. The letter wera 
TCiy eirtensive, fov he was well vetsed and isreta wdl aa 
mathemaiics, geography, philosophyi aad medieifia. Ha 
was also a good Latin poet, and, above all, a sound divioa 
and an able controversial writer. Joseph Scaliger plaoea 
him among the most learned men of Germany. He wae 
intimate with ear iUuslrioas prelate, archbistfop Cranmer,^ 
but preceded him in some of the dactrinat of the reforma- 
tion. About 1536 he wrote a book entitled ** Ai^borjama- 
rum libri sex de consideratione EuclMuristiss/* fcc arhich 
was levelled at the popish doctrine of the corporal preseooe, 
and tliinking it a proper work for the archbishop to pateo- 
nize, presented it tp him; but Cranmer had not yet con- 
sidered the question in that view, and therefora informed 
Vadian that his book had not made a convert of him, .and 
that he was hurt with the idea of being thought the patiao 
of such unscriptural opinions. Vadian therefore parsoed 
the subject at home, and wrote two more volumes on it. 
The imly medical work he published was his ^ Consilium 
coiiira Pestem, Basil, 1546, 4to. Those by which ha is 
best known in the learned world, are, 1. A collactiao of 
remarks on various Latin authors, io his ^' Epistola respoo- 
soria ad Rudulphi Agricolse epastolam," ibid. 1515, 4to« 
2. His edition of ^< Pomponius Mela," firat printed at Vi- 
efiaa in 1518, foL and often reprinted. 8. ^' Scholia ^hsb- 
dam in C. Plinii de Nat. Hist, librum seewiduia,'' Basil, 
1531, foi. 4. << Cluronologia Abbatiam Mooasterii St.GaUi;'' 
'^ De obscuris verborum significationi&us epistola;'* ** Far* 
rago antiquitatum Alamannicarum^" &c. and some other 

V A H L. ISt 

liMtke^i wbkib^ are ioterted in Goldaat's ^* Alaatiwvam 
Scriptores." ^ 

. VAHL (Martin)^ a learned Danish botanist, was born 
at Bergen in Norway, Oct. lo, 1749. He was educated 
first at Bergen, and afterwards at tbe university of Copen-* 
bagea, where he passed a .year in attending tbe lectures of 
2oega, on the plants <^ ^bc botanical garden* Afticrap'* 
plying to tbe same study in Norway for three years, he 
went iu 1769 to Upsal, where he became acquainted with 
LiuuiBus* la 1774 be returned to Copeafai^en, and con^ 
tiaued to pursue his favourite study pC natural history 
until 1779, when be was appointed lecturer in tbe botani* 
cal gardeo. In 1783, by the king- s order he commenced 
bis travels through various parts of Europe^ and visited 
England^ where he fonaied an acquaintance and aturaci** 
ed tbe esteem of < sir Joseph Banks, Mr.Dryaoder, ke^ 
Onhia return in. 1785^ be was honoured with tbe title of 
professor, and appoiated to prepare a *^ Flora I>aBica,^? 
for which purpoae he went to Norway, and investigated 
every apot where mat^ais for this work could be found. 

In 1789 he. was, by the Copenhagen seciety of natural 
history^ appointed its first .professor, and in 1799-1 80O he* 
made, at the expeuce of government, another joMmey t9 
Paris jmd Holland, where he was received with the highest 
marks of esteem. On bis xetura he was made professor of 
botany at tbe botanical garden, the plants of wbieb .^ere 
classed under his superinteudanee^ and a catalogue of them 
was i^rinled. In 1804 he published his << Enumeratio Plan* 
tarumt" a part of which only be lived toaee printed, as he 
died in December of the same year at Copseohagen, iu the 
fifty-fourth year of his age* I'hough botany was bis chief 
pursttitt be did not neglect the other branches of haturat 
history. Ifis lectures, his different treatises on that sub'* 
ject, and bis instructive ooUeetions, prove his knowled|^ 
of sooiogy to have beeu very ex<«ii8ive» Part of <^ Zoolo^ 
gia Da3Uca,V still in MS, is by him; awd of- tike contitm*^ 
atioQ of ^VtAscani IconesV-.heialso supplied a part. Covier 
received itom him nmay •cbittributiona to i^e natusal kis-« 
tory of quadrupeds, and Jabeicisiis to that of insects. 

By berborisiBg .himself firom the esLtremity of Necwajr im 

• . . ■ * ■ • ' 

I Metcbipr Adam.-^Niceroni vol. XTIXVII.— Strype's Life of Cranmeri^. 

If V A H L. 

Portugali in several ishiids of : the Medrterranc^n; d&rd ttf 
Barbary, he bad already collected a considerable herba- 
rium, which was greatly augmented by the liberality of his 
friends. He ako collected an uncommonly complete bo- 
tanical library. 

His writiQgis are, besides the ^* Flora Danica/' 6 vol^^ 
and a great many tracts in the memoirs of the Society of 
I4atnral History, ^< Symbolas Botanicse,'* 3 volt. ; ' << Eclogse 
AmericansB,^' 2 vols. ; ** Decades Iconiim," t vols.; and last 
ef all, *^ Enumeraiio Plantarism vel ab ipso vet ab aliis ob* 
senratarum,'* Halniss^ 1804*^1807, 2 vols. ^vo. Shortly 
before his death, |dr. Vahl received a letter fnom the go-^ 
vernors of the fun4 *^ Ad Usos Publtcos,'' staling in very 
flattering expressions, that the king, in consideration of 
his persevering and honourable eiForts towards the improve- 
sftentof botany, had been pleased most graciously to grant 
bim, out of that fund, a gratification of 500 rix^-dollars, as 
an thecontinuation of his ^< Entrmeratio 
Plantarum.^' His great herbarium and botanical library, 
ecAiprising nearly 3000 volumes, and his manuscripts, have 
been purchased by the Danish government, for 3000 rix« 
dollars, and an annuity of 400 rix*dollars to bis widow, 
and 100 rix*dollars to each of bis six surviving children, 
for life. * 

VAILLANT (John Foi), a great medallist, to whom 
France was indebted for the science of medals, and Lewis 
XIV. for one half of his cabinet, was born at^ Beauvais, 
]4ay the 24th, 1682. He lost his father when he was three 
years old, and fell under the eate of an uncle, a brother 
of bis mother, who educated him, and made him his heir« 
He was trained with a view of succeeding to a magistracy 
irbich his uncle possessed ; but, being too yoOug for this 
when bis uncle died, be changed his views, and applied' 
Junself to physic, in which faculty lie was admitted doctor 
at twenty*four. He bad as yet discovered no particular iit--' 
clination for the study of medals; but an occasionnow pre* 
atoted itself which induced him to engage in it. A farooer 
hi the neighbourhood of Beauvais found a great ^quantity 
of ancient medals, and carried them to Mr. Vaillant, who 
examiued-them at first sightly and in a cursory way, bat 
afterwards aat down to study them with attention ; and bis 
taiste for medals increased with the discoveries he made 

1 Diet: Hist. 

Y i I n L A N ,T. If I 

of their aatttra vtid ;ii$d^ till he dented hi9K»elf almo^fi 
tirely t.o them* 

Being cAiled %o ParU about bosine^s^ be paid a visit to 
Mr. Seg4xin» who had a 6ne cabinet of medals^ and w«i 
also greatly attached to this study. SeguiOi from their 
con£ereoces, sppa perceived the superior genius of Vail* 
lant, wfaicb seepaeo to him to promise much in a science 
yet in its iofaocy ; and pressed him to make himself a little 
more Jcnown. He accordiugty visited some antiquaries of 
reputation in qfiedailic science ; till at length, falling under 
the notice of the minister Colbert, he received a coj^mi^* 
sioo to travel through Italy, Sicily, and Gceece^ in qipest 
of medals proper for the king's cabinet ; and after spend- 
ing some years, in this pursuit, returned with as many me« 
dais as made the. king's cabinet superior to any one in 
Europe, though, great additions have been made to it sinoe^ 
Colbert engag^ hipn to travel a second time ; and accord- 
ingly, in d 674, he went and embarked at Ma];8eilles wiil^ 
several Other gentlemen^ who proposed, as well as himself, 
to b^at Rome at the approaching jubilee. . But unfortu-» 
nately, on the second day of their sailing, they were cap-- 
tured by an Algerine corsair; and it was not until a slavery 
of near five months, that Valliaot was permitted to retura 
to France, and sitrong remonstrances having been made by 
th^ French court, he recovered at the same time twenty 
gold medals which had been taken from him. He then 
embarked in a vessel bound for Marseilles, and was carried 
on with a favourable wind for two days, when another cor- 
sair appeared, which, in spite of all the saU they coul4 
9iak/^, bore down upon them within the reach of cannon- 
shot. Yaillaot^ dreading the. miseries of a fresh slavery^ 
resolved, however, to secure the medals which he had re- 
eeived at Algiers, and had recourse to the strange expe- 
dient of swallowing them. But a sudden turn of the wind 
fc^ed them from this adversary, and cast them upon the coasts 
of Catalonia ; where^ after expecting to run aground every 
moment, they at length fell among the sands at the mouth 
of tlie Rhone. Vailiaut got on shore in a skiff, but felt 
hinnself eati^emely incommoded with the medals, he had 
swallowed^, of wbiob, however, nature afterwards reliev^rd 

hiqi. I. 

Upon his arrival at Paris, he received fresh instrucitions,: 
and made another and a more successful voyage. He pene-- 
trated into the very heart ef-£gypt and Persia, and there 

i92 V A 1 L L A N T. 

found ndw treasttfres, whieb made ample amends ht all bii fit* 
tigues and perils. He was greatly caresscfd and rawarded 
«t his return. When Lewis XlV. gave a new form to the 
ftcademy of inscriptions in 1701, Vaillant was at first made 
associate ; and the year after pensioaary^ upon the death 
ef M. Charpentier. He died of an apoplexy, October 23, 
1706, in bis 76th year. He bad two wives, and by virtue 
of a dispensation from the pope had married two sisters^ 
by whom he had several children, and one soik The first 
of his works was published at Paris in 1674, ]. ** Nuniis- 
inata imperatorum Romanorum prsestantiora a Julid Csesar^ 
ad Posthumum & tyrannos,*' 4to. A aecond edition, with 
great additions, was printed 1694^ in two volumes 4to; and 
afterwards a third. In this last he omitted a great number 
of n\edais which he bad discovered to be spurious; but 
neglected to mention what cabinets each medal was to be 
found in, as he had done in the second edition, which has 
made the second generally preferred to it. .9* '^ Seleuci** 
darum imperium, seu bistoria regum SyrieB^ ad fidem nu- 
mismatum accommodata^*' Paris, 1681, 4to. Thia work 
throws much light upon an obscure part of ancient history, 
that of the kings of Syria, usually called Seleucides, from 
Seleucus, one of Alexander's lieutenants, who founded that 
kingdom about 300 years before Christ. 3. << Numismata 
serea imperatorum, Augustorum, & Cs&sarum, in coloniis^, 
municipiis, & urbibus jure Latio donatis, ex omni modula 
percussa,'' Paris, 1688, 2 torn, folio. 4. ^* Numismata im- 
peratorum & Cflssarum, a populis Romanse ditionis Graece 
loquentibus ex omni modulo percussa,*' Paris, 1698, 4to« 
A second edition, enlarged with 700 medals, was printed 
at Amsterdam, 1700, in folio. 5. '^ Historia PtolemsBorum 
iEgypti regum ad fidem numismatum accommedata,^* 
Amst. 1701, folio. 6. '' Nummi antiqui familiarum Ro« 
inanarum perpetuis interpretationibus illustrati,'' Amst. 
1703, 2 tom. folio. 7. ^^ Arsacidarum imperium, sive re^' 
gum Parthorum historia ad fidem numismatum accommo* 
data," Paris, 1725, 4to. 8. ^* AchsEmenidariim imperium, 
iive regum Ponti, Bospfaori, Thracite, £c Bithynisc histocia, 
ad fidem numismatum accommodata," Paris, 1725, 4to^ 
Besides these works, he was the author of ^ome pieces 
which are printed in the ^^ Memoirs of the aoadenvy of Iq* 
acriptiotts and Belles Lettres.^' \ 

^'Vic9t9ffh voir J!I.«— CbAufepit.—- Moivri. 


V A I L L A N T. 


VAILLANT (John Francis Foi), son ©f the preceding, 
was born at Rome in 1665, while his father was upon bis 
travels in quest of raecials and antiques. He was brought 
to Beauvais in 1669, and at twelve years of age sent to 
Paris, where he was instructed by the Jesuits in the belles 
lettres and philosophy. He applied hinfiself, as bis father 
bad done, to the study of physic, and was received doctor 
in that faculty at Paris in 1691. He was initiated into the 
science of medals, and would have shone like his father if 
bis life bad been spared; yet his merit was reputed very 
great, and he was admitted into the academy of inscrip- 
tions and belles lettres in 1702. He died in 1708, about 
two years after bis father, of an abscess in bis head, which 
was supposed to bave been occasioned by a fall. He wrote 
a professional tract on the virtues of coffee', and various dis- 
sertations on the subject of medallic history, and one on 
the Dii Cabiri. '^ 

VAILLANT (Sebastian), a distinguished botanist, was 
born May 26, 1669, at Vigny, near Pontoise. His first 
pursuits were various, having attained reputation as an or- 
ganist, then as a surgeon, and afterwards as secretary to M. 
Fagon, chief physician to Louis XIV. Fagon appears to 
have given his talefits the right direction, by placing htm in 
the office of directorof the royal garden, which he enriched 
yfhh curious plants. Vaillant became afterwards professor 
and sub-demoiistrator of plants in the abovementioned gar- 
deuj keeper of the kingS cabinet of drugs, and a member 
of the academy of sciences. He died of an asthma, May 
26, 1722, leaving a widow, but no childreUr His works 
are : some excellent remarks on M. de Tournefort's:''In- 
stitutiones Rei herbariae;'' an essay on the structure of 
flowers, and the use of their various parts, Leyden, 1728, 
4to, but rather too florid for pbilpsopbical narration ; ^< Bo* 
taoicon Parisiense," with plates, published by Boerhaave, 
Leyden, 1727,. fol. When Vaillant found, his health de- 
clining, he. was anxious to preserve his papers from obli« 
vioti, and bad solicited Boerhaave to purchase and publish 
them. . Our countryman, Dr. Sherard, who was then at 
Paris, negociated this business, and spent the greater part 
of the summer with Boerhaave, in reducing the manuscripts 
into order. To Sherard, therefore, principally, the learned 
owe the ^' Botanicon Parisiense/' to which is prefixed a 

> CiMBftpic.-*KiMron, tol. XV. 

Vol. XXX. O 

19* V A I L L A N T. 

Latin letter by Dr. Sherard^ giving an accdunt of this trans^ 
action. ' , 

VAISSETTE (Joseph), a French historian, was born ih 
1685, at Gaillac in Agenois. He was for some time king^6 
attorney in the country of the Albigenses,'but in 1711 en- 
tered the Benedictine order in the priory of la Daurade at 
Toulouse. His studious turn, and taste for history, induced 
his superiors to send for him to Paris in 1713, where they 
employed him in writing the history of Languedoc with 
Claude de Vic. The first volume appeared 1 730, and de 
Vic dying in 1734, the whole of this great work devolved on 
Vaissette, who executed it with success, and published the 
four other volumes. At the end of each are learned and 
curious notes, and throughout the whole be is candid and 
impartial, especially in speaking of the protestants. He had 
before written a small piece ** On the Origin of the French 
Monarchy," which was well received; and afterwards pub- 
Ibhed an abridgment of bis '^^ History of Languedoc," 
1749, 6 vols. 12mo. Vaissette has also left a ^^ Universal 
Geography," 4 vols. 4to, and 12 vols. 12mo, which wad 
formerly thought one of the best the French had, though 
iK>t wholly free from errors. He died in the abbey of St. 
Germain-des-Pres at Paris, April ID, 1756. * 

VALDES, or VALDESSO (John), a Spanish reformer 
of the sixteenth century, was of a ifoble family in Spain; 
and a soldier under Charles the Vth, who knighted bim« 
After some years speqt in a military lifb, he desired leave 
torethre; and when Charles inquired whether his: reqii6^ 
'proceeded from disgust, his answer was, '<It is necessary 
that a soldier, biefore his death, should ;give- some time to 
religious meditation^" He left his native coudtny, «iid re* 
tired to Naples, where he became the head of a sect of 
the reformed, and many persons of great distinction fAU 
tended his lectures. He was particularly connected with 
Bernard Ochin, Peter Martyr, and other ledrned men of 
great character amongst the reformers of timt time ; and 
he attacked^ with success, many bf'the corruptions of the 
church of Rome. Thus far is collected from the old French 
preface to his <^ Considerations," and confirmed by Mn 
Ferraris (the traiylator) account in a tetter of Mr. George 

By sotne^ Valdesso 'W&s thought toican too much Co 

1 Cli«Hfepie.«-»Niceioii, t^l I^^-^PatecMf^tfikflelMl* > 0ict. Hitt.- 

r A L D E S. Idf 

the doctrines of the Unitarians, in oppodlioa to tfae Tri«^ 
nitarian system. And this circuflostance, we suppose, mi^ 
account for a passage in Mr. George Herbert'^ letter tqp 
Mr. I^icholas Ferrar concerning his translation of •tliis work,* 
which he earnestly desires may be published, notwith^tand^ 
ing some things which he does not approve. Mvt George 
Herbert was a conscientious Trinitarian ; and, besides 
tikis, there are undoubtedly some p^uiges in Vajdesso, in 
which he seems to depreciate the dpkority of the Bcrip<« 
tures; which might give just cause ofofFence* 

The French edition of Yaldesso referred to above was 
published at Paris in 1565, and was taken from an Italiati 
translation of the original Spanish : in which, it is said^ 
were preserved, not only some of the idioms, but alsbmany 
words of the Spanish original* Mr. Ferraris English trans- 
lation was printed at Oxford in 1638, but without bis 
name ; and if it should be asked why Mr. Ferrar, who was 
perfect master of the Spanish, as well as the kalian lao-^ 
guage, chose to translate froth a translation vadiher than .the 
original, he himself has given the reason in his own |ire« 
face : *^ These truly divine meditations of sir John Va^lde^r 
so^ a nobleman of Spain (who died almost a hundred years 
ago), having been so acceptable to pious Vergerius, to 
learned Ca^lius Secundus Curio, and to many other both 
French and Italian Protestants, that they have been trans-^ 
lated out of the original Spanish copy, and printed three 
or four times in those languages ; it seemeth to me a rea^ 
sonable, and a charitable desire, to print <them now in 
English, without any alteration at all from the Italian copy^ 
the Spanish being either not extant, or not easy to be 

In a letter of Herbert's he gives the following additional 
particulars of Yaldesso : *' John Yaldeaso was a nSpaniard 
of great learning and virtue, much valued by Charles V^ 
whom he had attended in all his wars. When he was grown 
old, and weary both of war and of the world, he took a 
proper opportunity to declare to the emperor his resolu^ 
tion to decline the militairy service, and betake himself 
to a quiet contemplative life, because, he said, there ought 
to be sQme vacancy of time between lighting and dying. It 
happened at that time the emperor himself had made, 
though not publicly declared, the same resolution. He 
therefore desired Yaldesso, to consider well what hel^ad 
said, and conceal his purpose till they might have oppor-* 

o 2 

196 V A L: D. E S. 

tuniCy for a friendly discQurse about it. This opportanity 
soon offered, and, after a pious and free discourse to-« 
gether, they agreed, thafe on a certain day they would 
publicly receive the sacrament. At which time the empe- 
ror appointed an eloquent friar to preach oq the contempt 
of the ' world, and the happiness of a quiet contem* 
plative life. After sermon, the emperor declared openly 
that the preacher had begotten in him a resolution to lay 
down his dignities, -ifk { the world, a^d betake him- 
self to a monastic life. And he pretended that he bad 
also pers\iaded John Valdesso to do the like. Not long after 
they carried their resolutions into execution.'' 

The translation of the above work of Valdesso was 
printed at Oxford 1638, 8vo, and entitled ^^ The hundred 
and ten Considerations of Signior John Valdesso, &c.'^ 
Subjoined is an epistle, written by Valdesso to lady Donna 
Julia de Gonzaga, to wbom he dedicates '^ A Commentary 
upon the Epistle to the Romans.'' It appears, that along 
with this commentary he sent to her all St. Paul's epistles, 
translated from the Greek into the ordinary Castilian Ian- ' 
guage. Hei says, that he bad before translated the Psalms 
of David from the original Hebrew, for her use; and he 
■ promises to furnish her with the history of Christ in the 
same language, at such time iatid manner as shall pleas^ 
the ** divine Majesty." 

* In the mean lime Valdesso had made many converts to 
the reformed opinions, until the Spanish Inquisition inter- 
fered, and either compelled his disciples to fly or to recant. 
He dried at Naples in 1540. He wrote some commentaries 
on different parts of the Bible ; but his ** Considerations'* 
are his principal work.^ 


VAUENTINE (Basil), is the name, real or assumed^ 
of a celebrated althymist, and one of the founders of mo* 
dern chemistry. The few particulars we have of his life 
are so coiitradictory that many have supposed that no such 
person ever existed, and that the name Basil Valentine^ 
which is'Composed of a Greek and Latin word, signifying 
a powerful kingy was a disguise under which some adept 
f^ished to conceal his real name, and at the same time in* 
dicate the scwereign power of chemistry. At what time this 
adept lived is also a disputed point. Some say he tived in 

» Geo. Diet— Peckard'i Life •fNich.F€rrar.--Herbtrt*iIJfe by WaltQi^ 


the twelfth century, others make him a native of Erfurt, 
born in 1394, and give 1415 as the date of his writings, or 
as the time when he began to write, but this last is certainly 
inadmissible, as he mentions the morbus GaUicus and Lues, 
Gallica as being common in German}^, which we know could 
not be the oase before the end of the fifteenth century. 

'Those who make him a native of Erfurt tell us likewise 
that he was a Benedictine monk, and that after making some 
experiments on the stikium of the ancients, he threw a quan* 
tity of it to the hogs, whom it first purged and afterwards 
fattened. This suggested to him that it might be useful in 
order to give a little of the embonpoint to his brother monks,* 
who had beqome lean by fasting and mortification. He ac* 
cordingly prescribed it, and they all died, whence the me- 
dicfne was afterwards known by the name oiantimonify quasi 
anti-monk. It is added that his works were not known for 
a long time after his death, until on opening one of the 
pillars of the church of Erfurt, they were miraculously dis« 
covered. But unfortunately for these stories, Boerfaaave 
has proved that there never was a monastery of Benedic* 
tines at Erfurt, and we have already proved that the books 
published under the name of Basil Valentine could not have' 
been written in the beginning of the fifteenth century. It 
appears, however, whatever their date, that they were ori- 
ginally written in Dutch, and that a part only have been 
translated into Latin, and probably have received additions 
from other^ hands. All that have been' published are still 
in considerable request, and are become scarce. Among 
them are ; 1 . '^ De microcosmo, deque magno mundi mi- 
nisterio et medicina hominis,'' Marpurg, 1609, 8vo. 2. 
'' Azoth, sive Aurelioe philosophorum,^' Francfort, 1613f 
4to. 3. ^^ Practica, una cum duodecim clavibus et appen* 
dice,*' ibid. 1618, 4to. 4. ** Apocalypsis chymica," Er-' 
furt, 1624, Svo. 5. ** Manifestatro artificiorum,*' Erfurt, 
1624, 4to. ,6. " Currus triumphalis a^timonii," Leip. 1624, 
Svo, reprinted at Amsterdam, 1671, 12mo, '^ cum com- 
mentarii? Theod. Kerkringii." T. " Tractatus chimico- 
philosophus' de rebus natunalibus et praeternaturalibus me- 
tallorum et minet-alium,'* Francfort, 1676, «vo. 8, " Ha- 
liographia, de praeparatione, usu, ac vircutibus omnium 
salium mineralium, animalium, ac vegetabilium, ex ma- 
nuscriptis Basilii Valentini coilecta ab Ant» Salmincio,**> 
Bologna, 1644, Svo. There are editions of these in Dutch, 
and translations into French, English, and other languages 



of ibosl of tbem. Whoeyer Basil was, bis experiments are 
always to be depended on, and bis style is clear and pre- 
cise, unless where be talks of bis arcava and tbe philoso- 
pher's stone, on which be is as obscure as any of his bre- 
tbten. After every preparation, he gives its medicinal uses, 
and it has been said that Van Uelmont, Lemery, the father, 
and other moderns, are under greater obligations to his 
works than they have thought proper to acknowledge. He 
was the first who recommended the internal use of anti- 
mony, and he has enriched the pharmacopceia with various 
preparations of that metal, particularly the empyreumatic 
carbonate of antimony, of which Sylvius Deleboe claimed 
the discovery. * 

VALENTINUS, author of tbe heretical sect called Va- 
lentinians, was an Egyptian, and, according to Dansus, 
was educated at Alexandria. He aspired to the episcopal 
dignity; but being set aside by another, who was after- 
wairds martyred, he formed the design to oppose the true 
doctrine of Christ. He came to Rome A.D. 140, during 
the pontificate of Hyginus, and there created great dis« 
turbances. Iti 143, he was censured by the church, and 
excluded the congregation ; which was so far from hum- 
bling, him, that he retired into Cyprus, where be propagated 
his erroneous doctrines with still greater boldness. He was 
learned, eloquent, and bad studied the Grecian language, 
particularly the Platonic philosophy. Thus, from nice and 
witty, or sophistical, distinctions, mixing the doctrine of 
ideas, and the mysteries of numbers with the Theogony of 
Hesiod, and the Gospel of St. John, which was the only 
one recrived by him, he formed a system of religious philo- 
sophy, not very different from that of Basilides and the 
Gnostics, and in some respects more absurd than either. 
The rise of bis heresy was iti the reign of Adrian. Fieury 
places it A.D. 143, as do Danasus, Tillemont, and Echard. 
Valentine himself died A:D. 160. His errors spread at 
Rome, in Gaul, and Syria^ but particularly in the Isle of 
Cyprus and Egypt, and continued until the fourth cen- 
tury. Bishop Hooper, in his tract ^^ De Haeresi Valed- 
tiniana," has deduced this heresy from tbe Egyptian mys- 
teries. IrensBus was the principal writer against Va- 
lentinus, to whom may be added Tertullian, Clemens 
Alexandriaus, &c. and among the moderns, Buddeus ^^ Dis- 

' £lo7, Diet. Hi^ de Med«eme.<— Biof . Umv. Both in art. Buile. 


Y A L E N T I N U S. i9d. 

^ert de hiereai Yal^nUoiajia*'' The ^utboc q| tl^is beresy 
is 9ai(l to ka.vq at l^t abjured bis errorsi apd wa$ receivedr 
i4Mo the church agaia^ but we have no fsMCtber account o£ 
hk personal history. ' 

VALENTINUS (Michael B£RNARd), a b^Uuical and 
Qiedical writer, was born at Giessen in Germany, Nov. 26, 
1657, and having studied medicine, becajoie a professor of 
the science in his native place, where he died March 13^ 
1726. He wrote a great oiany works op the subject oi 
his professioQ, but is thought to have succeeded best iti 
those which concern botany. Among his writings of both, 
Hinds are, X, ** Hiatoria simplicium reformata, Francfort^ 
1716, fol. 1726, both with plates. 2. <^ AodphitheatruQi 
ZootomicuiQ ," ibid. 1720, foi. This was. pecker's trans* 
latio^ from the original, published in German in 1704 — 
ni4, 3 vols. fol. and subjoined is a life of Valentinus, 
written in verse by himself. 3. " Medicina nova-antiqua,'* 
ibid. 17^3, 4to. 4. ^^ Cynosi^ra materia medics;,** Stras-. 
burgh, 1726, 3 vols. 5. <* Viridarium reformatum," Franc- 
forl, 1720, fol. wiih fine plates. 6. "Corpus juris medico-^ 
legale," ihi^. 1722, fol.; but this appears to be a second 
edition of his "Novellsa Medico-legales,'* printed in 17 U» 
4to, and contains many curious cases and questions whidai 
illustrate the state of medical jurisprudence at a time whea 
it, was not much freed from superstition and credulity. 
Yalratinus published also a ^^ Praxis medicinse iufallibilis," 
in whiqh he describes the fiUering*stoue now so well known j 
and anotjber work, giving a history of philosophy, "Arma** 
m^ntarium Naturse systematicqm, seu Introductio ad phi* 
Josopbiam modernorqm naturalem,*' Giessen, 4to. To this 
he adds an abridgment of the most remarkable papers on 
natural history from the transactions of the society " Natu* 
rse Curiosorum." ' 

YALERIANUS (Pibrius), or Valeriano Bolzani, an 
ingenious and learned Italian, was born at Belluno, in the^ 
$tate of Yenice, about 1477. He lost his father at nir^ 
years of age, and was reduced with his mother and breth ^en 
tp great poverty, which so retarded his studies that hf* ^^^^^ 
fifteen years old before he learned to read; but hi'^ m^^tJe 
Urbanus Bolzanius (see vol. YI. p. 36), who was a^^terwards 
preceptor in the Greek language to LeoX. took hiw, under 

1 Dupin. — Mosheim. 

s Diet Hist.— Halier Bibl. Bot.— -Mangett BibI* where i a tbie poetical ac- 
cqunt of hii Life. -^^ -^ r . 


his protection, and had him liberally educated. He srtadied 
the Latin and Greek tongues under Valla and Lascaris; and 
made so wonderful a progress, that he was accounted one 
of the most learned men of his age. Going to Rome un- 
der the pontificate of Julius IL he became the favourite of 
John de Medicis (afterwards Leo X.), who committed to 
bis care the conduct and instruction of two nephews ; and 
the cardinal Julius de Medicis, who entered upon the pon- 
tificate in 1523, under the name of Clement VIL shewed 
him the same regards He offered him first the bishopric 
of Justinople, and then that of Avignon ; but Valerianus 
refused them both, being fully satisfied with the place of 
apostolic notary. He was in imminent danger, v^hen 
Rome \va8 taken in 1.527 ; and the year after retired to Bel- 
luno, for the sake of that tranquillity which he had never 
found at court. Yet he sufi*ered himself to be drawn from 
his retirement by Hypolite de Medicis, one of his pupils ; 
who, being made a cardinal in 1529, chose him for his 
secretary. He continued in this office till the death of the 
cardinal in 1535; and seems to have passed the next two 
years with his other pupil Alexander de Medicis, who had 
been made first duke of Florence in 1531. Upon the 
death of Alexander, in 1537, he retired to Padua; where 
he spent the remainder of his life among his books, and 
died in 155S. 

He composed several learned and curious works, some 
of which were published in his life-time, some not till after 
his death. Among the former are, ** De Fulminum signi^ 
ficationlbus,'* RomsB, 1517, printed also' in the 5th vo- 
lume of Gra^vius's Roman Antiquities. " Pro Sacerdotum 
barbis defensio,'' Roniae, 1531, occasioned by an intention 
to renew a decree, pretended to be made by an ancient 
council, and confirmed by pope Alexander. HI. by which 
priests were forbidden to wear long beards. '^ Castigationes 
Virgilianae lectionis,^' printed in Robert Stephens's Virgil 
at Paris, 1532, and since reprinted with the hest editions 
of this poet. " Hieroglyphica, sive de sacris Egyptiorum 
aliarumque gentiuni liceris Commentariorum libri LVIII.'* 
Basil, 1566. In this he attempts to illustrate, from Egyp- 
tian, Greek, and Roman symbols, almost every branch of 
science and art, but is supposed to display more imagina- 
tion than judgment. Among the works published after his 
death are, " Dialogo della volgar lingua, non prima uscitb 
in luce,'' 4to; ^^ Antiquitatum Bellunensium libri quatuor/' 

V A L E R I A N U S. 201 

8to ; and '* Contarenus, sire* de literatorum infelicitate 
Jibri dao/* 8vo; all printed at Venice in 1620, by the di- 
rection isind under the care of Aloisio Loliini, bishop of 
Belluno. The last piece contains a great number of curi«. 
ous anecdotes; and is entitled *^ Contarenus/' because the 
first book of it is a dialogue between Caspar Contareno, a 
Venetian ambassador, and some learned persons at Rome*. 
It has been often printed at Amsterdam, 1647,. in 12mo, 
•* cum Cornelii Tollii Appendice,** at Helmstadt, 1695, in 
12mo; and at Leipsic, 1707, in Svo, with two other pieces 
upon similar subjects, namely, ** AlcioniusdeExilio,'* and 
** !Barberius de miseria Poetarum Graecorum," and a pre- 
face by Joannes Burchardus Menkenius, the editor. Mr. 
D*Israeli, who has written so well on this interesting sub* 
ject, considers Valerianus's as '^a meagre performance, in 
which the author shews sometimes a predilection for the 
marvellous, which happens so rarely in human affairs ; and 
he is so unphilosophical, that he places among the misfor- 
tunes of literary men, those fatal casualties to which all 
men are alike liable.'* "Yet,** adds Mr. D'Israeli, " even 
this small volume has its value ; for, although the historian 
confines bis narrative to his own times, he includes asuffi- 
dent number of names to convince us that to devote our 
life to authorship is not the true means of improving our 
happiness or our fortune.*' 

Valerian us published also at different times two volumes 
of Latin poems, among which were **Amorum libri quin- 
que." It may be proper to observe here, that Valerianus's 
Christian naioie was Peter; but changed, according to .the 
custom of those times, by one of his masters into Pierius, 
in allusion to Pierides, a name of the Muses, and therefore 
probably done as a compliment to his talents for poetry.^ 

VALERIO, or VALIERO (Augustine), a learned pre- 
late, was born April 7, 1531, at Venice, descended from 
one of the best families in that city. After having made a 
rapid progress in his studies, he was admitted among the 
Savii deW Ordinij a small society of five young men of the 
highest rank at Venice, who had access to the college 
where affairs relative to the republic were debated, that 
they might be trained up to the science of government. 
Valerio, took a doctor's degree in divinity and in canon 

1 Tiraboschi.— Moreri in Pierio.— Roseoe'i Leo.-<-D'Isr«eU't CaUmttiei af 
Authorf, Pref* p, tL^n-BIoubi'i Ceniora. 

2m V A t E R I o. 

law, became professor o£ philosophy at Venictf^ IS-SS^ and 
having afterwards chosen the ecclesisj»tical pri>fessU)ii^ wm 
appointed bishop of Verona, oa the vesignaiioa of hm 
uncle, cardinal Bernardo Naugerio, 15^^. He discharged 
the duties of the episcopal station with gi^eoit prudenc^^ aftd 
to the edification of his diocese; and formed a friendship 
with St Charles Borromea Pope Gregory XIII. created 
him cardinal, 1583^^ invited him to Rom^e, and pUced him at 
the head of several congregations. Valerio acquired tj^si- 
versal esteem by his skill in public affairs, his learning and 
▼irtue. He died at Rome, May 24, 1 606, aged 7\5, and 
although so advanced, bis death i» supposed to have^ been 
hastened by chagrin, occasioned by the interdiction uocitef 
which pope Paul V. had laid the republic of Venice. Thai 
learned bishop left several excellent works : the most known 
are, '^ The Rhetoric of a Preacher,** ^' De Rhetorica £q^ 
clesiastica libri tres," Venice, 1574, 8vo, composed by the 
advice and according to the plan of his intimate frieikl, St. 
Charles Borromeo. This was so popular as to be printed 
eight times in the author's life, besides being translated 
into French, of which there is an edition so late as 1710, 
I2mo, nor, say the French writers, can the study of it be 
too strongly recommended to young ecclesiastics. His 
other works are on subjects of philosophy and history, Ii^ 
1719, appeared in 4to, a work entitled ^' De cautione ad-^ 
bibenda in edendis Libris,'' which contains a complete 
list of Augustine Valerio's other works both printed and 

VALERIUS MAXIMUS, an ancient Latin writer, of 
whom remain ^^ libri novem factorum dictorumque memo- 
rabilium,'' dedicated to Tiberius CoBsar, appears to have 
been a Roman, and lived under the reign of Tiberius Cs- 
sar, probably about 32 of the Christian (Bra; for, he treats 
the memory of Sejanus with scorn and abhorrence, though 
he does not expressly mention him. His style is not so 
pure as might be expected from the age he lived in ; a^nd 
therefore many learned men conjectured, that what we 
havie is not the original work, but only an epitome made 
by some later writer. Fabricius calls it ^^opus jucundum, 
varium, utile,'' as indeed it is; and many eminent critigs 
, have employed their lucubrations upon it. The first edi« 

1 NiceroQy vol. Y.— TiraboscbL^Erythraei Pinacoiheca.-i^Sii^ii OaonatU 


tioRy of uncommon nuri ty and prioe, ia that printed at Mentz, 
147I9 fok It was reprinted at Venice in the same year- 
The best editions since are, that by Thysius, ^' cum Noti* 
Variorum,'* 1670, 8vo; that "in usum Deiphini/* 1W1>, 
4to; that by Torrenius at Leyden, 1726, in 2 vols. 4to, 
^' cum notis integris Lipsii, Pighii, Vorstii, Perizonii, &c/' 
and that by Kappius, at Leipsic, 1782, 8vo.^ 

VALESIUS (Henry),. or Henry de Valois, a French 
critic of great abiUties and learning, was born at Paris in 
1603, of parents, whose circumstances supported theia 
without any profession. He began his studies at Verdui;i 
in 1613, under the Jesuits, and the greatest hopes were 
formed of him from his childhood. He was recalled tp 
Paris five years after, and continued there in the college 
of Clermont; where he learned rhetoric under Petaviiis^ 
who, as well as father Sirmond, conceived a great esteem 
for him. After having maintained bi« theses in philosophy 
with much applause, be went to Bourges in 1622, to study 
the eivil law ; and at the end of two years returned to Pariii, 
where he was received advocate. He freqiiented the bar 
for seven years, but more to oblige his father than out of 
any fondness for the law, wbictv4i^ at length quitted, and 
devoted himself entirely to litierary pursuits. Greek and 
Latin authors were all his study, and all his pleasure. Sun^ 
day he consecrated to devotion, Saturday afternoon he 
allotted to his friends; but all the rest of the week.^aa 
spent in reading and labour. His own library not sufScing, 
he borrowed books of every body; and he used to say, 
that he learned more from other people^s books than hiis 
own, because, not having the same opportunity of reviewing 
them, he read them over with more care. He acquired a 
great reputation by his learning and publications, when a 
misfortune befel him, which interrupted the course of hia 
studies. He bad always a weak sight ; but continual ap- 
plication had hurt him so, in this respect, that he lost his 
right eye, and saw very indifferently with the left. This 
put him under the necessity of having a reader ; for, though 
his father was of too sparing a humour to make him an al« 
lowance for this purpose, yet the defect was supplied bjp 
the generosity of his friends. His father, however, died 
in 1650 ; and then his circumstances were better suited to 
his necessities. The same year he composed an oration in 

^ Voiiiai de Hbt I<at— Fabric. Bibl. Lat.— Saxii Onoin«-*Dtbdtn's Clusi«s« 

204 V A L E S I U S. 

praise of Christina queen of Sweden, who had just ascended 
the throne ; and her majesty, by way of acknowledging the 
fovour, pron^ised to send him a gold chain, and gave him 
at the same time an invitation to accompany the learned 
Bochart to Sweden. But the chain never came, and the 
invitation ended in nothing, for which Valesius himself is 
said to have been to blame, having been so imprudent, 
while he was meditating this journey, as to make use of 
some satirical expressions on the learned in those parts; 
which, being related ^o the queen, occasioned her ma- 
jesty's neglect of him. 

In 1734, Valesius had published at Paris, in 4to, ** Ex- 
cerpta Polybii, Diodori Siculi, Nicolai Damasceni, Dionysii 
Halicarnassensis, Appiani Alexandrini, Dionis, & Joannis 
Antiocheni, ex Collectaneis Constantini Augusti Porphy- 
rogenitae, nunc primum Graece edita, Latine versa cum 
notis." The emperor Constantine Porphyrogenetes, who 
died in the year 959, had made extracts from the Greek 
historians of such things as he thought most useful ; and 
had ranged these extracts under certain titles and common 
places, in number fifty-three. Each contained two books ; 
one of " Extracts from the writers of Universal History,'* 
another of " Extracts from the Historians of the Emperors.'* 
Only two of these titles are extant : one " de Legationi- 
bus,'* the first book of which was published by Fulvius 
Ursinus, at Antwerp, 1582, in4to; the second by David 
Hceschelius, at Augsburg, 1603, in4to; and both under 
the title of " Eclogse Legationum, &c." The other title 
is " de Virtutibus & Vitiis," and is the work under present 
consideration. A merchant of Marseilles had brought an 
ancient manuscript of it from the Isle of Cyprus, and sold 
it to Mons. Peiresc, who sent it to Paris. Here it lay 
neglected a long time ; till at length Pithaeus engaged Va- 
lesius to translate and publish it : which he did, and very 
properly dedicated it to Peiresc, to whom the public is 
obliged for it, and of whose ardour, in the promotion of 
letters, we have the following anecdote. Some time after, 
Valesius had read a passage in an ancient author, relating 
to the harbour of Smyrna, which could not be understood 
without viewing the situation upon the spot. He acquainted 
Peiresc with this difficulty ; who immediately sent a pain- 
ter, to take, a view of that pprt, and afterwards communi- 
cated it to Vialesius. Valesius thanked Peiresc for the 
troub'e he had been at; but added, probably not in ver 

V A L E S I U S. «05 

guarded language, that it did nbt -clear up the doubt sq 
well stshe cduld wish. - Peiresc, vexed that be had been ,at 
so much expence, wrote back, that he had endeavoured to 
' give him satisfaction ; and that, if he had not succeeded, 
it must not be ascribed to either himself or the painter, 
but to bis own'temper and humour, which were satisfied 
with nothing. 

In 1636 he gave a good edition of ^^ Ammianus Marcel- 
linus,^^ .in 4to, corrected in a great number of places from 
the manuscripts, and illustrated with very ingenioua and 
learned notes. A second edition, with more notes 6f .Va- 
lesius, and thoae of Lindeilbrog,. .came out at Paris, 16Si, 
in folio, edited by his brother Adrian Valesius ; and Jamee 
Gronovius also published a. third at.Leydpo, .1693, fol. and 
4to. The critical talents. aud learning which Valesius had 
displayed in these publications, recommended brm as the 
most proper person to superintend a work of greater im* 
portance, an edition of the ancient ecclesiastical historians. 
M. de Montchal, abp. of Tholoqse, a learned man, whom 
the clergy of France had requested to give, an edition. of 
these historian3, undertook the affair ; ^nd applied to Va- 
lesius to assist him privately. But Valesius was too jealous 
of his reputation, to let another person enjoy the fruit9 of 
his labours ; and therefore absolutely refused his aid. The 
archbishop, either too much taken up with the business of 
his see, or despairing of success in what he had under- 
taken, soon after excused himself to the clergy ; and at 
the same time advised them to apply to Valesius, as a man 
who was every way qualified for the task. To this Vale- 
sius had no objection, and his employers by way of encou- 
ragement settled a pension upon him. This was about 
1650, and the Historians were published in Greek and 
Latin, with good not^s, in the following order: ^' Eusebii 
Pampbili historia ecclesiastica, ejusdemque libri de vita 
Constantini, & panegyricus; atque oratio Constantlni ad 
sanctos,*' Paris, 1659; ^^ Socratis & Sozomeni historia ec- 
clesiastica," 1668 ; " Theodoreti et Evagrii historia ec- 
clesiastica, item excerpta & historia ecclesiastica Philostor- 
gii,** 1673. These were reprinted in 3 vols, folio, first at 
Amsterdam in 1699, and then at Cambridge in 1720: to 
which last edition some remarks, but very" inconsiderable 
ones, scattered up and down in various authors, were col- 
lected and subjoined by the editor William Reading. 
In 1660, Valesius was honoured with the title of historio- 


graipbei* of France ; and had also a pension settled on bint 
by the king, in consideration of bis edition of '£usebiusy 
<«i^bioh bad appeared the year before. In 1662 he lost hi^ 
left eye, 90 that now be was blind ; and, notwithstanding 
all the skill of oculists, the most that could be done for 
btm was, to enable bioi to see a litile with the ,left eye, a 
new cataract, almost as soon as it was removed, forming 
•itself Again in the right. In 1663 he had an addition to 
Ms pension from the crown. He had hitherto lived among 
bis books, but now, at the age of sixty, he surprised ^is 
•friends by marrying a handsome young woman, by whom 
Jiebad seven children. He died the seventh of May, 1676, 
having spent the two last years of life in all the miseries of 
one oppressed with inBrmities. He was a man of great 
abilities and learning, and an admirable critic ; but his 
'disposition was far from being amiable. He was sparing in 
4iis piaise, but so tenacious of the respect he thought doe 
■to him, as to resent the smallest attempt to criticise or find 
fault with what he wrote, and this irritable temper increased 
with his years. 

After bis death, was puUi^hed, by 'the care of James 
Gronovius, ^^ Not® & animadversiones in Harpocrationem 
& Philippi Jacobi Maussaci Notas. E% fiibliotheca Gullr 
-elmi Prousteau,*' Lugd. Bat. 1682, in 4to. Three Latin 
funeral orations upon ^three of his intimate friends are in- 
•serted in Bates^Hsi " Vitaj selectorum aliquot virorum ;*' the ■ 
first made upon Sirmond in 16^51, the second upon Petrus 
Puteanusin 1Q52, and the third upon Petavius in 1653. 
We omitted an hexameter poem, made upon the recovery 
of the king's health, and published by himself in 1663, 
with the title of " Soteria pro Ludovico magno." There 
are also ** Harangues a la reine de Suede, & quelque^ 
autres petites pieces.^' ' 

VALE8IU8 (Adrian), or Adrieh de Valois, brother of 
'Henry, and a very learned man also, was bom at Paris in 
1607, and educated in the college of Clermont there, un- 
der the Jesuits. He followed the example of bis brother, 
and had the same counsellors in his studies, the fathers 
Sirmond and Petavius. History was his principal object; 
<and be spent many years in searching into the most au- 
thentic records, manuscript as well as printed. His lotig 

1 Vita Valesii ab Adriaoo Vflesio, in Batff'r" Vit« •«lectDraiD."-^Nu:eMD, 
▼oL V.-^baufepie in Valoii.— U»ber*s Life and Leners, p, 609, 613, QJ4. 

V A L'E S I U S. " 207 

^hteveratice in these pursuits enabled him to give the pub- 
lic an elaborate Latin work» entitled " Gesta Francorum, 
sieu de rebis Francicis/^ in 3 vols, folio; the first of which 
"Oame out in 1646, the "two others in 1*658. This history 
^begins with the year 254 ; and ends with 752. It is writ- 
ten with care and elegance, and may jserve for ao excel-^ 
lent commentary upon the ancieiit historians of Pfaiite, 
inrho wrote rudely and barbarously : but some have dbnsi- 
dered it as a critical work filled with rude erudition, rath^ 
than a history. Colbert asked him one day concerning his 
'Latin history of France, and pressed him to continue it; 
but he answered the minister, that he might as well take 
away his life, as put him upon a work so full of difficul- 
ties, and so much beyond what bis age could bear ; for he 
was then in years. He is the author of several other Latin 
\<rorks ; as ^' Notitia Galliarum, ordine alphabetico diges- 
ta," 1675, in folio; a work of great utility in explaining 
^he state of ancient Gaul. He was the editor, as we have 
mentioned, of the second edition of ^^ Ammianus Marcel- 
linus ;^* to which, besides additional notes of his brother 
and Lindenbrog, he added notes and emendations of his 
own. He wrote also a Panegyric upon the king, and a life 
of his brother. There is also a " Valesiana." 

In 1660, he was, with his brother, honoured with the 
title of historiographer to the king ; and had a pension set- 
tled upon him. In 1664, he lost the company of his bro- 
ther ; who, whed he married, left his mother and brethren, 
with whom he bad lived till then. Adrian, however, some 
years after, followed his brother's example, and married a 
wife too; by whom he had children. He enjoyed good 
health, till he was eightiy- five, and then died, July the 2d, 

VALINC0UR (John Baptist du Trousset de), a 
French miscellaneous writer, was born in 1653, of a good 
family, at St. Quentin in Picardy. He became secretary td 
tfie king's closet, to the marine, a member of the French 
academy, an honorary member of the academy of sciences, 
and historiographer to his majesty. M. de Valincour had 
collected a great number of very curious and important 
memoirs respecting marine affairs ; but these MSS. were 
•Ofisumed with bis library by a fire, which burnt his house 
at St. Cloud in the nighty between the thirteenth and 

1 Chaufcpie,— Nicerooi tqI* ni.«-'PeiTau1t*$ Les Hommet Illustrei. 

208 V A L I N C O U R 

foarteenth of January, 1725. He died January 5, 1730^ 
^t Paris, aged seventy. His works are, A Criticism on 
the romance of the princess of Cleves, entitled ^^ Let« 

tres a Madame la Marquise de • sur le sujet de la 

Princesse de Cleves," Paris, 1678, 12mo, which is muck 
esteemed. A good ^^ Life of Francis de Lorraine, duke of 
GjAlse/' 1681, 12mo. ** Observations critiques surTCEdipe 
de Sopbocle,'' and several short poetical pieces in Pere 
^ouhours' collection. * 

VALLA (George), an Italian physician and professor 
of the belles lettres at Venice, was born at Picenza, and was 
a contemporary of Laurentius Valla. He was well skilled 
in the Latin and Greek tongues, and wrote a considerable 
number of books both in physic and literature. One of 
his books in the former (las a title, which gives us no less an 
opinion of his honesty than of his skill in his profession : 
it is ^* De tuenda sanitate per victum ;" but it is doubtful 
whether he practised physic. He wrote ^' Comraeutaries 
on some books of Cicero, Horace's Art of Poetry, Juve* 
nal, &c.*' and ^<A Comment upon the second book of 
Pliny's Natural History," printed at Venice 1602, in 4to: 
which, however, must be certainly very scarce, since father 
Hardouin tells us that he could not meet with it. He was 
also the compiler of a work entitled '* De expetendis et 
fugiendis rebus," Venice, 1501, 2 vols. fol. a kind of phi* 
losophical and literary Cyclopaedia, in which the articles 
are generally short, but many of them curious. Valla 
exasperated the duke of Milan so much by his too impe" 
tuous zeal for the Trivulcian faction, that the prince pro- 
cured him to be committed to prison even at Venice. He 
suffered great -hardships in that confinement, but was at 
last released. He died suddenly, as he was going from 
his lodgings, in order to read a lecture upon the immor* 
tality of the soul, about the close of the fifteenth cen- 
tury. ' 

VALLA (Lawrence), a man of letters of great erni* 
nence in the fifteenth century, was born at Rome in 1 407« 
His father was a doctor of civil and common law, and ad- 
vocate of the apostolic consistory. He was educated at 
Rome, and learned Greek under Aurispa ; but in conse- 
quence of the troubles which arose on the death of pope 

> Niceron, to!. XIT. — Diet. Hist 

-* GeD. Diet— Tiraboscbi.— Saxii Onomast. ' 

VALLA. 209 

Martin, and the adtancement of Eugenias to the papal 
chair, he retired to Pavia. Here he read lectures on rhe^ 
toric, and wrote hfs three books *^ De Yoiaptate ac vero 
bono/' From thenee he removed to Milan, and read the 
same lectures: and before. 1435 read ttliem to Alphonsus, 
khig of Arragon, Sicily, and Naples, that learned patron 
of letters, who took miilutes of his lectures, and acknow- 
ledged his literary obligations to him. While in thid place 
he wrote his book> on free-will, against Boetius, and his 
detection of the forged gift wbrch Constantino is ^aid ta 
have «made, of Rome, to pope Sylvester, which was first 
published in 1492* Here too he translated Homer into 
Latin, and. began his six books of ^' Elegantias linguae La- 
tiose." All this while he had followed Alphonsus in his 
wars, and had exposed his person in several sea-fights ; and» 
among his other literary undertakings he had written three 
books of logical disputations, in which, having reduced 
the ten predicaments, or elements, to three, he was ac-^ 
cused of heretical pravity by the inquisitor'^general. 

He next turned his thoughts to Livy, and drew up notes 
on that authojr on the following occasion. It was the cus-* 
torn of Alphoiisus to have some ancreut author read by one 
of the literati about his court, during hia public dinners, 
where the king himself gave some opinion on the subject 
of the book, and invited the different guests to.'give theirs ; 
and, as. the discussion of any particular point pleased him, 
he . divided ' the sweetmeats amoog the' "competitors, and 
poured out a glass. of wine to the reader/ Tbis o$ce had 
fallen on Beccadelli.and Valla, who, from intimate friends, 
became inveterate enemies, by disputing about passages in 
Livy on these occasions. Valla became equally hostile to 
Bartholomew Facio (see Facio), whom Alphonsus hatl 
made his historiographer, and had appointed Vaila at the^ 
same time to write the Life of his royal father Ferdinand. 
The first copy of this Life, in three books, drawn up iu 
two months, and submitted to the king for his correction^ 
was privately overlooked by Facio, who, boasting of having 
detected \ five hundred errors in it, was answered by Valla 
in four books of invectives, or recriminations, in the last 
of which. he iuserted bis corrections and notes on the first 
six books of Livy, on the Punic war. These books he 
had heard Beccadelli read before Alphonsus, and his ene- 
mies, charged him with saying that he would undertake 
to connect these better than Aretine, Guarini, and evoo 

Vol. XXX. P 

210 VALLA. 

Petrarch himseilfy whose corrections were in the MS. at 
Naples sent to Uie king by Cosmo de Med;ci from Florence. 
Valla*s frequent attacks on barbarous Ladnists and ignorant 
theologiats of his time exposed him to imminent danger 
from the inquisition ; but he generally found a protector in 

the king. 

Having accepted an invitation to return to Rome from 
pope Nicholas V. he was favourably received by that pou- 
tiffy who settled a handsome pension on him. He now 
applied himself to a translation of Thucydides, and on pre- 
senting it to the pope, was rewarded by a gratuity of five 
hundred gold crowns, and was recommended to translate 
Herodotus, which death prevented him from finishing. 
What he had done came into the possession of Alphonsus, 
and was published by Pontanus, but neither of these trans* 
lations have been thought eminently successful. That of 
Thucydides is charged by H. Stephens (who printed k 
along with his edition of the original (1564) as well as se* 
parately) with ignorance, carelessness, and inelegance of 
language, and Dr. Hudson repeats the charge. Wesseling 
speaks equally unfavourably of his Herodotus, but he apo* 
logizes that the MS. whence he translated was imperfect, 
and himself overwhelmed with the hostilities of his enemiesy 

Pope Nicholas, in addition to hb other favours, ap- 
pointed him professor of rhetonc ; and he employed his 
leisure time in putting the finishing hand to his ** Elegantis 
lingua Latinae,*' which, as we already noticed, he began at 
Naples, and sent to the king's secretaries, one of whom 
published them without his knowledge. He seenui to have 
written six more books on this subject, which may possibly 
Ibe concealed in some of the libraries of Italy. He also 
completed his *^ Illustrations" of the New Testament, which 
the pope, and many of the cardinals^ earnestly solicited him 
to circulate, and which Erasmus published in 1504. Valla 
attacked the Vulgate Latin version by Jerome, which drew 
on him the censure of his antagonists, and occasioned his 
notes to be condemned by Papl IV. after the council of 
Trent had given its sanction to Jeromes translation. 
Aniong the bitterest of his antagonists was the celebrated 
Poggio, with whom he quarrelled late in life on account 
of some criticisms of that eminent Scholar. It is difficult 
perhaps to say who gave the first provocation, but it is cer-> 
tajn that nothing can exceed the intemperate language and 
low abuse which passed between them, for ain account of 

VALLA. 211 

^hieh we Diay refer t6 Mr. Shepherd's excellent Life of 
Poggio. Another of Valla's enemies was Morandus of Bo- 
logna, who accused him to pope Nicholas V. of misrepre- 
jenting Livy. This Valla answered by two ** Confutations/* 
written with much asperity. 

As Valla had formerly entertained thoughts of a clerical 
life, he declined forming any matrimonial engagement, but 
is reproached by Poggio with having debauched his sister's 
husband'^ maid, by whom be had three children, aqxl of 
whom he speaks, for he does not deny this charge, with 
tenderness and affection. He afterwards became a canon 
of St John Lateran, and secretary and apostolical writer to 
the pope. He died in 1457, in his fiftieth year, and was 
buried in the church of which he was canon, where there 
is 9 monument and inscription, the latter wrong in stating 
bis death to have happened in 1465. Of all his writings 
his ** £leganti8e linguae Latinse^' only serves how to preserve 
him in the rank of eminent scholars of his time. His irri- 
table temper rendered his life a perpetual literary warfare, 
but at no time were the quarrels of authors more disgrace^ 
ful than at the revival of literature. 

If Valla had his enemies,' he has also had his defenders, 
and of these Erasmus was one of the most strenuous. He 
expresses his indignation that Poggio should be in every 
body's hands, while Valla, who~ had a hundred times his 
learning, "centiiplo doctior,** was read by nobody ; and he 
declares, in the same epistle, that '' the mordacity of Valla 
alone, if they will call it so, has contributed more to the 
promoting of literature than the foolish and insipid candour 
of thousands^ who admire all the productions of all men 
without distinction, and' who applaud and (as they say) 
scratch one another :** '^ itaque ux\i\H Laurentii mordacitas, 
aiquidem ita malunt appellare, non paulo plus conduxit rei 
literaris^ quam plurimorum ineptus candor, omnia omnium 
sine delectu mirantium, sibique invicem plaudentium, ac 
mutuum (quod aiunt) scabentium." In short, this whole 
epistle, which is by no means a short one, is written en- 
tirely in the defence of Valla ; though at the same time it 
would be easy to collect from it, if Valla's works were not 
extant, that he cannot be defended from the charge of en- 
vious and abusive language. The first edition of his '* Ele- 
gantiflB** was printed lit Rome in 1471, folio, and the last 
by Robert Stephens, at Paris, in 1542, 4to.' 

« Tiraboschi.— Sketch by 1^. Gough in Gent. Mag. toI. LIX.— Geq. Diet*— 
Shepherd's Life o! Poggio.— >Hocly de Gme. IliasU 

P 2 

212 • V A L L K. 

VALLE (Peter de la), a celebrated traveller, wai a 
Roman gentleman, and member of the academy^dell* Umo^ 
risti. He commenced his travels in 1614, over the East, 
and his account of it in Italian, 1662, 4 vols. 4to, has always 
been considered as giving the best account that bad then 
appeared of Egypt, Turkey, Persia, and India. Gibbon 
calls him ^' a gentleman and a scholar, but intolerably vain 
and prolix." The French have a good translation by Car- 
reau and le Comte, 1663, 4 vols. 4to, and Rouen, 1745, 8 
vols. 12mo. There is also an English translation, Londoa, 
1665, folio. He did not return from his travels until 162€. 
He married at Babylon a virtuous young woman, who ac- 
companied him in his journeys, and died at Mina in Cara- 
mania, 1622,- aged twenty-three. Her husband was so 
deeply affected with her loss, that he caused her body to 
be embalmed and carried it always with him in a wooden 
coffin, till his arrival at Rome, where he buried it with great 
magnificence in his family vault in the church of Ara coeli. 
He spoke her funeral oration himself, which may be found 
in Italian and French, in the 12mo edition of hisTraveb; 
He died at Rome in 1652.* 

VALLISNIERI (Antonio), a celebrated professor of 
physic at Padua, was born May 3, 1661, at the old castle of 
Trasilico in Modena, of a noble and ancient family. He 
distinguished himself among the learned, with whom be 
held a very extensive correspondence, and was admitted a 
member of many learned societies ; among others of oiir 
Royal Society. He practised and taught physic with great 
reputation, was honorary physician to the emperor, and 
created a knight by the duke of Modena. He died January 
28, 1730, aged sixty-nine. His works on insects, natural 
history, and physic, are numerous, and were printed at 
Venice, in 1733, 3 vols, folio, in Italian. They are curidus, 
learned, and much esteemed. He left a son, who was a 
physician also, and the editor of his father's works.^ 

VALMONT DE BOMARE (James Christopher), an 
eminent French naturalist, was born at Rouen, Sept. 17,* 
173 1, and had his classical education in the Jesuits' college 
there,, where he was principally distinguished for the pro* 
ficiency he made in the Greek language. He afterwards 
became a pupil of the celebrated anatomist Lecat, and 
after studying pharmacy came to F&ris in 1750. His fa- 

^ ' Tirabo8chi.<— Moreri. 

• Fabroni Vitw italoram. — Eioy, Dicti Hist, de Medccine.— Chaufepie.' 

V A L M O N T. 213 

therj who was an advoca|:e of the parliament of Norrnktidy, 
mteoded bim for the bar,, but his predilection for natural 
history was too- strong for any prospects which that profes* 
sion mt^ht yield. Having obtained from the duke d*Ar« 
genson, the war minister, a kind of commission to travel 
in ^he name of the government, be spent some y.ears in 
visiting the principal cabinets. and collections of natural 
history in Europe, and in inspecting the mines, vqlcanosy 
and other interesting phaenomeoa of nature. On bis return 
to Paris in 1756, he began a course of lectures on natural 
history, which he regularly continued until 1788,^and ac* 
quired so much repuiation as to be admitted an honorary 
member of most of the learned societies of Europe, and 
had liberal offers from the courts of Russia and Portugal to 
settle in those countries ; but he rejected these at the very 
time that he was in vain soliciting to be reimbursed the ex- 
pences he had contracted in serving his. own nation. He 
appears to have escaped the revolutionary storms, and died 
at Paris Aug. 24, 1807, in the seventy-sixth year of his age. 
He first appeared as an author in 1758, at which time be 
published his ** Catalogue d'un cabinet d'bistoire natu- 
relle,'* 12mo. This was followed next year by a fiketicb.of 
acofUplete system of mineralogy; and two years .after by 
bis ** Nouvelle exposition du regno minerale," 2 vols. 8vo, 
reprinted in 1774 ; but bis greatest work, on which his re- 
putation is chiefly built, was bis ^^ Dictionnaire raisonn6 
universel d'histoire naturelle,*' which has passed through 
many editions both in 4to and 8vo, .the last of which was 
published at Lyons in 1800, 15 vols. 8vo.^ 

. VALSALVA (Antony Maria), an eminent physician, 
was born at Imola in 1666, and died in 1723. He was the 
pupil of the celebrated Morgagui, and taught anatomy at 
Bologna with the greatest reputation. His ^^ Anatomical 
Diss^srtations^' were published in Latin, at Venice, 1740, 
2 vols. :4to, by Morgagni, who commented on them with 
great freedom, pointing out what he thought erroneous, 
an4 liberally praising his merits and discoveries. Of the 
latter kind are bis observations on the ear, published at Bo- 
logna in 1707, 4to, ^' De Aure humana." On this interest- 
ing subject the author employed sixteen years, and dissect* 
cd a prodigious nuviber of subjects to illustrate it.' 

1 Diet. Hist 

* Fabroai ViUi lUloram, vol V«-*Eloy, Pict. Hit t. de Medicine. 

2U V A N B R U (^ H, 

VANBRUGH (John)) a gentlemaQ eminent in the very 
different characters of dramatic poet and architect, was de« 
scended from a family originally of Ghent in Flanders; 
His grandfather, Giles Vanburgj being obliged to quit hit 
native country on account of the persecution of the piotes-^ 
tants by the duke of Alva, came to England, and settled as 
a merchant in London, in. the parish of St. Stephen, Wal- 
brooke, where he continued until his death in IGiO. He 
Ijeft a son, Giles Vanbrugb, who settled in the city of Ches- 
ter, and was, it is supposed, a sugar-baker, where he ae« 
quired an ample fortune. Blome, in his ^ Britannia,'* calls 
him gentlemany and afterwards be was styled an esquire. 
Removing to London, he obtained the jplace of comptroller 
of the Treasury-chamber* He died in 17 15. He married 
Elizabeth, the fifth and youngest daughter and coheir of 
sir Dudley Carleton, of Imber«court in Surrey, knt. Slie 
died in 1711. By her he had eight sons, the second of 
whom was JOHN, the subject of the present article. The 
time of his birth has not been ascertained, b,ut it probably 
was about the middle of the reign of Charles II. 

We have no account of bis education, but it probably 
was liberal, and he seems to have made a rapid progress in 
the accomplishments suited to his rank in life. A gay, 
lively disposition led him to the army, in which at a very 
early age he bore an ensign^s commission, but does not ap<* 
pear to have remained long a candidate for higher promo* 
tion. His course of desultory reading, or the company he 
kept, seems to. have given him a taste for the drama, which 
he cultivated with the greatest success, and divided with 
Congreve the merit of reviving the comic muse. In some 
of his winter-quarters he became acquainted with sir Tho« 
mas Skipwith ; who being a sharer in a theatricat patent 
though little concerned in the conduct of it, young Yan- 
brugh shewed him the outlines of two plays; and sir 
Thomas encouraged him to finish << The Relapse,** which, 
notwithstanding its gross indecencies, being acted in 1697| 
succeeded beyond their warmest expectations, placed Van* 
brugfa in a high degree of reputation, and stimulated him 
(under the patronage of lord Halifax) to complete hia 
^^ ProvokM Wife f ' which was successfully brought out at 
Lineoln^a Inn Fields in 1 698. Though both these eomedies 
met with greater applause than the a«lbor ejc|»eeted, yet 
both were liable to the severest cemiure, and rerified th€i 
observation of Pope, 

^' Tliat Van wants giace^ who never wanted wit,"l 

V A N B R U G H- 215 

In the same jear^ 1698^ he brought ottt bis comedy of 
^ ^sap," which was acted at Drury-Lane^ and contains 
much gmieral satire and useful morality^ but was not very 
sttccessfuL *' The False Friend," his tkAt comedy, came 
out in 1702. He had Interest enough to raise a subscrip* 
lion of thirty persons of quality, at 100^ each, for building 
a stately theatre in the Hay-Market; on the first stMe 
that was laid of this theatre were inscribed the words Little 
Whigy as a complifnent to a celebrated beauty, lady Sun- 
derland, second daughter of the duke of Marlborough, the 
toast and pride of that party. The house being finished in 
1706, it was put by Mr. Betterton and his associates under 
the management of sir John Vanbrugh and Mr. Congreve, 
in hopes of retrieving their desperate fortunes ; but their 
expectations were too sanguine. The new theatre was 
opened with a translated opera, set to Italian music^ called 
^^ The Triumph of Love," which met with a cold reception. 
^* The Confederacy" was almost immediately after pro-- 
duced by sir John, and acted with more success than so 
licentious a performance deserved, though less than it was 
entitled to, if considered merely with respect to its dra- 
matic merit. The prospects of the theatre being unpro- 
mising, Mr. Congreve gave up his share and interest wholly 
to Vanbrugh, who, being now become sole manager, waa 
under a necessity of exerting himself. Accordingly, in the 
same season, he gave the public three other imitations 
from the French ; vis. 1. " The Cuckold in Conceit." 2. 
" Squire Treeloby ;" and, 3. ^* The Misuke." The spa^ 
ciousness of the dome in the new theatre, by preventing 
the actors from being distinctly beard^ was an inconve- 
nience not to be, surmounted ; and an union of the two 
companies was projected. Sir John, tired of the business, 
disposed of his theatrical concerns to Mr. Owen Swinhey, 
who governed the stage till another great revolution oc- 
curred. Our author's last comedy, ''The Journey to Lon- 
don," which was left imperfect, was finished to great ad» 
vantage by Mr. Cibber, who takes notice in the prologue 
of sir John^s virtuous intention in comfiosing this piece, to 
make amends for scenes written in the fire of youth. He 
deemed sensible indeed of this, when in 1725 be altered 
an exceptionable scene in << The Provoked Wife," by put^ 
ting into the mouth of a woman of quality what before had 
been spoken by a clergyman ; a change ^ich removed 
from him the imputation of prophaneness, which) liowever. 

216 V A N B R U G,H. 

A8 wieli as tbe most gross licentiousness, still adheres to his 
othe^ plays, and gave Collier an irresistible advantage over 
bim in tbe memorable controversy respecting the stage. 

At what time Vanbrugh began to be an architect by pro- 
fession, we do not find mentioned. His principal build- 
ings are Blenheim; Castle- Howard, in Yorkshire; East- 
berry^ in Dorsetshire ; King's Weston, near Bristol ; Eas- 
ton-Neston, in Northamptonshire; Mr. Duncombe's,' in 
Yorkshire ; and the opera-house ; to which we may indeed 
add his most tasteless pile, St< John's church, in West- 
minster ; but neither want of taste nor of grandeur of con- 
ception can be justly attributed to sir John's greatest works, 
Blenheim and Castle- Howard. Walpole says, '^ However 
partial the court was to Vanbrugh, every body was not so 
blind to his defects. Swift ridiculed both his own diminu- 
tive house at Whitehall, and tlie stupendous pile at Blen« 
heim. Of the first he says, 

' At length they in the rubbish spy 
A thing resembling a goose«pie.* 

And of the other, 

' That, if his grace were no more skilVd in 
The art of battering walls than building, 
We might expect to see next year 
A mouse-trap-man chief ei^neer.' 

Thus far the satirist was well founded ; paMy-rage warped 
his understanding when he censured Vanbrugh^s plays, and 
left bim no more judgment to see their beauties than sir 
John had when he perceived not that they were the only 
beauties he was formed to compose." Walpole, perhaps, 
was not aware of the handsome apology Dr. Swift and Mr. 
Pope have made,' in the joint preface to their miscellanies : 
^* In regard to two persons only we wish our raillery, though 
ever so tender, or resentment, though ever so just, had 
not been indulged. We speak of sir John Vanbrugh, ^ho 
was a man of wit, and of honour; and of Mr. Addison, 
whose name deserves all the respect from every lover of 
learning." And notwithstanding Walpole^s own contribu- 
tion of wit and flippancy to depreciate tbe character of Van- 
brogb's Blenheim and Castle- Howard, we are far more in- 
clined to the opinion of our illustrious artist and elegant 
writer, sir Joshua Reynolds, delivered, as it is, with the 
modesty that distinguishes, however seldom it' accompanies^ 
superior genius. " In the buildings of Vanbrugh, who was 
% poet as well as an architect, there is a greater display of 

y A N B R U G H. 217 

iniginatioii than We shall find, perhaps, in any other; and 
this ir the ^und of the effect we feel in many of his works, 
notwitlistaDding the faults with which many of them are 
charged. For this purpose Vanbrugh appears to have had 
recourse to some principles of the Gothic architecture, 
which, though not so ancient as the Grecian, is more so to 
our imagination, with which the artist is more concerned 
than with absolute truth/' — '^To speak of Vanbragh,'* adds 

I sir Joshua, ^^ in the language of a painter, he had origin 

nality of inrention ; he understood light and shadow, and 
bad great skill, in composition. To support his principal 

I object, he produced his second and third groupes or masses; 

He perfectly understood in his art, what is the most difficult 
in ours, the conduct of the back-ground, by which the de« 
sign and invention are set off to the greatest advantage. 
What the back-ground is in painting, in architecture is the 
real ground on "which the building is erected; and no archi-^ 
tect took greater care that/his work should not appear crude 
and hard, that is, that it did not abruptly start out of the 
ground without expectation or preparation. This is a tri- 
bute which a painter owes to an architect who composed 
like a painter, and was defrauded of the due reward of his 
merit by the wits of his time^ who did not understand the 
principles of composition in poetry better than he, and 
wlio knew little or nothing of what he understood perfectly, 
the general ruling principles of architecture and painting. 
Vanbrugh's fate was that of the great Perrault. Both were 
the objects of the petulant sarcasms of . factious men of 
letters, and both havQ left some of the fairest monuments 
which, to this day, decorate their several countries ; the 
facade of the Louvre ; Blenheim, and Gastie Howard.'' 
: Castle-Howard Vanbrugh built for Charles^ earl of Car- 
lisle, deputy to* the iearl marshal, who gave hiin the ap- 
pointoient of Clarenceus, king-at-anns, in 1704. The 
appointment, however, .was remonstrAted against by the 
superseded heralds, and the college at large, felt the slight* 
put upon them by having a total stranger made kiog-at- 
arms, and who was likewise ignorant of the profession of 
heraldry and genealogy. Swift's pun was, that he might 
now build /mises I He was knighted at Greenwich, Sep- 
tember 9, 1714, appointed comptroller of the royal works 
'January 6, 1714-5, and surveyor of the works at Greca- 
ivich hospital, August 17, 17 V6. It was designed to have 
givpn biro the place of garter ; but finding, that the younger 

2ia V A N B R U G H* 

Anstis had a reversionary grant, he resigned his tabard to 
Knax Ward, esq. February 9, 1725-6, and died March 26 
following, at Whitehall. His country residence was Van* 
brugh-Fields, at Greenwich^ where he built two seats, one 
called the fiastile, standing on Maize, or Maze- Hill, on 
the east side of the park. Lady Vanbrugh, his relict, sold 
It to Iprd Trelawny, who made it his residence : the name 
was taken from the French prison of which it was a modeL 
It is said, but no time is mentioned, that on a visit to France, 
his curiosity and natural taste exciting him to take a sur- 
vey of the fortifications in that kingdom, he was taken 
notice of by an engineer, secured by authority, and carried 
to the Bastile, where his confinement wassomucb softened 
by humanity, that he amused himself by drawing rude 
draughts of some comedies. This circumstance raised such 
curiosity at Paris, that he was visited by several of the 
noblesse, and by their means procured his* liberty before 
any solicitation for it came from England. He had another 
built in the same style at Blackheath, called the Mince-* 
pye-house, now or lately inhabited by a descendant* 
Lady Vanbrugh, his relict, died April 26, 1776, aged 
ninety, and their only son, an ensign of the second regi-* 
ment of the foot-guards, died of the wounds be received 
in a battle fought near Tournay, in 1745. ' 

VAN-DALE (Anthony), a learned writer, was born in 
Holland, Nov. 8, 1638. He early discovered an eager taste 
for acquiring the languages, which, for some time, his 
parents obliged him to give up for the more profitable pur- 
suit of commerce. He, bowever> resumed his studies when 
about thirty years of age, acquired skill in Greek and La- 
tin antiquities, and took his degrees in physic, which science 
be practised with, success. He was also for some time a 
preacher in the sect of the Mennonites (a species of Ana- 
baptists : see Mekno) and seems, upon the whole, to have 
cultivated theological as much as medical studies. The 
latter, however, were not neglected, and be died at Har- 
lem, physician to the hospital in that city, November 28, 
1708* He wrote in Latin some learned dissertations ** on 
the Heathen Oracles,'* Amsterdam, 1700, 4to, in whioh he 
maintained that they were frauds of the idolatrous priests. 
Fontenelle has given an excellent abridgment of this work 

1 Many additional particulars of sir John's history may be fbund io Gibber's 

Lives.— Swift's Works.— Coble's College of Arms Gent. Mag. toIs. IXVIt and 

XJCXrV.-^Cole's MS Collectioiu in Brit. Mas^-^RcyDoIds's Works, Ice. 

y A N-D ALE. fii9 

in Eceiich 10 his treatise *^ des Oraoies*'* { Vfta-Dale aho pub* 
iisbed a treatise on the *^ Origin and progress of Idolatry/' 
169C, 4to } ^* Dissertatto super Arbtea, de 70 interpret!^ 
bus/' Amsterdam, 1705, 4to, and '* Dissertations*' on im^ 
portant subjects, 1712, 4to, and 1743, 4to. AH bis works, 
disoover deep learning and great critical skill; bat are 
defective in order and method. ^ 


VANDER- LINDEN (John Antonides), a learned pro- 
fessor of physic at Leyden, was descended from ancestora 
distinguished in the republic of letters. His grandfather^ 
Henry, born in 1546, was a piaster of the learned Ian- 
|;uages, and suffered greyly on account of the reformation, 
which he embraced very youngs having lost his father, his 
wife's father, and other rdatioos and friends, in the Spa* 
nish massacre at Naerden in 1572. Afit^r tbisbe exercised 
the function as a minister at Enckhoisen till 15 85, when 
he was incited to be professor of divinity at the univer- 
sity of Franeker, then founded, pronounced the inaugural 
oration when it was i^ned, and was the first lecturer. He 
died there in 1614, and left, among other children, a son, 
named Antony, also a man of talents and learning, and on 
that account promoted by the magistrates of Enckhuisen 
to be rector of their college. He was skilled in music, and 
no stranger to divinity ; but his leading study was physic^ 
in which faculty, having taken the degree of doctor at 
Franeker in 1608, he practised with success and reputation, 
first at Enckhuisen, and afterwards at Amsterdam, to which 
he removed in 1 625. 

His son, John AntonideS| the subject of this article, 
was born at Enckhuisen^ Jan. 13, 1609. He was sent to 
Leyden in 1625, to study philosophy, and afterwards ap« 
plied himself entirely to physic. From Leyden be went to 
Franeker in 1629, in order to continue his studies, and re- 
ceived the degree of doctor some months after. He then 
returned to Amsterdam, where his father died in 1633, and 
where he continned to practise physic with great reputation 
until, in 1639, be was invited to be professor of physic in 
the university of Franeker. He discharged that office with 
great applause for almost twelve years ; reading lectures, 
both on the theory and practice of anatomy and botany ; 
and it was by his care that the garden of the university was 

1 ]ff»r^ri.^D|(^t. Hist, 

820 V A N D E R • L I N D E N. 

enj^ged, and an house built to if. The library was no 
leis indebted to him for a great namber of books, which 
were procnred by bis address. The university of Utrecht 
offered iiima professor's place in 1649^ which be declined ;- 
bat,. .two years after^ accepted the same offer from the cu-* 
r«tors of ^he university of ILeyden, and filled the chair with 
high reputation till his ddath, which happened March 4, 
1664. Guy Patin, who was. a friend of this physician, 
often mentions him in his letters, and seems to insinuate 
jthat he neglected himself during his illness, for he died of 
,a complaint. of the lungs, in which bleeding might have 
been.usefuL Patin adds, in allusion to Vander-Linden's 
learning, *' I bad rather be a blocfchead, and bleed some- 
times.'' , ' 

. Vauder-Linden wrote many books upon physic, which 
are enumerated ;in our authorities, and one '^ De Scriptis 
Medicis/' i This, which is a catalogue of books upon phy« 
aic, was primmed . and enlarged several times by the au- 
thor in his life*time ; and very considerably so after his 
death, by a. German, named Merklinas, who published it 
in a thick quarto, under the title of f^ Linifenius Renova- 
tus/* at Nuremberg, in 1686, but it never was either cor- 
rect or complete, and has since given place to more recent 
works of the kind, particularly Eloy's Dictionary. Van- 
der- Linden was also the editor of ** Oelsus,^' Leyden, 1657, 
12mo, and left an edition of the works of Hippocrates, 
published there in 1665, 2 vols. Svo, Gr^ek and Latin* 
With this he had taken great pains, but did not live to 
finish more than a correct text, to attain which he carefully 
compared all the old editions and several manuscripts, and 
restored a great number of passages, which were not cor- 
rect even in Foesiqs's edition. His Latin translation is that 
of Cornarius, because the oldest, and that commonly used. 
Having been attacked by bis last illness a little before this 
edition was finished, he was prevented from publishing the 
notes which he intended. ' 


VANDERMONDE, a learned member of the JFrench 
Institute, whose Christian name we havp not been able to 
discover, was born at Paris in 1735. In bis youth he ap- 
jijied sedulously to study, but we have no account of bis 
j^ogress until he became acquainted with the celebrated 

\ Gen. tHpt.— Eloy Pict Hist, de Medteint. 


geometrician Fontaine, itbd foresaw the progi'esfl whiek 
Vandermonde would one day -make in- the matbenvatics ; 
and under his patronage, Vandermonde determined to de« 
vote himself to geometry* - In 1771 he presented hhnself 
to the Academy of Sciences^ into which he was admitted ; 
^nd justified the suffrages -of- his associates, by a paper re*^ 
lative to the resolution of equations* • 
' From the sixteenth century, the method of resolving 
equations of the four first degrees has been known, and 
since that time the general theory 6f equations hs(s received 
great improvements. In spite, however, of the recent la- 
bours of many great geometricians, the solutions of equa«- 
tions of the fifth degree had in vain been attempted. Van<^ 
dermonde wished to consolidate bis labours with those of 
other illustrious analysts ; and he proposed a new theory of 
equations, in which he seems to have made it particularly 
his business to simplify the methods of calculation, and to 
contract the length of the/armuiie, which he considered as 
one of the greatest difficulties of the subject 

•This work was quickly followed by another, on the pro« 
blems called by^ geometricians, ^^ problems of situation.*' 
Leibnitz was of opinion, that the analysis made use of in- 
his time, by the geometricians, was not applicable to all 
questions in the physical sciences ; and that a new geome- 
try should be invented, to caloulsvte the relations* of posi- 
tions of different bodies, in space ; tl\is he called << geome- 
2y of situatiift." Excepting, however, one application, 
ade by Lei^tz himself, to the game of soUtcdre^ and 
which, under the appearance of an object of curiosity, 
scarcely worthy the sublimity and usefulness of geometry^ 
is an example for solving the most elevated and •important 
questbns, Euler was almost the only one who had prafctised! 
this geometry of situation. He had resorted to it for the 
solution of a problem called the cwoalkr, which, also, ap- 
peared very familiar at first sights and was also pregnant 
with useful and important appHcatidns. This problem, 
with the vulgar, consisted merely -in running through all 
the casea of the ches8*board, - wHh the knight of the game 
of ofaess ;^ to the profound geometrician, however, it wa« 
a precedent for tracing the route which every body must 
follow^ whose course is submitted to- a known law, by con^ 
forming to certain required conditionis, through all tbe^ 
points disposed over a space, in a prescribed order.. Van- 
dermonde was obiefly anxious to find in this species or 


analysii^ a simple ootation^ likely to facilitate the making 
of calQttlations ; and be gave an example of this, in a short 
ati4 easy solution of the' same problem of the caralieri 
vrbich Euler had rendered famous. 

His taste for the faigh conceptions of the speculative 
sciences, as blended with that which the ^amor patrise** 
naturally inspires for objects immediately useful to society, 
bad led him to turn his thoughts towards perfecting the 
arts conversant in ^reaving, by indicating a manner of 
noting the points through which are to pass the threads 
intended to form the lines which terminate the surface of 
different regular bodies t accordingly, a great part of the 
above memoir is taken up with this subject. 

In the year following (1772) he printed a third memoir^ 
in which he traced out a new path for geometers, discover- 
ing by learned analytical researches, irrational qaantities 
of a new species, shewing the sequels of which these irra-^ 
tionals are the terms or the sum, and pointing out a direct 
and general method of making in them all the possible re* 
ductions. In the same year appeared his work on the 
<* Elimination of unknown quantities in Algebra,^' or the 
art of bringing back those equations which include many 
upknown quantities, to equations which contain only one. 
In 1778 he presented, in one of the public sittings of the 
academy, a new system of harmony, which he detailed 
more fully in another public sitting of 1780. This system 
obtained the approbation of the three gr^ musicians of 
his time, Gluck, Philidor^ and Piccini. 

With these labours, intermiofi'led with frequent researches 
PQ the mechanic artSy as well as on objects of political 
economy, the attention of Vandermonde was takeki up, 
vntil 1789, the period of the revolution, when he became 
so decided an etiemy to every thing established, that he 
concurred even in the abolition of the Royal Academy, 
and Msopiated himself with Robespierre, Marat, and the 
rest of that party who covered France with ruins, with 
scaffolds, and blood. This paft of Vandermonde's history 
is supprcMed by his eulogist La Cepede, because discussions 
on political topics ought not, in his opinion, to be admitted 
into the saootijary of the sciences. In diat sanctuary, how^ 
ever, Vandermonde did not long remain. He died of a rapid 
decline brought on by-s disorder of the lungs, Jan. 1, 1796. * 

> -pr. Glcfg^ Sttppl. to the Eaeyel. Britauniea, from La Ceped^ 's ISiog^. 

V A N D E R V B L D E. 223 


VELDE (WU.LUM), called the Old, one of a distinguished 
family of paintersi was bora at Leyden in 16 iO. He was 
originally bred to the sea, but afterwards studied painting, 
and retained enough of bis former profession to make it 
the source of bis future fame* In marine subjects, he be« 
cama a most correct and admirable designer, and made an 
incredible number of drawings on paper, heigbtebed with 
Indian ink, which be sketched after nature, with uncom<» 
mon elegance and fidelity. 

As the EInglisb were remarkable for constructing tbeir 
vessels in a much more graceful form than any other Eu^ 
rop^an power, and were equally remarkable for their gene- 
rous encouragement of artisb, Vandervelde determined to 
come to London, with bis son, and was soon after takea 
into the service of Charles II. with the salary of 100/. a» 
year for himself, and the same sum for bis son : in the 
order of privy-seal for these salaries it is expressed that 
tbe salary is given to the father *^ for taking and making 
draughts of sea-fights,^' and to the son '^ for putting the 
said draughts into colours." It was, however, not much to 
the Jionour of William the Old that he conducted, it is 
said, the English fleet to burn Schelling. It was, adds 
Waipole, pushing bis gratitude too far to serve the king ^ 

against his own country. i 

Vandervelde was such an enthusiast in his art, that in *" 

order more exactly to observe the movements and various 
positions of ships engaged in ajsea-figbt, he did not hesi- 
tate to -attend sea-engagements in a small light vessel, aod 
sail close to th^ enemy, attentive only to his drawing, and 
without the least apparent anxiety for the danger to whick 
be was every moment exposed. In this way he took 
sketches of the severe ba^-le between, the duke of York and 
admiral Opdam, in which the Dutch admiral and five hun- 
dred men were blown up, and of the memorable engage- 
ment which continued three days between Monck and De 
Ruy ter, sailing alternately between the fleets, so as to re* 
present minutely every movement of the ships, and the 
most material circumstances of the action, with incredible 
exactness and truth. In the latter part of his life,he com* 
monly painted in black and white, on a ground so prepared 
OB caavas as to make it have the appearance of paper. 


He died in 1693, and was buried in St. Jameses chiifcfa, 

VANDERVELDE (William), called The Young, was 
born at Amsterdam in 1633, and was the son of the pre- 
ceding, by whom be was carefully 'instructed in the artf 
but afterwards he was placed under the direction of Simon 
de Ylteger, a very excellent painter of ships, sea-shores, 
ftnd sea^ports,' who however was far surpassed by his dis- 
ciple. As soon as young Vandervelde felt his stfengtb, 
and thought he might appear with advantage in his profes- 
sion, he went to bis father in London ; and some of hig 
paintings, being exhibited at the English court, immedi- 
ately procured him employment from the king, and the 
principal nobility. .His subjects were the same as those of 
his father, and he observed the same method of sketching 
every object after nature ; but his pictures upon the whole 
are not only superior to the works of bis father, but to all 
other artists in that style; and no age,.j|ince the revival of 
the art, is thought to have produced hi^ equal. Whether 
we consider the beauty of his design, the correctness of 
his drawing, the graceful forms and positions of his vessels, 
the elegance of his disposition, the lightness of his clouds; 
the clearness and variety of his serene skies, as well as the 
gloomy horror of those that are stormy ; the liveliness and 
transparence of his colouring ; the look of genuine nature 
that appears in agitated and still waters ; and the lovely 
gradation of his distances,.as well as their perspective truth, 
they are all executed with equal nature, judgment, and 
genius. Houbraken and other writers observe, that the 
pictures of the young Vandervelde are so esteemed in 
England, that those which were scattered through the Low 
Countries were eagerly sought after, and purchased at vast 
prices ; so that in Holland they rarely have the pleasure of 
seeing any of them. Undoubtedly the most capiul of bis 
works are in England in the royal collections, and in the 
cabinets of the nobility and gentry, and some few are also 
10 Ireland. He died April 6, 1707, in the seventy -^fourth 
year of his age. * . . - 

VANDYCK (Sir Anthony), a most illustrious portrait- 
painter, whose worJ&s, lord Orford remarks, are so frequent in 
l^ngland, that the generality of our people can scarcely 
avoid thinking him their countryman^ was born at Antwerp, 

1 ArgeaTUle, toI. III.— PiUuogtoB.— Watpole's Anecdotes. *' Ihid. 

V A N D Y G K. i3S 


Mftroh 22^ 1598-9. His father was a merchant, and hin 
mother, Cornelia Kersboom, was an admit'ed flower-pain*^ 
ter« He was first placed with Van Balen, who ^ad studied . 
at Rome, but afterwards with Rubens, under whom he 
made such progress as to be able to assist in, the works* 
from which be learned. While at this excellent school, the 
foUowinc: anecdote is told of him t Rubens havincr left a 
picture unfinished one night, and going out contrary to 
custom, his scholars took the opportunity of sporting about^ 
the room; when one, more unfortunate than the rest^ 
striking at bis companion with a maul-stick, chanced to 
throw down the picture, which not being dry acquired' • 
some damage. Vandyck^ being at work in the next room, 
was prevailed on to repair the mischief; and when Rubens 
came next morning to his work, first going at a distance ta 
▼iew his picture, as is usual with painters, and having con* 
templated it a little, he jcried out suddenly, that he liked* 
the piece far .better than be did the nigbt before. • 

Rubens, discovering in his pupil an amiable temper joined 
to the most promising talents, took a pleasure in cultiva- 
ting both, by not concealing from him any part x)f that 
knowledge which hehad himself attained by long experi* 
ence. Vandyck was yet young when he was capable of 
executing, pictures, which astonished, as much from the 
facility with which they were painted, as the general know* 
ledge- which reigned throughout the whole. Rubens, at 
this time, gave him two pieces of advice ; the first was, to 
devote himself to portraits, in which he foresaw be would 
excel 7 and the second to make the tour of Italy,' where 
he would have an opportunity of extending his studies. 
Vandyt:k accordingly, after making Rubens presents of two 
or three historical paintings, and a portrait of that artist's 
wife, esteemed one of his best, set out for Italy^ and made^ 
kis first residence at Genoa, where he painted^many exceU 
lent portraits. From thence he went to Venice, where he* 
so deeply imbibed the tints of Titian, that he .is allowed to* 
approacti nearer to the carnations of that master than evea- 
Rubens. He then went to Rome and lived splendidly^, 
avoiding the low conversation of his countrymen, and was 
distinguished by the appellation of the Pitto'rc Cavaiiarescoi^ 
Soon after his arrival there, be. had an opportunity of exer*' 
eising his abilitiesupontfaepovtrait of ^rardinal Bentivoglio,- 
which is justly esteemed the noiost perfect of the kind that 
ever came from the pencil of this artist While at Romei 

Vol. XXX. ft 

it« 'VAN D Y d K. 

be r^eetred ah ^vittktion to PdilerBait), and there he painted 
priiice Philibert of Savoy, the viceroy, and a paintresB 
AQgosci6la (see An<30SC10LA, vol. IL) then at the age of 
mttety-<>ne. Biart the plague soon drove him from Sicily^ 
anfd be returned to Genoa, where he had gained the high- 
est- reputation, and left many considerable works in the 
Balbi, Durazzo, and other palaces. 

He now went back to Antwerp, and practised both his- 
tory and portrait. Of the former kind were many ap- 
plauded altar-pieces; in the latter were particularly th& 
lieads of hts contemporary artists, drawn in chiaroscuro on 
srmaU pannels, thirty- five of which, Wal pole men tioos, are 
in the possession of the Cardigan family. Engravings o! 
these have been published thrice, by Vanden Euden, con- 
taining fourscore plates ; by Giles Hendrix^ containing one 
hundred ; and lastly, by Verdussen, who effaced the names 
and letters of the original engravers. Some of the plates 
were etched by Yatidyck himself in a free and masterly 

But the advantages he reaped in his own country weie 
not proportioned to bis fnerits, and as he loved to make a 
figure, he resolved to augment his fortune by a visit to 
England, where he bad heard of the favour king Charles L 
sb^ed to the arts. On his arrival he lodged with Gd*< 
dorp, a {>ainter, hoping to be imroduced to the king ; but, 
owing to whatever means, this was not accomplished, and 
be went away chagrined. ^ The king, however, soon learn- 
ing what a treasure had been within his reach, ordered sir 
Kenelm -Digby, who iiad sat to Vandyck, to invite him 
over. He immediatdy complied, and was lodged among 
the king's artists at Black-friars. Thither the king went 
often by water, and viewed his performances with singular 
delight, frequently sitting to bim himself, alid bespeakii^ 
picturesof the queen, his children, and hts courtiers; andhe 
cohferred the honour of knighthood on km at St. James's 
July &, 163£. ThiB was the following jrear attended by 
ibe graat of an nnnuityoffl^K)/. ayear, and with this he 
had the title of painler to bis 'miyesty. 

According to Waipole, Vandyek^ prices were 40/. for 
a bdf, and 60/. for a mAiole length ; but from some docn-' 
aients eoammnicated by Mr. Maloue, it. appears that be 
pailtted, ibr ike cosraWannly at Idast, at the rate of 2SL 
^adh p^ctrmt^ and acMwclimes teife. From the number of 
Ida w^bi bfe Iteust han^ been iinde&^abte ; for tboogh he 

V A N D Y C K. 227 

was not above forty-two when he died| they are not ex- 
ceeded by those of Rubens. He lived sumptuonsly, kept 
a great table^ and often detained the persons who sat to 
him, to dinner, for an opportunity of studying their coun- 
tenances, and of retouching their pictures again in the 
afternoon. ' In summer he lived at Eltham in Ketit. He 
was not only luxurious in his living, but in his pleasures; 
and this, with a sedentary life^ brought on the gout, and 
hurt his fortune. He sought to repair it by the silly pur- 
suit of the philosopher's stone, in which probably he was 
encouraged by the example or advice of his friend sir 
Kenelm Digby. Towards the end of his life, the king be- 
stowed on him for a wife, Mary, the daughter of the unfor- 
tunate lord Gowry, and soon after his marriage he set out 
for Paris, in hopes of being employed in the Louvre ; bdt 
disappointed in this, he returned to England, and proposed 
to the king, by sir Kenelm^ Digby, to paint the walls of 
the Qanquetting-house at Whitehall, of which the ceiling 
was already adorned by Rubens ; and Vandyck's subject 
was to have been the history and procession of the order of 
the garter. The proposal struck the king's taste, and, in 
Walpole's opinion, was accepted; though, he adds, thdt 
^* some say it was rejected, on the extravagant price de- 
manded by Vandyck : I would not specify the sum, it is so 
improbable, if I did not find it repeated in Fenton^s noteii 
on Waller; it was fourscore thousand pounds!'' But tb^ 
sum being expressed in figures, this was probably a typ6« 
graphical error of 80,000/. for 8000/. The rebellion, how-* 
ever, prevented further thoughts of the scheme, as the 
4eath of Vandyck would have interrupted the execution^ 
at least the completion of it. He died* in Blackfriars Dec* 
9t 164 J, and was buried in St. Paul's near the tomb, of 
John of Gaunt. 

By his wife, Maria Ruthven, lord Gowry's. daughter, he 
left one daughter, married to Mr. Stepney, whose grand** 
son, Walpole says, was George Stepney the poet. Lady 
Vandyck, the widow, was liiarried again to Richard Pryse^* 
son. of sir John Pryse, of Newton- Averbecham, in Mont- 
gomeryshire,, knt. by whom she had no issue. Vandyck 
died rich, anditas generous jn his legacies, but, owing to? 
the cofifusions of the times, some were with difficulty re-^ 
eovered, and some lost. 

Walpole has enumerated the best of his pictures, biifc 
ihe number is too great for our limito. Among those of 

a 2 

228 V A N D y C k. 

» " ■ • 

transcendant excellence^ boweTer, we may notice his poi'- 
trait of Charles I. a whole-length in the coronation robes, 
engraved by Strange, and exhibiting in hii opinion one of 
the most perfect characters of the monarch ; George Vil- 
liers, the second duke of Buckingham, and lord Francis 
his brother, when children, at Kensington ; Philip, earl 
of Pembroke, at Wilton, where, Walpole says, Vandyck is 
on his throne, the great saloon being entirely furnished by 
his hand ; and lastly, the earl of Strafford and his secretary 
at Wentworth-house. * 

VANE (Sir Henry), an English statesman, whose fa- 
mily name had for some generations been Fane, but origi- 
nally Vane, to which he restored it, was born Feb. 18, 1589. 
The family is said to have been at first of the diocese of 
Durham, but were now settled in Kent. (See Collins, art. 
Darlington). In 16 ll he had the honour of knighthood 
conferred upon him by king James I. after which he im- 
proved himself by travel, and the acquisition of foreign lan- 
guages. On his return he was elected member of parlia* 
ment for Carlisle, in which his abilities were conspicuous. 
Such also was his attachment to the royal family, that king 
James made him cofferer to his son Charles, prince of 
-Wales, on the establishment of his household, and he wai 
continued in the ss^me ofHee by the prince when Charles L 
He was also sent by the new king to notify to the States of' 
Holland the death of his royal father, and made one of 
the privy-council. In Sept. 1631 he was appointed am- 
bassador extraordinary, to renew the treaty of friendship 
and aUiance with Christian IV. king of Denmark; and to- 
conclude peace and confederacy with Gustavus Adolphus, 
king of Sweden. He returned to England in Nov. 1632, 
and in May of the following year, entertained Charles I. 
in a sumptuous manner, at Raby-castle, on his way to 
Scotland to be crowned ; as he did again, April 30, 1639, 
in his majesty^s expedition to Scotlaad, when sir Henry 
commanded a regiment of 1099 men. In 1639 he was 
made treasurer of the household, and next year, principal 
secretary of state in the room of sir John Coke. Hitherto 
he had enjoyed the confidence of the king, and had always 
been employed in the most important public afiairs. But/ 
when lie Appeared in the prosecution against the earl of 

t WalpoWfl AiMcdotos.—- ArfenTitte, vol. III.<^Foppeii'a BibU Belg.— Dei* 
camps, vol. II.-'-StraBgt'f CaUlogae. 

VANE. 229 


Strafford, his motives to which appear to have been of a 
personal kind, the king was so offended, that he removed 
him from bis places of treasurer of his household, and also 
from being secretary of state, though, in the patent grant- 
ing that office to him, he was to hold it during life. The 
parliament therefore made this one of their pleas for 
taking up arms against the king. In their declaration, they 
avowed, •* it was only for the defence of the king's person, 
and the religion^ liberties, and laws of the kingdom, and 
for those, who for their sakes, and for those ends, h^d ob- 
served iheir orders.^ That, by the instigation of evil coun- 
sellors, the king had raised an army of papists, by which 
be intended to awe and destroy the parliament, &c.; and 
the putting out the earl of Northumberland, sir Henry 
Vane, and others, &c. from their several places and em- 
ployments, were sufficient and ample evidences thereof." 

It does not, however, appear that he was concerned in 
any measures against the king, but continued in London, 
without acting in the rebellion. And although on Decem- 
ber ], 1645, the parliament, debating on propositions of 
peace with the king, voted, that it be recommended to his 
majesty to create sir Henry Vane, senior, a baron of the 
kingdom, he never accepted any commission or employ- 
ment under them. Before the murder of the king, he re- 
tired to his seat at Raby castle, neither he nor bis sons 
being concerned therein, The earl of Clarendon U severe 
in his character of sir Henry Vaoe. He certainly was at 
one time in full confidence with the king, but his taking 
part against Strafford did incalculable mischief to the royal 
cause. Clarendon allows that, in his judgment, ^' he 
liked the government, both in church and state." As to 
what his lordship observes, ^' of his growing at last into the 
hatred and contempt of those who had made most use of 
him, and died in universal reproach;" it may, says Col- 
lins, be more justly represented, that he saw the vile 
use they made of their power, and, contemning them, chose 
retirement. He lived to the latter end of 1^54, when he 
departed this life, at his seat at Raby-castle, in the sixty- 
ninth year of his age. ' 

VANE (Sir Henry), eldest son of the preceding, and 
oneof the most turbulent enthusiasts which the rebellion 
produced, was born in 1612, and educated at Westminster-! 

' CoUiui*s Peerage, art. Daruncton.— Biog. Brit 

380 , VANE. 

achool, whence he went to Magdalen-hall, Oxford, and 
eren at this early age seems to have embraced some of 
those repHblican opinions which were destined to plunge 
bis country in all the miseries of anarchy. He is said to 
have then travelled to France and Geneva, and on his re* 
turn betrayed such an aversion to the discipline and liturgy 
of the Church of England, as greatly displeased his father. 
Finding how obnoxious his principles made him, he deter* 
mioed to go to New England, then the resort of all who 
were disaffected to the Church of England. His father was 
against this wild scheme, but, according to Neal (in his 
History of New England), the king advised him to consent 
to it, and to limit bis stay to three years. Ypung Vane's 
purpose was to have begun a settlement on the banks of 
the river Connecticut ; but the people upon his arrival, in 
1635, complimenting him with the government of Mass^i* 
chusetts for the next year, he resolved to stay among them. 
He was, however, Neal says, ^' no sooner advanced to the 
government, than he appeared td be a person of no cqn* 
duct, and no ways equal to the post he was preferred to : 
being a strong enthusiast, he openly espoused the Antino^ 
mian doctrines, and gave such encouragement to the 
preachers and spreaders of them, as raised their vanity, 
and gave them such an interest among the people, as the 
v^ry next year had like to have proved fatal both to the 
church and commonwealth ; 'but the sober party observing 
his conduct, concerted such measures among themselves, 
as put an end to his government the next election.*' Mi» 
ther, another New England historian, speaks with stilt 
greater contempt of Vane, and says, that ** Mr. Vane's 
election will remain a blemish to their judgments who did 
elect him, while New England remains a nation." Baxter 
tells us, that he became so obnoxious that ^< be was fain to 
steal away by night, and take shipping for England, before 
his year of government was at an end." Baxter adds, that 
^' when he came over into England, he proved an instru-^^ 
fjient of greater calamity to a people more sinful and more 
prepared for God's judgments." 

According to these accounts he must have returned home 
libout 1636, and not 1639, as some have asserted. It is 
said that he now appeared to be reformed from the extra-* 
vagances of his opinions, and married Frances, daugbterof 
sir Christopher Wray, of Ashby, in Lincolnshire. He was 
also by his father's interest joined with sir WiUi^m Russel 

Y A N E. «9k 


in tli« office of treasurer of tbe navy, % place oi£ great tcusl 
tod profit. He repreaented KingSitpn-iipott-tiuU \\y tbo 
{karliament choseo 1640| and fox sonoe. tiiae aeemed w«U 
satisfied witb the goveroment ; hut, upon his father's taking 
mnbrage at tb« lord Strafibrd's heing created in 16^^ bA« 
ron Raby (which title he had promised himself and which 
Strafford laid bold of, nerely out of coiitempt to the Vaae&)9 
both fathef and son formed a resolution of revenge. Fai( 
this purpose the latter, who bad received the honour of 
knighthood in 164.0, joined Pyno and other declared enemies 
of the court ; and tontribjited aU that intelligence which 
ended in the ruin of the earl, and which fi»xed hioiself in^ 
the entire, confidence of the enemies of the king 9^4 of 
Sln^iibvd, sa that nothing was concealed from him, though 
it \i believed that he oommunicated his thoughts to very 

Upon the breaking out of the rebellion he adhered to 
the interest of the parliament with enthusiastic zeal. He 
began with carrying to the House of Peers the articles of 
impeachment against archbishop Laud; and was nominated 
one of the lay members of the assembly of divines. In &64| 
he was appointed one of the commissioners seat by parlii^<^ 
ment to invite the Scots to their assistance. Under this 
character he distinguished himself as the ^^ great contrivar 
and promoter of the solemn league and covenant ;'' thougby 
even at that time, he was known to have an equal aver* 
sion to it and to presbytery, which he demonstrated after* 
wards upon all occasions, being a zealous independent. In 
1644^ he was the grand instrument of carrying the famous 
self-denying ordinance, a delusive trick, which for a time 
^ve life and spirit to the independent cause ; and in his 
speech, upon introducing the debate on that subject, ob* 
served, thftt, though he had b^en possessed of the trea* 
surerabip of the navy before the beginning of the troubles^ 
without owing it to the favour of the parliament, yet he 
was raady to resign it to them ; and desired that the profits 
of it might be applied towards the support of the war. He 
was likewise one of the commissioners at the treaty of 
Uxbridge, in Jan. 1644-5, and of that of the Isle of Wight 
in 1648 ; in which last, as he was now determined to pro* 
euro, if possible, a change in the government, he used all 
his efforts to relavd any conclusion with his majesty till the 
army could be brought to London ; a^d for th^t purpose 
amused the king's party by the offer of a toleration for the 

$k2 VANE. 

eamtn'on prayer and the episcopal clergy. Like many 
others^ however, he did not foresee the consequeaoes o£ 
bis favourite measures/and therefore did not approve of 
the force put upon the parliament by the army, nor of the 
execution. of the king; withdrawing for some time from 
the scene while these things were acted. But, upon the 
jDstablishment of the commonwealth, 1648-d, he was ap^ 
jpointed one of the council of state, in which post he was 
continued till the memorable dissolution of the parliament 
by Cromwell in 16S3. On this occasion Cromwell, who 
treated individual members with personal insolence, took 
hold of sir Henry Vane by the cloak, saying, '^ Thou art 
a juggling fellow.*' Vane, however, was too much of a 
republican to submit to his, or any authority, and was 
therefore, in 1656, summoned by Cromwell to appear be- 
fore him in council. On his appearance Cromwell chained 
him with disaffection to his government, which appeared 
in a late publication of bis called ^^ A healing question pro^ 
posed and resolved." Vane acknowledged the publication, 
and avowed his displeasure with the present state of affairs. 
Cromwell therefore ordered him to give security for his 
good behaviour ; but instead of this,- which such a man as 
sir Henry Vane might probably find very difficult, he de- 
livered to Cromwell a justification of his conduct; and this 
not being satisfactory, he was imprisoned in Carisbrooke 
castle, the spot on which be had so recently contributed to 
injure the cause of his legitimate sovereign. About four 
months after, he was released, and Cromwell tried to bring 
down his spirit by threatening to deprive him of some of 
his estates by legal process, that is, by such perversion .of 
the law aa he might find some of bis creatures capable of 
attempting; intimating at the same time, that all this should 
drop, and he be gratified with what he pleased, provided 
Jbe would comply with the present government. But he 
remained inflexible, as well during Cromwell's life, as da- 
ring the short reign of Richard, against whom many meet- 
ings of the republicans were held at his house near Cha- 
ring Cross. 

Endeavours were used to keep him out of Richard's par- 
liament in 1659, yet he was at last chosen for Whitchurch $ 
in Hampshire. In that assembly, he and other republicans^ 
laboured to overturn the settlement ofa protector and tw.6 
houses of parliament, and to introduce a commonwealth,, 
and gained considerable ascendancy. .After the abdication 

VANE. 233 

of Richardi the long parliament was restored, and' sir 
Henry Vane made one of the committee of safetyi and 
one of the council of state, and finally president of the 
jpouncil, at which time he proposed a new model of re- 
piibiican government. Still, however, he had the misfor- 
tune ^o displease his assocrates, and his temporary grandeur 
eaded in their confining him to his house at Raby, in the 
county of Durham. 

Upon the restoration it was imagined, that, as the de- 
claration from Breda was full of indemnity to all except 
the regicides, he was comprehended in it ; his innocence 
of the king's death was represented in such a manner by 
his friends, that an address was agreed upon by both 
bouses of parliament in his behalf, to which a favourable 
answer, though in general terms, was returned by bis ma- 
jesty ; and this being equivalent to an act of parliament, 
though it wanted the necessary forms, he was thought to 
be secure. But the share he had in the attainder of the 
earl of Strafford, and in all the violent measures which 
overturned the government, and, above all, the great opi- 
nion which was entertained of his parts and capacity to 
embroil matters again, made the court think it necessary 
to include him among the most dangerous enemies of the 
restoration. He was brought therefore to his trial on the 
4tii of June, 1662, for imagining and compassing the death 
of king Charles.!, and for taking upon him and usurping 
the government : in .answer to which he urged, that neither 
the king's death, nor the members themselves, could dis- 
solve the long parliament, whereof he being one, no infe- 
rior cbi|ld call him in question ; but, being found guilty, 
he was, on the 14th, beheaded on Tower-hill, where he 
intended to have addressed the spectators, but drummers 
were placed under the scaffold, who, as ^oon as he began 
%o speak, upon a sign given, struck up their drums. This, 
wbich .is said to have been a new and very indecent prac- 
tice, put him in no disorder; he only desired they might 
be stopped, for he understood what was meant by it. 
Then he went through .his devotions ; and, as he was 
taking leave of those about him, happening to say somewhat 
with relation to the times, the drums struck up a second 
time. Upon this be gave over, and died with such reso- 
lution as to. excite the sympathy of those who had no re- 
spect for bis general character and conduct. 
, Lord Clarendon styles him a man of a very profound 

234 ^ VANE. 

dissimulation, jof a quick conception, and very ready, sharp, 
and weighty, expression ; of a pleasant wit, a great under* 
standing, which pierced into and discerned the purposes of 
other men with wonderful sagacity, whilst be had himself 
vultum clausumy that no man could make a guess of what 
he himself intended ; of a temper not to be moved, though 
compliant, when it was not seasonable to contradict, without 
losing ground by the condescension. Burnet represents 
him as naturally a very fearful man, whose head was as 
darkened in his notions of religion as his mind was clouded 
with fear ; fpr, though he set up a form of religion in a way 
of his own, yet it consisted rather in withdrawing from all 
other forjQs, than in any new particular opinion or form; 
from which he and his party were called seekers,, and 
seemed to wait for some new and clearer manifestations. 
Baxter calls them the Vanisis, In their meetings sir Henry 
preached and prayed often himself, but with a pecoUar 
darkness, which ran likewise through his writings, to a 
degree that rendered them wholly unintelligible. He in- 
clined to Origen's notion of an universal solvation to all, 
both the devils and the damned ; and to the doctrine of 

Milton addressed & beautiful sonnet to sir Henry Vane, 
in terms of high commendation, for which the adherence 
of that illustrious poet to the independent sect must be his 
excuse, yet we can scarcely think him serious when he 

'^ Therefore on thy firm hand religion leans 
In peace^ and reckons thee her eldest son." 

For sure, as his commentator, Warton, observes (almost, 
however, in Ecbard's words) no single man ever exhibited 
such a medley of fanaticism and dissimulation, solid abilities 
and visionary delusions, good sense and madness. 

His writings, which were of a very peculiar cast, were, 
1. '< A healing Question, propounded and resolved, upon 
occasion of the late public and seasonable call to humilia-- 
tion, in order to love and union amongst the honest party, 
1656,*^ 4to. It was written upon occasion of a genensi 
fast ; and contained, says Ludlow, the state of the repub-^ 
licans' controversy with the king, the present deviation 
from that cause for which they engaged, and the means to 
unite all parties in the accomplishment of it. 2. ^^ The 
retired Man*s Meditations ; or, the mystery and power of 
godliness shining forth in the living world,'' &c. 1656, 4to, 

VANE. 235 

an eotbusiastic treatise on our Saviour^« coming down to 
erect a fifth monarchy upon earth, which would last 1000 
years. 3. ^< Of the Love of God and Union with God/' 
1657, 4to. Of this book lord Clarendon says, ^^ When I 
had read it, and found nothing of his usual oles^rness and 
ratiocination in bis discourse, in which he used much to 
excel the best of the company be kept, and that, in a 
crowd of very easy words, the sense was too hard to find 
but, I was of opinion that the subject-matter of it was of so 
dehcate a nature that it required another kind of prepara- 
tion of mind, and, it may be, another kind of diet than 
men are ordinarily supplied with.'' 4. '^ An Epistle Ge- 
neral to the mystical body of Christ on eiarth, the church 
universal in Babylon, ^ho are pilgrims and strangers on 
the earth, desiring and seeking after the heavenly coun*. 
try,'* 1662, 4to. 5. " The Face of the Times; whereby 
is briefly discovered, by several prophetical Scriptures,, 
from the beginning of Genesis to the end of the Revelation, 
the rise, progress, and issue, of the enmity and contest 
between the seed of the woman and the seed of the serpent, 
to the final breaking of the serpent's bead, to the total and 
irrecoverable ruin of the monarchies of this world," &c« 
1662, 4to; 6. " The People's Cause stated. The valley 
of Jebosaphat considered and opened, by comparing 2 
Chron. xx, with Joel iii. Meditations concerning man's 
life— *govemiiient— *friendship-*-enemies— <leath ;" penned 
during his imprisonment, and printed at the end of his 
trial, in 1662, 4to. ' 

VAN EFFEN (Justus), a man of letters, and one of 
the first periodical essayists on the continent, was born at 
Utrecht, April 21, 1684. He was the son of an officer, 
who had no other fortune than a moderate pension, and as 
be died before Justus had completed his studies, the latter 
was left to provide as he could for his mother and a sister. 
Some friends who took an interest in the family procured 
him to be appointed tutor to the baron de Welderen's son, 
which placed him above want ; but as he could not do sa. 
much for his family as he wished, he had recourse to his 
pen for a farther supply. His first publication was *^ Le 
Misanthrope," a periodical paper in imitation of our 
^'Spectator,'* which he wrote in French, commencing May 

^ Ath. Ox. vol. II. — -Bio;. Brit— -GoUins's Peerage.— Neal's History of New 
Eogland.*— Sylvester's Life of Baxter, p. 74.— Bircb>'ik Lives. 

236 V A N E F F E N. ' 

1711, and continuing till December 1712. Inthit he had 
great, and from what we have seen, deserved success. If 
he falls short <}f his model in that delicate humour of Addi- 
son, which has never been equalled, he abounds in just 
remarks on life and manners, evidently derived from exten« 
sive observation. Van EfFen contrived to conceal himself 
throughout the whole of this publication, of which a secoud 
and improved edition was published at the Hague in 1726, 
2 vols. 12mo, to which is added his "Journey to Sweden,** 
performed in 1719, in the suite of the prince of Hesse Phi- 
Hppsthal, who promised to make his fortune, but disap- 
pointed him. He consequently returned to the Hague as 
poor as he left it, and resumed his labours on the ** Jour- 
.nal litieraire de la Haye,". in which he had been engaged 
before his departure. Having got into a literary quarrel 
with Camiisat, who had treated his " Misanthrope'* with 
contempt, he vvas so much hurt as to be glad to embrace 
the opportunity of going to Leyden with a young gentle- 
man to whom he was' appointed tutor. Here he engaged 
in some literary schemes by which he got more money than 
reputation. Count de Welderen, however, having been 
appointed ambassador to England from the Slates General, 
took Van Effen with \}m as secretary, and on bis return 
procured him the place of inspector of the magazines at 
Bois-le-Duc, where he died Sept. 18, 1735t Van EfFen'^s 
works were numerous, but being almost all anonymous, it 
is not easy to ascertain the whole. The following are: said 
to be the principal : 1. ** Le Misanthrope," already noticed. 
2. "Journal Litteraire,'* 1715 to 1718, many of which vo- 
lumes are entirely of his editing. 3. ^^ La Bagatelle, ou 
Discours ironiques,* ou Ton pr^te des sophismes ingenieux 
au vice et a Textravagance, pour en mieujc faire sentir le 
ridicule," Amst. 1718 — '1719, 3 vols. 8vo, reprinted at 
Lausanne, 1743, 2 vols. 4. '* Le nouveau Spectateur Fran- 
gais," of which only twenty-eight numbers appeared ; fouir 
of them are employed on a critique on the works of Houdard 
de la Motte, who thanked the author for his impartiality. 
5. " The Dutch Spectator," in Dutch, Amst. 1731 — 1735, 
12 vols. 8vo. 6. ** Parallele d'Homere et de Chapelain,'* 
Hague, 1714, 8vo. This has been also printed in the dif- 
ferent editions of the " Chef-d'cEuvre d*un idconnu,*' i. e. 
M. de Themiseuil de St. Hyacinthe. 7. Translations of 
Robinson Crusoe, Swift'^ Tale of a Tub, and some of Man- 
deville's writings. 8. ** Le Mentor moderne," a transU- 

VANEFFEN. > 237 


tion of " The Guardian," except the political papers. 9. 
'•Histoire metallique des dix-sept Proviiice&de Pays-Bas,'* 
translated from the Dutch of Van Loon, Hague, 1732, 5 
yols. Van EfTen is said also to have written ^^ Les Petits 
Maitres/' a comedy; ^' Essai sur la maniere de traiter la 
eontroverse f and a part of the ^^ Journal historique, poli« 
tique, et galante.*'* 



- VANIEKE (James), a Jesuit, and a modern Latin poet 
of considerable talents, was born in 1664 at Gausses in the 
diocese of Beziers, in Languedoc. He was educated at 
the Jesuits* college in Beziers, and became one of the so- 
ciety in 1680. He was afterwards professor and rector of 
the schools belonging to the Jesuits in Montpellier, Tou- 
louse, and Aueh ; and died at Toulouse in 1739. He pub- 
lished a volume of poetical " Opuscula ;" and a good 
** Dictionary of Poetry," in Latin," 4to, and had made great 
progress on a Latin and French Dictionary, which he did^ 
not live to finish. His principal Latin poem is his <' Prs« 
dium Rusticum,'* on the subject of a country farm," which,* 
some thought, raised him to the first rank of modern Latin 
poets. The poem^ however, is confessedly tedious^ per- 
haps from the nature of the plan, andicannot be read with 
pleasure unless by those who happen to unite the scholar^s 
taste witii the farmer's knowledge. Arthur Murphy pub-» 
lHhed in 1799, a translation of the fourteenth book of the 
" Prsedium Rusticum," which treats of bees. This he says 
was a juvenile performance, but he has inrtroduced among 
the bees '* French principles," *' corresponding societies," 
and other articles of very recent date, the prototypes of 
which are certainly not to be found in Vaniere.* 

VANINI, a writer who has generally been distinguished 
by the title of Atheist, was born at Tourosano, in the king- 
dom of Naples, in 15^5 ; and was the son of John Baptist 
Vanini, steward to Don Francis de Castro, duke of Tou- 
rosano, and viceroy of Naples. His Christian name was 
Lucilio : but it was Customary with him to assume different 
Barnes in different countries. In Gascony, he called him- 
self Ponip^io ; in Holland, Julius Ceesar, which namo'he 
^aeed in ^the title-pages of his books ; and, at Toulouse, 

'i MorerU-r-Bic^* Univ. art. EflRea. ^ Moreri.-^Dict. H'nt. 

238 V A N I N I. 

when he was tried, he was called Lucilio. He bad an earlj 
taste for literature, and bis father sent him to Rome to 
«tudy philosophy and divinity, and on his return to Naples, 
he continued his studies in philosophy, and applied him- 
self sbaie time to physic. Astronomy likewise employed 
him much, which insensibly threw him into the reveries of 
t astrology : but he bestowed the principal part of his time 
upon divinity. The title of " Doctor in utroque Jure,'* 
which he, assumes in the title-page of his dialogues, may 
indicate that he had applied himself to the civil and canon 
law ; and from his writings, it certainly appears that he un- 
derstood both. He finished his studies at Padua, where he 
resided some years, and procured himself to be ordained 
priest, and became a preacher, with what success is not 
known. His mind appears to have been perverted or con* 
fused by the reading of Aristotle, Averroes, Cardan, and 
Pomponatius, who became his favourite guides. His ad- 
miration of Aristotle was such, that he calls him ^* the^d 
of philosophers, the dictator of human nature, and the 
sovereign pontiflF of the sages.'\ The system of Averroes, 
which is but a branch of that of Aristotle, was ^o highly 
approved of by him, that he recommended it to his scho^ 
lars at their first entrance upon the study of philosophy* 
He styles Bomponaftius his *^ divine master,'' and bestows 
great encomiums upon his works. He studied Cardan very 
much, and gives him the character of '^ a man of great 
sense, and not at all affected with superstition." It is sap-> 
posed that he derived from these authors those infidel do«» 
trines which he aftenVards endeavoured to propagate. Fa- 
ther Mersene assures us, that Vanini, before he was eze- 
cuted at Toulouse,^ confessed to the parliament, that at 
Naples he had agreed i/vith thirteen of his friends to travel 
throughout Europe, for the sake of propagating atheism, 
and that France had fallen to his share: but this is very 
improbable, as the president Gramond, who was upon the 
spoXf says nothing of such a scheme in his account ^t^fVa- 
nini's trial and execution. It is more probable, that bis 
inclination to travelling, or perhaps the hopes of procuripg 
an agreeable settlement, led him to the several places 
tlirough which he passed ; and that he spread bis singular 
sentiments according as he had oppoi^tuoity. . . 

Tt has been reinarked that we have very few dates in the 
biography of Vanini. We can only therefore say generally 
that^ after he had commenced his travels^ he went through 

V A N I N L • 239 

pitrt of Germany and the Low Countries, to Geneva, and 
thenee to Lyons ; whenge, having presuoied to vent bis 
irreligious uotions, under the pretext of teaching philoso* 
phy, he was x>bliged to fly. He passed over into England, 
and.ip 1614 was at London, where he was imprisoned for 
nine and forty days, '^ well prepared/' says he, with that 
air of devotion which runs through all his writings, ^< to re- 
ceive-tbe crown of martyrdom, which he longed for with all 
tlie ardour imaginable." Being set at liberty, he repassed 
the sea, and took the road to Italy. He first stopped at 
Genoa, and undertook to teach youth ; but, it being dis- 
covered that he had infused pernicious notions into their 
minds, he was forced to abandon that city. He then re- 
turned to Lyons,, where he endeavoured to gain the favour 
of the ecclesiastics by a pretended confutation of Cardan 
and other atheistical writers, in which he artfully contrived, 
by the weakness of his arguments, to give his opponents 
the advantage* This work was printed at Lyons, in 1615, 
8vo, under the title of ^^ Amphitheatrum aeternas Provi- 
dexitiae Divino-Magicum, Christiano-Physicum, necnon As« 
trologo-Catholicum, adversus veteres Philosopbos Atheos, 
Epicureos, Peripateticos, .& Stoxcos. Autore Julio Csesare 
Vaniuo, Philosopbo, Theologo, ac Juris utriusque Doc-^ 
tore;'' dedicatedto the count de Castro, the protector of' 
bis feqiily and his benefactor; and it so far imposed on the 
licensers of books, as to receive their approbation. But 
Vanini being apprehensive that his artifice might be de* 
te$U^f went again into Its^ly ; where being accused of re- 
viving and propagating bis former impieties, he returned 
to frauce, and became a monk in the convent of Guienne, 
and feom this he is said to have been ^)anished for immo* 
rality. He then retired to Paris, where he endeavoured to 
introdiftce himself to Robert Ubaldini, the pope's nuncio; 
and, in order to make his court to him and the clergy in 

funeral, undertook to write an apology for the council of 
cent» He procured likewise several friends, and had ac- 
eBis to the mareschal de Bassompierre, who made him his 
chi^lAtn, and gave him a pension of two hundred crowns. 
Upon this account, he dedicated to him his ^'Dialogues,'' 
whteh were printed at Paris in 1616, Svo,, with this title, 
'^JultiCsesaris Vanini, Neapolitani, Theologi, Philosophi, 
& Jufis utriusque Doctoris, de admirandis Naturae Regin» 
"Dewqtxe . Mortaiium arcanis, libri quatuor." This work 
Utewise was printed with the king^s privilege, and the ap- 

f 40 V A N I N I. 

probation of three learned doctors, either from careless* 
ness or ignorance. In his *^ Ampbitheatrum*' he bad taken 
some pains to disguise his irreligion ;, but in these ^^ Dia<* 
logues,'' bis sentiments are too obviouSyN and notwithstand- 
ing their having escaped the censors of the press, the fa-> 
culty of the Sorbonne soon discovered their tendency, and 
condemned them to the flames. Finding himself now be<* 
come generally obnoxious, and in consequence reduced to 
poverty, be is said to have written to the pope, that, ^^ If 
be had not a good benefice soon bestowed upon him, he 
would in three months' time overturn the whole Christian 
religion ;*' but although it is not impossible that Vanini 
might have written such a letter for the amusement of his 
friends, it is scarcely credible that he should have sent it 
to Rome. Whatever may be in this, it is certain that he 
qditted Paris in 1617, and returned to Toulouse; where 
be soon infused his impious notions into the minds of his 
scholars, in the course of his lectures on physic, philo- 
sophy, and divinity. This being discovered, he was pro- 
secuted, and condemned to be burnt to death, which sen-' 
tence was executed Feb. 19, 1619. Gramond, president of 
the parliament of Toulouse, gives os the following account 
of bis death. *^ About the same time, Feb. 1619^ by order 
of the parliament of Toulouse, was condemned to death 
Lucilio Vanini, who was esteemed aa arcb-heretic with 
many persons, but whom I always looked upon as an 
atheist. This wretch pretended to be a physician, but in 
reality was no other than a seducer of youth. He laughed 
at every thing sacred : he abominated the incarnation of 
our Saviour, and denied the being of a God, ascribing all 
things to chance. He adored nature, as the cause of all 
beings : this was his principal error, whence all the rest were 
derived ; and be had the boldness to teach it with great 
obstinacy at Toulouse. He gained many followers among' 
the younger sort, whose foible it is to be taken with any 
thing that appears extraordinary and daring. Being cast 
into prison, be pretended at first to be a catholic ; and by* 
that means deferred his punishment. He was even just 
going to be set at liberty, for want of sufficient proofs 
against him, when Franconi, a man of birth and probity,' 
deposed, that Vanini bad often, in his presence, denitd' 
the existence of God, and scoffed at the mysteries of tbe 
Christian religion. Vanini, being brought before the sc- 
natei and asked what his thoughts were concerning the 


existence of a God ? answered, that ^ he adored with the 
church, a God in three persons,' and that ^, Nature. evi<>* 
dently demonstrated the being of a deity i* _and, seeing by 
chance a straw on the ground, he took it up, and stretching 
it forth, said' to the, judges, ^ This straw obliges me to 
confess that there is a God;' and he proved afterwards rery 
amply, that God was the author and creator of all thingi^ 
nature being incapable of creating any thing. But all this 
be said through vanity or fear, rather than an inward con- 
viction ; and, as the proofs against him were convincing, 
be was by sentence of parliament condemned to die, after 
they had spent six months in preparing things for a hearing. 
I saw him in the dung-cart, continues Gramond,' when he 
was- carried to execution, making sport with a friar, who 
was allowed him in order to reclaim him from his obstinacy. 
Yanini refused the assistance of the friar, and insulted even 
our Saviour in. these words, * He sweated with weakness 
and fear in. going to suffer death, and I die undaunted.* 
lliis profligate wretch had no reason to say that he died 
undaunted : I saw him entirely dejected, and making a 
very ill use of that philosophy of which he so much boasted. 
At the time when he' was going to be executed he had a 
horrible and wild. aspect; his mind was uneasy, and he 
discovered in. all his expressions the utmost anxiety ; though 
from time to time he cried out that he ^ died like a philo- 
sopher.* Before the fire was applied to the wood-pile, he 
was ordered to put out Ins tongue, that it might be cut off; 
which be refused to do ; nor could the executioner take 
bold of it but with pincers. There never was. heard a more, 
dreadful shriek than he then^gave ; it was like the bellow-^ 
ing of an ox* His body was consumed in the flames, and 
his. ashes thrown into the air. I saw him in prison, and at 
his execution ; and likewise knew him before he was ar« 
rested. He had always abandoned himself to the gratifi- 
cation of his passiohiy and lived in a very irregular manner. 
When his goods were«seizeid there was found a great toad 
alive in a large crystal bottle full of water. Whereupon he 
was accused of witchcraft ; but be answered, that that animal 
being burned, was a sure antidote against all mortal and 
pestilential diseases. While be was ih prison he pretended 
to be a catholic, and went often to the sacrament; bu^ 
when he found there were no hopes of escaping^ he threw^ 
off the mask, and died as he had lived.'' 

Yanini has not been without his apologists, who have 


24i V A N I ,N t 

eoiistdered bim rather as a victim to^ bigotry and eoTy, Ifaati' 
as a martyr to impiety and atheism. They even go so far 
as to maintain that neither bis life nor bis vrritings were so 
absurd or blasphemous as to entitle bim to the character of 
a despiser of God and religion. The arguments of these 
apologists may be found in^Buddeus's *^ Theses de Atheis- 
mo et Superstitione/^ inArp's ^< Apologia pro Vanioo/* 
17 13, and in Heister^s <' Apologia pro medicis/' The life 
of Vanini has been written several times ; but that by M. 
Dufand, entitled *^ La Vie et les Sentimens de Lucilio Va- 
nini/' and printed at Rotterdam, 1727, in 12 mo, comprises 
every thing which has been said of him, bnt by no means 
justifies the zeal of his apologists. An English translation 
of Durand was published in 1730.' 

VAN LOO (John Baptist), a portrait-painter^ brother 
to Carlo Vanioo, was born at Aix, in Provence, about 1684. 
He distinguished himself eminently in. historic and portrait 
painting, both which he studied at Rome, and became 
painter to the king of Sardinia, in whose service he realized 
a considerable fortune ; but lost it all in the Mississippi^ 
going to Paris in the year of that bubble. In 1737 he 
came to Ensfland with bis son. His* first works were the 
portraits of Cibber and Mac Swinney ; the latter, whose 
long silver grey hairs were very picturesque, contributed 
much to give the new painter, reputation, and be very 
soon bore away the chief business of London from every 
Other painter, and introduced a better style than was then 
known. He died at Prbvence, whither he had retired for 
the benefit of the ^ir, in April 1746. Louis Michael Van* 
loo, first painter to the king of Spain, and Charles Philip 
Vanioo, painter to the king of Prussia, were sons and pu- 
pils of the above-mentioned, and have with eclat supported 
the name.' 

VAN LOO (Charles), brother to the preceding, was 
born at Nice, Feb. 15, 1705. He went to Turin with his 
brother John in 1712, and thence to Rome-in 1714. He 
learnt from bis brother the first elements of design ; and, 
by his constantly studying the antique, and the works of 
the greatest masters, he laid the foundation of his future 
CMie. He came to Paris with his brother in 1719, and in 
1723 gained the academy's first medal for design: ia the 

\ Life, as above. — Gen. Diit.— Nioeron, Tolt XXVJ.— Mosbeiai. 
^ Pilkii^;tOD«-<-Wa1pole'sAneodoie8, 

V A N L O O. £43 

yehr followiirg be carried the first prize for painting ; and 
departed again for Rome in 1727. He returned to Turin 
in 1732, where he painted many historical pieces with sue* 
cess for the king of Sardinia* The next year he married 
Signora Sommis, who was celebrated for singing and know- 
ledge of music, but more celebrated for the private virtues 
of domestic life. In 1734 be returned to Paris, and the 
year following was received into the academy. In 1749 
he was chosen for the direction of the royal eleves: In 1751- 
he was honoured with the order of St. Michael, and in 1762 
named first painter to the king, dnd died in 1765. His 
principal performances are in the churches of Paris^ and 
are much admired. ^ 

VAN MANDER (Charles), another eminent artist, was 
born al Meulebeke, a small distance from Courtray^ it| 
1548, and was successively the disciple of Lucas de Heere^ 
at Ghent, and Peter Vlerick, at Courtray ; but his prin- 
cipal knowledge in the art of painting was acquired fit 
Rome, where he studied for three years. There be de* 
signed after the antiques, and the curious remains of Ro- 
man magnificence ; the temples, baths, ruinous theatres, 
sepulchml monuments and their decorations, and, in short, 
. every elegant and noble object that invited his attention. 
He also studied after nature in the environs of Rome, 
sketching every scene that pleased his imagination, or could 
afford him materials for future compositions in the land** 
scape-style ; and having practised to paint with equal free- 
dom in fresco and in oil, he executed several historical 
works as well as landscapes^ for the candinals aiid nobility 
of Rome, with extraordinary approbation. 

At his return to his own cou,ntry he was received with 
unusual respect, and soon after painted the represientation 
of the Terrestrial Paradise, which procured him great 
honour, and a picture of the Deluge, which was highly 
applauded for the composition and expression, as it de- 
scribed all the passions of grief, fear, terror, horror, and' 
despair, with a sensible and affecting variety. In general- 
he was esteemed a good painter of landscape ; the choice 
in his trees was judicious, his figures were well designed, 
bis colouring 'was agreeable, and his composition full of^ 
spirit; though,' in the advanced part of his life be appeared 
to bare somewhat of the mannerist. This artist distin- 

» l^imfngtOD.— Pict. fiist. 
R 2 

244 V A N M A N D E R. 

guisbed himself not only as a painter, but as a writer. . Ha. 
composed tragedies and comedies, wbicb were acted wttl^ 
applause; and, what is very uncommon, be painted. afsd 
the decorations of the theatre. At Haerlem be introduced 
an academy, to diffuse among his countrymen a taste for 
the Itafian masters ; and the world is indebted eminently 
to Van Mander for searching out, and transmitting to pos* 
terity, the characters and merits of so many memorable 
artists as are comprised in his <^ Lives of the Painters." Be 
died in 1605, aged fifty-eight.* 

VANNI (Francis), an eminent painter, was born at 
Siena, in. 1563, the son of a painter who was in no great 
reputation, and received his earliest instruction in the 
school of Archangeto Salimbeni; but when be was twelve 
y^ars old he travelled to Bologna, and there studied for 
two years under the direction of Passerotti. Yet finding in 
himself an impatient desire to see the celebrated .antiques, 
and the works of Raphael, he went to Rome, and placed 
himself with Giovanni da Vecchia. By the precepts of 
that master, his proficiency was extraordinary ; so that bis 
performances not only extorted applause from the ablest 
j.udge8, but also excited the jealousy and envy of Giosep- 
pino, who was instructed in the same school. Having thus 
established his taste, he returned to his native city, where 
he studiously contemplated the paintings of Baroccio, and 
8o highly admired them, that he preferred the style and 
manner of that master to all others, imitated him with suc« 
cess ; and was generally esteemed to be no way inferior. profited afterwards by studying the compositions of 
Correggio. He was principally engaged in grand works 
for the churches and convents at Siena and at Rome. To 
the latter of those cities he was invited by pope Clement 
Vni. and, by order of that pontiff, he painted in the 
church of St. Peter an incomparable design, representing 
Simon the sorcerer reproaeihed by St. Peter; for wJiicb 
performance be received the honour of knighthood.. He 
undoubtedly had an excellent genius; his invention was 
fruitful and ready, his style of composition truly fine, ami 
his design correct. His manner of colouring was bold^ 
lively, and beautiful ; his penciling tender and delicate ; 
and the airs of his beads were remarkably graceful. Tfae 
molt capital works of Yanni are at Siena, Rome, Piaa^ and 

1 PilkiogioDy by Foselu 

V A N N I. 845 

Fistoia ; among virhich are mentioned a Crucifixion^ a Flight 
into Egypt, the Wise Men's offering to Christ, and the Mar- 
riage of St. Catherine, all of them esteemed admirable^ 
He died in 1610, aged forty-seven. * 

VAN S WIETEN (GerArd), one of the most celebrated 
physicians of the Last century, and who attained the highest 
honours in his profession, was born at Leyden, May 7, 
1700, of a very ancient family, which had furnished many 
distinguished characters for the state, the bar, and the 
army. He had the misfortune to lose his parents at a time 
when their affection would have been of most importance 
to him, and fell into the hands of tutors who tobk very 
little care of his property, and less of his education. Tbia 
last, however, became early bis own concern, and a thirst 
for knowledge led him to fonm a successful plan. After 
studying the classics at Leyden, he went in 1716 to Lou- 
vain, where, after a course of philosophy for two years, he 
was admitted into the first class, and his masters would have 
been glad to have detained him that he might become a 
farther ornament to their university ; but he had by this 
time fixed bis choice on medicine as a profession, and 
therefore returned to Leyden, where he placed himsielf 
under the illustrious Boerhaave. Van Swieten was not 
more happy in such a master than Boerhaave was in direct^ 
ing the studies of a pupil who soon promised to extend his 
favourite science. After seven years' • study here. Van 
Swieten, in 1725, received his doctor's degree, and Boer- 
haave, notwithstanding the disparity of years and of fame, 
chose him for his friend, and discerned in him his future 

Van Swieten^s course of study was' such as laid^a solid 
foundation for his future fame. He began by tracing the 
fundamental principles of the healing art to their origin iu 
the writings of the most eminent authors of antiquity^ and 
examined with historical precision the progress of improve- 
ment through every age, distinguishing what was conjec- 
tural' and temporary from what was founded on the basis of 
experience, and permanent; and during this extensive 
course of reading, he was content to abstract himself firom 
the pleasures of society, and even abridged himself of the 
necessary hours of sleep and refreshment, until his faithful 
preceptor admonished him against an excess which would 

1 Pilkingtpo^ by Fuseli. 

e46 V A N S W I E T E N. 

injure his heahb, and disappoint him of the object he wished 
to attain. Sacb, however, was the pr6gress he made^ that 
at the age of twenty-five he was justly classed among the 
Sofoans of Europe. 

After he had taken his doctor^s degree he continued to 
attend Boerhaave*s lectures for about twenty years, and 
having within this period been himself appointed a pro- 
fessor, bis fame and talents brought a vast addition to the 
number of medical students at Leyden, who came from 
Germany, Franpe, and England, to what was then the 
greatest and perhaps the only school of medicine in Eu* 
rope. Celebrated as the school of Leyden was, however/ 
from the joint labours of Boerhaave and Van Swieten, it 
was at last disgraced in the person of the latter. His grow- 
ing reputation excited the envy of some of his contempo- 
rari^s, who having nothing else to object, took the mean 
advantage of his being a R6man catholic, and insisting 
that the Jaw should be put in force, obliged him to resign 
an office which he had filled with so much credit to the 
university. Van Swieten submitted to this treatment with 
dignified contempt, and being now more at leisure, began 
his great work, his Commentaries on Boerhaave'sApborisms, 
the first volume of which was finished, and the second 
nearly so, when the empress Maria Theresa invited him to 
her court ; and although he felt some reluctanc'e at quitting 
the studious life he had hitherto led, he could not with 
propriety reject the offer, and accordingly arrived at Vi- 
enna in June 1745. ' Here he was appointed first physician 
to the court, with a handsome establishment, and some 
time after the dignity of baron was conferred upon him. 
How well he merited these honours, the favourable change 
efl^cted by him in the state of medical science sufficiently 
proved. He was now in the prime of life, and perhf^ps 
few men in Europe were better qualified, by extent of 
knowledge, to lay the foundation for a school of medicii^e^ 
He was not only thoroughly versed in every branch of me* 
dicine, in botany, anatomy, surgery, chemistry, ^c. but 
was well acquainted with most of the European languages. 
He was a good Greek and Latin scholar, and wrote the 
latter with ease and elegance, and in his lectures was fre- 
quently happy in his quotations from the Greek and Latin 
classics. He was also well vei»ed in all the branches of 
mathematics, and natural philosophy ; and had .paid no 
little attention to divinity, law, polities, and history. Such 

VAN S W I E T E N. * »♦? 

aMimnenU procured him the cpafidence of bU sover^ign^ 
M^hom be easily prevailed upon to rebuild tbe university of 
yieoQa in an elegant style, and with every accommodation 
for the pursuit of tbe different sciences. The botanioal 
garden was enlarged, and the keeping of it given to M. 
Langier ; and a clinical lecture was established in one of 
tbe principal hospitals by M. De Haen. It was in 174$ 
that Van Swieten first began to execute bis plan for re-* 
forming tbe study of medicine in the university of Vienna, 
by giving lectures in the vestibule of the imperial library; 
a^d.wben his business as first physician increased, be called 
in tbe aid of able professors who understood hi» views ; 
among whom were the celebrated Storck and Crant^. 
Having been appointed keeper of "^tbe imperial library, his 
first measure was to abolish a harbarous law that bad long 
been in furce» which prohibited any person from making 
notes or extracts from any of the books. Van Swiet^n, on 
tbe contrary^ laid tbe whole open to the use of readers, and 
provided them with every accommodation, and ample per- 
mission to transcribe what they pleased. He also pre* 
vailed on the empress to increase the salaries of tbe pro- 
fessors of the university, and to provide for the education 
of young men of talents. He was himself a most liberal 
patron/ to such as stood in need of this aid, and employed 
his whole intluence in their favour; and be lived to pro- 
mote the interests of learning in general tbrQughoul the 
Austrian dominions to an extent hitherto unknown. 
- Amidst all his engagements he enjoyed good health until 
176^, when he perceived symptoms of decay : it was not, 
however, until 1772 that his constitution visibly declined, 
and a mortification in one of his toes coming on proved fa- 
ta} June 18th of that year, in the seventy -third year of his 
age. Such was the respect of his royal mistress, that she 
visited liim several times during his illness, and saw him 
G^ly a few hours before his death, when she shed tears ac 
ihe near prospect of that event. He died at Schonbrun, 
and his corpse was brought to Vienna, and interred in the 
chapel of the Augustines, and a statue was placed in tbe 
university to his memory. Few persons indeed have re- 
ceived more honours. At the time of his death he bore the 
titles of coonmander of the royal order of St. Stephen, 
counsellor, first physician, royal librarian, president of the 
censors of books ; vice-president of the Ia)^perialand.royal 
commission of studies; perpetual director of the faculty o( 

248 V A N S W I E T E N. 

medicine; and a member of all the, principal literary so-* 
cieties of Europe, and, among these, of our Royal Society, 
into which he was chosen in 1749. He married in 1729, 
and had two sons and two daughters. One of his sons, 
Geoffrey Baron Van Swieten, died in March 1 803 ; he was 
commander of the order of St. Stephen, and director of the 
Imperial library, and was, some years since, the Imperial 
envoy at the court of Berlin.. He bequeathed his library 
(including a very considerable musical collection) to the 
university of Vienna. 

The work, which amidst all the changes of medical 
theory, must ever preserve the memory of Van Swieten, was 
his ^^ Commentaria in H. Boerhaave Aphorismos,^' 1743, 
&c. 5 vol. 4to. This has been often reprinted, and transV 
lated into French, German, and English. He wrote also 
*^ Description abreg6e des maladies qui regnent commune- 
ment dans les armies," Vienna, 1759, 8vo.^ 


VANUDEKf (Lucas), an eminent landscape-painter, 
was born at Antwerp in 1595, and learned the art of paint* 
ing from his father ; but he derived his chief excellence 
from a diligent observation of nature. Every hour that was 
not employed at his easel was spent abroad in the fields, 
where he noticed, with curious exactness, the variety of 
appearances perpetually occurring from the dawn to the 
evening over the face of nature. He watched the different 
effects of light on different objects, nor suffered any inci- 
dent to escape his observation. His pictures are agreeably 
pencilled, and the distant objects in particular delicately 
touched. So perfectly was his style of colouring suited to 
that of Rubens, that this great painter often had recourse 
to him in finishing the back-grounds of his pictures, par* 
ticularly when they consisted of landscape. Strange en-* 
graved two of these, ih which the figures are by Rubens. 
There are also several etchings by Vanuden, in a spirited 
and masterly style, and among them a s^t of landscapes, 
small plates, length-wa3's, inscribed *^ Lucas Vanuden 
pinx. inv. et fee."' He died about 1663. He had a bro- 
ther, Jacques Vanuden, also a painter, and in his manner, 
but far inferior to Lucas. ' 

1 Eloy, Diet. Hist, de Medecine. — Bracker's FinacoUieca Viror. IllusU 
Decas X. 

> ArgenTille, vol. 1II.«— Pilkioston. ' 

V A R C H I. 249 

' VARCHI (Benedict), an Italian historian, poet, and 
critic, was born at Florence in 1502. His father, a law- 
yer, placed him with a master, who reported that he was not 
i&t for literature, and advised him to breed the boy up to 
merchandise. He was accordingly sent to a counting- 
house, and there his nmsters discovered that he never was 
without a book^ and minded nothing but reading. His fa- 
ther then, aft^r examining him, found that he had been 
deceived by the school-master, and determined to give his 
son a learned education, and for that purpose sent him to 
Padua and Pisa. Unfortunately, however, he prescribed 
the study of the law, which Varchi relished as little as 
commerce; and although, ^ut of filial respect, he went 
through the usual courses, he irfimediately, on his father^s 
death, relinquished both the study and practice of the law, 
and determined to devote all bis attention to polite litera- 
ture. In this he acquired great reputation ; but when 
Florence became distracted by civil commotions, he joined 
the party in opposition to the Medici family, and was ba- 
nished. During his exile he resided at Venice, Padua, 
and Bologna, where his talents procured him many friends ; 
and his works having diffused bis reputation more widely, 
Cosmo de Medicis had the generosity to forgive the hosti- 
lity he had shewn to his family, and, respecting him as a 
man of letters, recalled him home, and appointed him his 
historiographer. In this capacity he recommended him to 
write the history of the late revolutions in Florence. AH 
this kindness, accompanied with a handsome pension, pro- 
duced a great change in the mind of the republican Var- 
chi, who became now the equally zealous advocate of 
monarchy. As soon as he had finished a part of it, be 
submitted it to the inspection of his patron, and some co- 
pies were taken of it. These being seen by some persons 
who suspected that he would make free with their cha- 
racters, or the characters of their friends, they conspired 
to assassinate the apostate author, as they thought him; 
and having one liight attacked him, left hitn weltering in his 
blood, but his wounds were not mortal ; and although it is 
said he knew who the assassins were, he declined appearing 
against them. He was, however, so much affected by the 
aflPatr, that he embraced the ecclesiastical profession, and 
obtained some preferment. He died at Florence in 1565. 
His history, which extends from 1527 to 1538, was not 
published until 1721, at Cologne^ and reprinted at Leyden 

250 y A R c H r. 

, 1723; but both these places ^re wrong, as both editions 
were published in Italy. There is a recent edition, MiUny 
1803| 5 vols. 8vo. The style, like that of all bis works, is 
pure and elegant, though a little too much elaborated. The 
facts, of course, are strongly tinctured with an attachment 
to the bouse of Medici. 

Varchi was a man of extensive literature, and particu* 
larly excelled in criticism, grammar, and the classics ; nor 
was be unacquainted with philosophy, law, morals, and the 
fine arts. He published many orations, delivered in the 
Florentine academy, and wrote some poetry, greatly ap- 
plauded in his time. But his chief merit lay in the 
elegance of his Italian style, which is still reckoned a. 
ipodel. His principal philological work is his ^^ L^Ercp- 
lano," a dialogue on language, one object of which is to 
prove that the Italian ought to be called the Florenti«e 
language, an opinion which has been successfully opposed.' 

YARENIUb (Bernard), a Dutch physician, is known 
in literary history as the author of a ^^ System of Univer- 
sal Geography,'' which was accounted an excellent and 
comprehensive work, and was written originally in Latin, 
and printed at Amsterdam in 1650. It was re-published at 
Cambridge in 1672, with great improvements, by sir Isaac 
Newton; and in 1712, on the recommendation of Dr. 
Bentley, by Dr. Jurin. It was afterwards translated into 
English by Dr. Shaw, and illustrated with additional not^a 
and copper-plates, 2 vols. 8vo ; and in this form has gone 
through several editions. We have besides a curious de- 
scription of Japan and the kingdom of Siam, in Latin, by 
this author, printed at Cambridge, 1673, 8vo. Vareniua 
died in 1660, but we have no particulars of his life.' 

VARIGNON (P£T£R), a celebrated French mathemati- 
cian and priest, was born at Caen in 1654. He was the 
son of an architect in middling circumstances, but had a 
college education, being intended for the church* Having 
accidentally met with a copy of Euclid's Elements, he was 
inclined to study it, and this led him to the works of Des 
Cartes, which confirmed his taste for geometry, and be 
even' abridged himself of the necessaries of life to purchase 
books which treated on this science. What contributed to 
heighten this passion in him was, that he studied in private: 

1 Tiraboschi — Niceron, vol XXXVF. — Saxii Onomaft. 
^' Diet, ilijt. — Eloy; Dio(. Hist, de Medeciae. 

V A R I G N O N. 251 

£ar bis relatioBS observing that the books he^ studied were 
not such as were commonly used by others, strongly op- 
posed his application to them ; and as there was a necessity 
for his being an ecclesiastic, he continued bis theological stu- 
dies, yet not entirely sacrificing bis favourite subject to them. 
At this time tb^ Abh6 St. Pierre, who studied philoso- 
phy in the same college, became acquainted with him. A 
taste in common for rational subj^ects, whether physics or 
metaphysics, and continued disputations, formed the bonds 
of their friendship, and they became mutually serviceable 
to each other in their studies. The abb^, to enjoy Varig- 
non's company with greater ease, lodged in the same 
house with him ; and being in time more sensible of his 
merit, he resolved to give him a fortune, that he might 
fully pursue his inclination. Out of only 1 8 hondr^ livres 
a year, which he had himself, he conferred 300 of them 
upon Varignon ; and when determined to go to Paris to 
study philosophy, he settled there in 1686, with M. Varig- 
non, in the suburbs of St. Jacques. There each studied 
in his own way ; the abb^ applyittg himself to the study of 
men, manners, and the principles of government ; whilst 
Varignon was wholly occupied with the mathematics. Fon- 
tenelle, who was their countryman, often went to see 
them, sometimes spending two or three days with them. 
Tfaey had also room -for a couple of visitors, who came 
from the same province. '^ We joined together,'* says 
Fontenelle, '^ with the greatest pleasure. We were young, 
full of the first ardour. for knowledge, strongly united,, and, 
what we were not then perhaps disposed to think so great 
a happiness, little known. Varignon, who had a strong 
eonatitution, at least in his youth, spent whole days in 
study^' without any amusement or recreation, except walk- 
ing* sometimes in fine weather. I have heard him say, 
that in studying after supper, as he usually did, he was 
often surprised to hear the clock strike two in the morning ; 
and was much pleased that four hours rest were sufficient 
lo refresh him. He did not leave his studies with that 
heaviness which they usually create ; nor with that weari- 
ness that a long application might occasion. He left off 
gay and lively, filled with pleasure, and . impatient to rer 
newiti In speaking of mathematics, he would laugh lo 
freely, that it seemed as if he had studied for diversion. 
No condition was so much to be envied as his. ; his life was 
a continual enjoyment, delighting in quietness." 

252 V A R I G N O N. 

' In the solitary suburb of St. Jacques, he formed however 
a Connection with many other learned men ; as Da Hamel, 
Du Verney, De la Hire, &c. Du Verney often asked his 
assistance in those parts of anatomy connected with me- 
chanics : they examined together the positions of the mus- 
cles, and their directions ; hence Varignon learned a good 
deal of anatomy from Du Verney, which he repaid by the 
application of mathematical reasoning to that subject. At 
length, in 1687, Varignon made himself known to the pub- 
lic by a ** Treatise on New Mechanics," dedicated to the 
Academy of Sciences. His thoughts on this subject were, 
in efFect, quite new. He discovered truths, and laid open 
their sources. In this work, he demonstrated the necessity 
of an equilibrium, in such cases as it happens in, though 
the cause of it is not exactly known. This discovery Va- 
rignon made by the theory of compound motions, and his 
treatise was greatly admired by the mathematicians,; and 
procured the author two considerable places, the one of 
geometrician in the Academy of Sciences, the other of 
professor of mathematics in the college of Mazarine, to 
which he was the first person raised. 

' As soon as the science of Infinitesimals appeared in the 
world, Varignon became one of its most early cultivators. 
When that sublime and beautiful method was attacked in 
the academy itself (for it could not escape the fate of all 
innovations) he became one of its most zealous defenders, 
and in its favour he put a violence upou his natural chiirac- 
ter, which abhorred all contention. He sometimes la- 
mented, that this dispute had interrupted him in his in- 
quiries into the Integral Calculation so far, that it would be 
difficult for him to resume his disquisition where be had 
left it off. He therefore sacrificed Infinitesimals to the 
Interest of Infinitesimals, and gave up the pleasure and 
glory of making a farther progress in them when called 
upon by duty to undertake their defence. All the printed 
volumes of the Academy bear witness to his application and 
industry. His works are never detached pieces, but com- 
plete theories of the laws of motion, central folrces, snd 
the resistance of mediums to motion. In these be makes 
such use of bis rules, that nothing escapes him that has 
any contiection with the subject he treats. In all his works 
he makes it his chief care to place every thing* in the 
clearest light ; he never 'consults his ease by declining tb 
take the trouble of being methodical, a trouble mueh 

V A R I G N O, N. 243 

greater than that of composition itself; nor does he endea- 
TOUT to acquire a reputation for profoundness, by leaving 
a great deal to be guessed by the reader. He learned the 
history of mathematics, not merely out of curiosity, but 
because he was desirous of acquiring knowledge from every 
quarter. This historical knowledge is doubtless an orna- 
ment in a mathematician ; but it is an ornament which is 
by no means without its utility. 

Though Varignon^s constitution did not seem easy to be 
impaired, assiduity and constant application brought upoa 
him a severe disease in 1705. He was six months in dan- 
ger, and three years in a languid state, which proceeded 
from his spirits being almost entirely exhausted. He said 
that sometimes when delirious with a fever, he thought 
himself iti the midst of a forest, where all theleaves of the 
trees were covered with algebraical calculations. Con- 
demned by his physicians, his friends, and himself, to lay 
aside all study, he could not, when alone in bis chao^ber, 
avoid taking up a book of mathematics, which he hid as 
soon as he heard any person coming, and again resumed 
the attitude and behaviour of a sick man, which unfortu- 
nately he seldom had occasion to counterfeit. 

In regard to his character, Fontenelle observes, that it 
was at this time that a writing of his appeared, in which he 
censured Dr. Wallis for having advanced that there are 
certain spaces more than infinite, which that great geome- 
trician ascribes to hyperbolas. He maintained, on the 
contrary, that they were finite. The criticism was softened 
i^itb all the politeness and respect imaginable ; but a criti- 
cism it was, though he had written it only for himself. . He 
let M. Carr6 see i>, when he was in a state that rendered. 
him indifferent about things of that kii)d ; and that gentle-- 
npao, influenced only by the interest of the sciences, caused 
it to be printed in the memoirs of the Academy of Sciences,- 
unknown to the author, who thus made an attack againsjt 
hia inolination. 

He recovered from his disease; but the remembrance of 
what he had suffered did not make him more prudent for 
the future. The whole impression, of his ^' Project for a 
New. System of Mechanics," having been sold off, he 
formed a design to publish a second edition of it, or rather . 
a work entirely new, though upon the sanie plan, but more 
extended* . It must be easy to perceive how much learning 
he.raust have acquired in the interval ; but he often com- 

254 V A R 1 G N O N. 

plained^ that he wanted time, though he was by no means 
disposed to lose any. Frequent visits, either of French or 
of foreigners, some of whom went to see him that they 
might have it to say that they had seen htm, atid others to 
consult him and improve by bis conversation : works of ma- 
thematics, which the authority of some, or the friendship be 
had for others, engaged htm to examine, and of which iie 
thought himself obliged to give tbe most exact account ; a 
literary correspondence with tt\\ the chief^matbematieians 
of fUirope ; all these obstructed the book he bad under- 
taken to write. Thus, says his biographer, a man acquires 
reputation by having a great deal of leisure time, and he 
loses this precious leisure as soon as he has acquired repu- 
tation. Add to this, that his best scholars, whether in the 
college of Mazarine or tbe Royal college (for he had a 
professor*s chair in both), sometimes requested private 
. lectures of him, which he could not refuse. He sighed for 
his two or three months of Vacation, for that was all the 
leisure time he had in the year, and he could then retire 
into the country, where bis time was entirely his own. 

Notwithstanding his placid temper, in the latter part of 
his life be was involved in a dispute. An Italian monk, 
well versed in mathematics, attacked him upon the subject 
of tangents and the angle of contact in curves, such as they 
are conceived in the arithmetic of infinites ; he answered 
by the last memoir he ever gave to the Academy, and the* 
only one which turned upon a dispute. 

In the last two years of his life he was attacked with -an 
asthmatic complaint. This disorder increased every day,* 
and all remedies were ineffectual. He did not, however,' 
cease from any of his customary business ; so that, after . 
having finished his lecture at the college of Mazarine, on 
the 22d of December 1722, he died suddenly the following 
night. His character, says Fontenelle, was as simple as 
bis superior understanding could require. He was not apt 
to be jealous of the fame of others: indeed he was at the 
bead of the French mathematicians, and one of the best in 
Europe. It must be owned, however, that when a Hew 
idea was offered to him, he was too hasty t^ object, and it 
was frequently not easy to obtain from him a favourable 

His works that were published separately, were, 
1. " Projet d*ulie Nouvelle Mechaniquc,** Paris, 1687^ 
4to. 2. ^ Des Nouvelles conjectures sur la Pesadtttir. 

V A R I G N O N. 2$5 

f. ^< Nc^velle Mechanique ou Statique,*' 1725, 2 vols. 4to. 
4* ^* Un Traits du Mouvement et de laMesure des Eaux Cou* 
rantes, &c." 1725, 4to: 5. ** Eclaircissement &ur TAnalyse 
des iDfiniment-petits," 4to. 6. *' De Cahiers de Matbe- 
oiatiquei , ou Elemens de Matbematiques," 1731. 7. ^' Une 
Demonstration de la possibility de la presence r^elle du Corps 
de Jesus Christ dans TEucbariste,'* printed in a collection 
entitled '* Pieces fugitives sur rEucharistie/' published in 
17S0; an extraprdinary thing for a mathematician to un- 
dertake to demonstrate; which he does, as may be ex- 
pected, not mathematically but sophistically. His *^ Me- 
moirs" in the volumes of the Academy of Sciences are ex- 
tremely numerous, and extend through almost all the vo- 
lumes down to the time of his death in 1 722.' 

VARILLAS (Anthony), a French writer, more known 
than esteemed for several historical works, was descended 
from a good family, and born at Queret in 1624. After a 
liberal education, of which he made the proper advantage, 
be became a private tutor to some young persons of qua- 
lity ; and then went to Paris, where he was well received 
as a man of letter^, and bad access to the Dopuy's, whose 
bouse was the common rendezvous of the learned. He 
obtained afterwards a place in the krngs^ library, by his 
interest with Nicolas Colbert, who was made librarian after 
the death of Jam^ Dupuy in 1655. Mr. Colberi, after- 
wards minister of state, commissioned bis brother Nicolas 
to find out a man capable of collating certain manuscripts. 
Yarillas was recommended, and had the abb6 of St Real 
for his coadjutor; and handsome pensions were settled 
.upon both. But whether Varillas was negligent and care- 
le»Sf or had not a turn for this employment, he did not 
give satisfaction^ and was therefore dismissed from his em- 
ployment in 1662 ; yet had his pension continued till 1670. 
He then retired from the royal library, and spent the re* 
maioder of bis days in study, refusing, it is said, several 
advantageous offers. He lived frugally and with (economy, 
axid yet not through necessity, for his circumstances were 
easy* St. Come was the seat of his retirement; where he 
died June 9, 1696, aged seventy-two. 

He wrote a great number of works, chiefly of the bisto« 
rital kind ; and published, at different times and in distinct 
portions, a history of France, comprising a period of 176 

\ ■ . 

1 NieercNit vol. Xl»— Footenelle's Eloges. — Martio'« Biog. Pbllos. — HuUoa's 

256 V A R I L L A S. 

years under nine difFereut reigns, beginning witb Lewis 
XI. and ending with Henry III. He published also '' Les 
Anecdotes de Florence, ou THistoire secrette de la Maison. 
de Medicis, at the Hague/? 1685, in I2'mo; and, ^< His- 
toire des Revolutions arrives en Europe en matiere de Re--' 
Hgion,*' Paris, 1686, and often reprinted. Varillas bad 
some advantages of style to recommend him as an historian ; 
he bad likewise a pleasing manner of relating and setting 
off facts ; and his characters, though somewhat diffuse, are 
drawn with art, and for the most part appear curious and 
interesting. Add to this, that he abounds in anecdotes, 
and told Menage that, ^'of ten things which he knew, he 
bad learned nine from conversation.^ He was also pro« 
fuse in' his professions of sincerity, and was thought to have 
penetrated into the inmost recesses of the cabinet,, and 
drawn forth a great deal of secret history from the nume- 
rous and important manuscripts which he pretends in his 
prefaces to have been from time to time communicated to 
him. All this procured him a vast reputation at first : his 
books were read with eagerness : and such was the caH for 
them, that the booksellers generally sent forth two editions, 
i« different forms, at the same time. The public, however, 
were at length undeceived, and came to be convinced that 
the historical anecdotes, which Varillas put off for authen- 
tic facts, were wholly of his own invention, notwithstanding 
his affected citations of titles, it>structions, letters, me-* 
moirs, and relations, all of them imaginary. As 'his de-- 
sign was to please rather than instruct his readers, he 
omitted nothing which he thought might conduce to this. 
Thus he t^haracterised persons he knew little of, as if he 
bad lived in the greatest familiarity with themj and gave 
particular reasons for all the steps they took, as if he had 
been privy to their councils. He advanced facts with the 
utmost confidence, which were scarcely probable : the sur 
of politics, which runs through all his writings, is romantic; 
and every event, according to him, proceeded from pre- 
meditation and design. Such is the opinion which his owa 
Countrymen soon learned to giveof his " History of France,'* 
and "Florentine Anecdotes;" but bis "History of the 
Revolutions in matters of Religion which have happened 
in Europe,'' utterly ruined his reputation abroad, and ex- 
posed him to the criticisms of able men in each country : 
of Burnet and Dr. King, in England, Brunsmann in Den- 
aiark, Puffendorf and Seckendorf in Germany, who copi- 

V A R I L L A S. 2ST 

Qfji^ly; detected and exposed his falsehoods and mistepre*- 
sentations concerning the state of religion in their respec- 
tive countries, and totally destroyed the reputation of his 
works. ^ 

VAROLI (CoNSTANTius), an able anatomist, was born 
at Bologna in 1 542. He taught surgery in bis native place, 
until pope Gregory Xlll. soon after his elevation to the 
pontificate in 1572, invited him to Rome, and appointed 
him his first physician. Here he lectured on anatomy, and 
acquired very great reputation, not only for his discoveries 
in that branch, but for his skill in lithotomy and other sur-r 
gical operations; and he promised to have attained theliigh- 
est rank in bis profession, when a premature death deprived 
the world of his services. He died in 1575, at the age of 
thirty-two. The Pons Varolii^ which still perpetuates his 
name, and his other discoveries in the oec'onomy of the braia 
and nerves, are contained in his ^' Anatomise, sive de reso- 
lutione corporis humaui, libri quatuor," Padua, 1573, Svpy 
and ^< De Nervis opticis Epistola,". ibid. ' 

VARRO (Marcus TfiRENxius), usually, sty led the moi|t 
learned of all the Romans, was born in the year of Rome 
638, or 28 B.C. His immense learning made him the ad- 
miration of his time ; which yet wa^ the most flourishing 
for arts and glory that Rome ever knew. He was an inti- 
mate friend of Cicero ; and his friendship was confirmed 
and immortalized by a mutual dedication of their learned 
works to each other. Thus Cicero dedicated his ^^ Acade- 
mic Questions" to Varro ; and Varro dedicated bis ^^ Trea- 
tise on the Latin tongue" to Cicero, who, in a letter in 
which he recommends him as qnestor to Brutus, assures the 
commander, that he would find him perfectly qualified for 
tbe post, and particularly insists upon his good sense, his 
indifference to pleasure, and bis patient perseverance in 
business. To these virtues he added uncommon abilities^ 
and large stores of knowledge, which qualified him for the 
highest officer of the state. He attached himself to the 
party of Pempey, and in tbe time of tbe triumvirate was 
proscribed with Cicero : and, though he escaped with his 
life, be suffered the loss of his library, and of his own writ- 
ings ; a loss which would be severely felt by one who had 
devoted a great part of his life to letters. Returning, at 

> NiceroD, toI. V.— Moreri. — Reflections upon VarilUs, in Dr. King^s "Works, 
vol. I. 
s £loyt Diet. Hitt. de Medeciae. 

Vol. XXX. S 

258 V A R R O. 

length, to Rome, he spent bis last years in literary leisuf^. 
He died in the 727th year of the city. His prose writings 
were exceedingly numerous, and treated of .various topics 
in antiquities, chronology, geography, natural and civil 
history, philosophy, and criticism. He was, besides, a poet 
of some distinction, and wrote in almost/every kind of verse. 
He is said to have been eighty when he wrote bis three 
books '^ De Re Rustica,'' which are still extant. Five of 
his books ^^ De Lingua Latina," which he addressed to Ci- 
cero, are also extant, and some fragments of his works, par- 
ticularly of his *^ Meni'ppean Satires," which are medleys 
of prose and verse. Scaiiger has likewise collected some of 
his epigrams from among the '^ Catalecta Virgilii. The 
first edition of Varro ^* De Lingua Latina'' is a quarto, 
without date, or place, but supposed to be Rome, 1471. 
There is a second, at Venice, 1474, 4to, and a third at 
Rome, 1474, fol. His whole works, with the notes of Sca- 
iiger, Turnebus, &c. -were printed by Henry Stephens, 
1573, 8vo, reprinted 1581 ; but the former edition is in 
greatest request. among the curious, on account of a note 
of Scaiiger' s, p. 212, of the second part, which was omitted 
in the subsequent editions. Varro '^ De Re Rustica" is 
inserted among the ^'Auctores de Re Rustica.^' The use 
which Virgil makes of this work in his Georgics entities it 
to some respect; and it is amusing as giving us a notion of 
the agriculture of bis time, and the method of laying out 
gardens, and providing the luxuries of. the table, in which 
the Romans were particularly extravagant, it contains 
many absurdities, however, and many of those remarks and 
pieces of information which would now be thought a dis« 
grace to the^ meanest writer on agriculture. The rev. T. 
Owen, of Queen's college, Oxford, and rector of Upper 
Scudamore, in Wiltshire, published a good translation of 
this work in ISOO, 8vo. ' 

VARRO (Atacinus), was born about ten years after the 
preceding, at a small town neat Narbonne. Though. infi- 
nitely below the Roman in learning, he was at least as good, 
if not a better poet ; which perhaps has made Lilius Gyral- 
do8> and other critics, confound them. He composed many 
works in verse; some fragments of which were collected, 
and published with those of other ancient poets at Lyons, 
1603. His chief works were, ^^ A poem on the war with 

1 Vossiu8<le Poet. Lat.— Fabric. BibU Lat. — Biiicker. — Saxii OnomaiU 

,V A R R O. 259. 

the Sequani, a people of Gaul ;" and the ^^ Astronomies/^ 
which %yent under the name of Planciades the Grammarian. 
But the ^^ Argonaut ics/' in four books, was what gained 
him the greatest reputation; and though indeed nothing 
but a translation of '' ApoUonius Rhodius/' yet it has been 
liberally commended by Quintilian. Seneca also observes^ 
that Virgil had so good an opinion of this author, that he 
sometimes inserted his verses into his works. * ' 

VA8ARI (George), an artist^ though better known as 
the biographer of his profession, was born at Arezzo, in 
1612, and was taught the rudiments of drawing by his fa- 
ther, and the first principles of painting by William of Mar- 
seilles, a Frenchman, and a painter on glass ; but being 
taken to Florence by cardinal da Cortona, he improved 
himself under Michael Angelo, Andrea del Sarto, and other 
eminent masters. By the cardinal he was introduced into 
the Medici family, but in 1527, when they were driven 
from Florence, he returned to his native city. Finding an 
epidemic disease prevailing there, he spent his time in the 
surrounding, country, improving himself by painting stib-* 
jects of devotion for the farmers. His father unfortunately 
died of the contagion, and left a young family unprovided 
for. Vasari, to contribute more effectually to their sup- 
port, quitted the uncertain profession of a painter, and 
applied himself to the more lucrative trade of a goldsmith. 
In 1529, the civil war, which then existed at. Florence, 
obliged the goldsmiths^ company to remove to Pisa : af^d 
there, receiving commissions to paint some pictures both 
in oil and in fresco, he was induced to resume his former 
profession, and afterwards through life met with encourage'- 
ment, that left him neither motive nor desire to change. 
The. dukes of Florence and other distinguished persons 
were his liberal patrons, and he was constantly employed 
in works both profitable and honourable to himself. 

In 1544, by the friendship of Paul Jovius, he was recom- 
mended to make designs and paint a hall for the cardinal 
Farnese, in Rome. While he was executing this work, he 
attended the cardinaPs evening parties, which were fre* 
quented by men of genius. At one of these parties, Jo- 
vius, speaking of his own umseum, arranged and embel^. 
lished with inscriptions and portraits of illustrious men, 
said, <' that it had always been his desire to add to it, and 

t Gesoer Bibl. — ^Vossio*.— Moreri. 
S 2 

260 V A S A R L 

make his book of eulogiums more complete, by a treatise 
on the celebrated artists, from CimabQe down to bis own 
time;*' and enlarged upon the subject with much general 
information. The cardinal then turned to Vasari, and asked 
him ^^ if be did not think that subject would make a fine 
work?'* Vasari concurred with his eminence, but added« 
that '^ it would require the assistance of an artist to collate 
the materials, and arrange them in their proper order : for 
although Jovius displayed great knowledge in his observa- 
tions, yet he had not been equally accurate in the arraiige* 
ment of his facts.'* " You can then," replied the cardinal, 
*^ give him assistance, which will be doing an essential ser- 
vice to the arts.*' To pay a proper deference to so flatter- 
ing an opinion, he collected such materials as he thought ne- 
cessary to the plan then suggested : and the information he 
contributed was drawn up so much to Jovius's satisfaction, 
that be recommended him to enlarge upon it, and make a 
more complete work, alleging bis own want of leisure and 
capacity to do justice to such an undertaking. Vasari, with 
reluctance, consented ; and* with his own industry, and some 
assistance from others, be fulfilled his tusk; and, in 1550, 
published his work in 2 vols, entitled ^' Vite de pin ecceU 
lenti Pittori, Scultori, e Architetti." In 1571 he reprinted 
it in 3 vols. 4to, with portraits cut in wood, and with*the 
addition of his own life to the fifty-fifth year of his age« 
The subsequent editions are, that of Bottari, Rome, 1759--^ 
60, 3 vols. 4to, and those printed at Leghorn, 1767 — 72, 
7 vols. 4to; at Sienna, 179^1 — 98, 11 vols. 8vo. There^is 
likewise one printed at Bologna in 1647, 3 vols. 4to, but 
not esteemed a good one. 

Vasari died in 1574, and in 1588*liis nephew published 
a work to commemorate and honour his uncle's abilities, 
entitled, " Ragionamenti del Sig. Cavaliere Georgio Va- 
sari pittore ed architetto sopra le invenzioni de lui depinta 
in Fiorenza nel palazzo di Loro Altezze Serenissime, ftc.*'. 
It is not however to painting that Vasari is indebted for bis 
present fame, but to his miscellaneous work ; which, though 
crude and incorrect, affords the most ample source of our 
information concerning the painters of Italy before bis time, 
or contemporary with himself. As an artist he had little 
originality, and the extravagances of genius mark the most 
predomittunt feature of his style. ' 

* Doppa*8 Life of Micbel Angi'lo, Preface. — Tir&boschi. 

V A T A B L U S. 261 

VATABLUSj or GASTLEBLED, (Francis,) ati emi- 
nem Hebrew scbolar, was born at Gamacbe in Picardj, in 
the early part of the sixteenth century. In 1531 he was 
appointed regius professor of Hebrew in the university 
of Paris, one of the royat professorships at that time founded 
by Francis I. and in this of&ce gained the highest reputa-- 
tion. Among his hearers were many learned Jews, who 
much admired his lectures, which were all delivered ex- 
tempore, nor does he appear to have committed any of 
them to writing. Some of his scholars, however, having 
taken notes of his observations on the Old Testament, Ro- 
bert Stephens made a collection of them, which he added 
to Leo Juda's version of the Bible, printed at Paris in 1345. 
Of their accuracy no doubts have been entertained, although 
Stephens probably might correct what he thought the errors 
of the transcribers. Yet as a protestant translation was 
joined to them, the doctors of divinity of the faculty of Pari% 
condemned them, while those of Salamanca, with more li- 
berality, caused Vatablus's Bible, for such it was called, to 
be reprinted in Spain with approbation. Stephens wrote 
a defence of it against the censures of the Parisian divines, 
who, Dupin allows, were at that time not sufficiently ac- 
quainted with the Hebrew laiYguage. 

Vatablus was an excellent Greek scholar, and translated 
Bpme parts of Aristotle*s works. He also assisted Clement 
Marot in his poetical translation of the Psalms, by giving 
bim a literal version from the Hebrew. He had the credit 
of being the restorer of the study of the Hebrew language 
in France, and taught many able scholars, particularly 
Brentius and Mercerus (see Mercier), who both succeeded 
him in his professorship. He died March 16, 1547.* 

VATTEL, or WATTEL, (Emer de,) an eminent pub- 
licist, was the son of a clergyman of Neufchatel, where he 
was born April 25, 1714. After completing his studies, he 
Went to Berlin, where he became acquainted with some of 
the literati of that city, and thence to Dresden, and was in- 
troduced to the king of Poland and the elector of Saxony, 
who received him with great kindness, and some years after 
b^ was appointed privy-coiincillor to the elector. He was 
residing at Dresden in 1765 when his health began to de- 
cline, which obliged him to try the air of his native country; 
but this proved ineffectual, and he died at Neufchatel in 

' Da|iin. — Blount*s Cetisura.-^Sanii Onomast 

2^2 V A T T E L. 

1767, in the fifty-third year of his age. He owed his lite- 
rary reputation first to some publications, whicli, we believe^ 
are not much known in this country, as a '^Defence of 
Leibnitz's philosophy against M. de Crousaz/* published 
in 1741, and dedicated to Frederick the Great, king of 
Prussia ; and " Pieces diverses de morale et d'amusement," 
published at Paris in 1746. But he became known to all 
Europe by his " Droit des gens, ou Principes de la Loi Na- 
turelle,"' published at Neufchatel in 1758, and translated 
into most European languages, and often reprinted. We 
have at least two editions of it in English, under the title 
of ** The Law of Nations ; or, principles of the Law of Na- 
ture : applied to the conduct and affairs of nations and so- 
Tei-eigns,*' 1760, 4to, and 1793, 8vo. What partieularly 
irecommended this work to the favour of the English, was 
their finding the opinions of their countrymen generally 
adopted, and England brought as a proof Bf a wise and 
happy constitution. The opinions of Milton and Harring- 
ton are frequently confirmed, while the maxims of Piif- 
fendorf and Grotius, who often adapted their opinions to 
the states in which they lived, are refuted with strength 
and perspicuity. In general Vattel takes Wolff, the cele- 
brated Saxon philosopher, for bis guide; but in many places 
he differs totally from him, and this produced a controversy 
between them. The points on which they fliffer may be 
seen in a publication by Vattel, which appeared in 1762, 
entitled " Questions sur le Droit Naturel : et Observations 
sur le Trait6 du Droit de la Nature de M. le Baron de 
Wolff." In the mean time Vatters " Law of Nations" 
became more and more the favourite of men who study 
^ such subjects, and has for. many years been- quoted as a 
work of high authority, and as in many respects pic^ferable 
to Grotius and PufFendorf, being more methodical, more 
comprehensive, and more simple than either. * 

VAVASSOR, or VAVASSEUR, (Francis,) a Jesuit of 
France, eminently distinguished for his accomplishments in 
the belles-lettres, was born in 1 603, at Paray, a small town in 
Charolois, in the diocese of Autun. He entered into the 
society of the Jesuits in 1621; and, after having finished 
the course of his studies, taught polite literature and rhe- 
toric for seven years. Afterwards he was called to Paris, to 
explain the Holy Scriptures ; which province be sustained 

t Diet. Hist. 

V A V A S S O R. S6i 

for $tic and thirty years, ail the while cultivating poetry and 
classical literature, in which he p'^rticularly excelled. H« 
died at Paris in Dec« 1681. He understood the Latin 
tongue very exactly, and also spoke^it with the greatest 
purity and elegance. He was a man of good talents, great ' 
acuteaess, solid and accurate judgment, and profound learn* 
ihg; so that he bad all the qualities necesbary to make him, 
what be was generally allowed to b$, a \%jry good critic. 

His book '^ De Ludicra Dictione,'' printed in 1658, was 
written to oppose a bad taste, which then prevailed in France, 
when the works of Scarran and Dassouci were very popular; 
by shewing, that, the Greeks and Romans knew nothing of 
tbe burlesque style, although Mons. le Clerc is of opiqion, 
that something of it may be found in Aristophanes. He 
wrote this at the request of Balzac, Vvho had a great dislike 
to this style; but Balzac died before it was published. As all 
the authors of antiquity, who have mixed any pleasantries 
or boD«mots in their writings, were necessarily ' to be ex-» 
amlned in the course of this treatise, Vavassor bad an op- 
portunity of shewing very extensive reading. Another of 
his works, not approved much less than the former, is his 
book <' De Epigrammate,^' printed in 1669, and reprinted 
with his ^^ Epigrams" in 1&72, 12mo ; in which there are 
many new and just observations. It however laid the Foun- 
dation of a dispute between him and Rapin; who, in his 
** Reflections on Aristotle's poesy," printed in 1-674, after 
having said, that tbe epigram, of all the works in verse that 
antiquity has produced, is the least considerable, adds, ''I 
find nothing considerable to say on those who have at* 
tempted any thing in this way among the moderns. It is 
one of the sorts of verse, in which a man has little success ; 
for, it is a kind of a lucky hit if it proves well. An epigram 
is little worth unless it be admirable ; and, it is so rare to 
make them admirable, that it is sufficient to have made one 
in a man's life., Maynard has succeeded the best in this > 
way of all our French poets." A man jealous of his repu-^ 
tatioD, and naturally splenetic, which is said to have been 
Vavassor's character, must have been extremely hurt with 
.this; and accordingly the year after, 1675, he published 
^ Ilemarfas upon the Reflections of Rapin," which had no 
name to them ; and, for the sake of abusing him, pretended 
not to knx)w, while every body else knew very well, who the 
author of those reflections was. Rapin complained loudly 
of this ill-treatment ; and Vavassor's book, by way of re- 

064 V A V A S S O R. 

dress, was suppressed by order of the society. Vavasaor's 
other treatises are chiefly theological. All his works werd 
collected and printed at Amsterdam, 1709^ in folio; with a 
prefatory discourse by Le Clerc. * 

VAUBAN (Sebastian Lk Prestre, Seigneur de), 
marechal of France, commissioner-general of fortifications^ 
and the greatest engineer which France has produced, was 
the son of Urban le Prestre, seigneur de Vauban^ a de* 
scendant of an ancient and noble family of Nivernois. He 
was born May 1, 1633, and was in the army at the early age 
of seventeen, where his uncommon talents and genius for 
fortification soon became known, and were eminently dis« 
played at the sieges of St. Menehonld, 1652 and 1653, of 
Stenay 1654, and of several other places in the following 
years. He consequently rose to the highest military ranks 
by his merit and services : and was made governor of 
the citadel of Lisle in 1668, and commissioner-general of 
fortifications in 1678. He took Luxemburg in 1684, Und^ 
being appointed lieutenant-general in 1688, was present, the 
same year, at the siege and capture of Philipsburg, Man- 
heim, and Frankendal, under the dauphin. This prince, 
ais a reward for his services, gave him four pieces of can<^ 
non, which he was permitted to chuse from the arsenals of 
these three towns, and place in his castle at Bazocbe ; an 
honour afterwards granted to the famous marechal Saxe. 
M. de Vauban commanded on the coast of Flanders in 
1689, and was made marechal of France, Jan. 14, 1703. 
His dignity was expensive to him, but the king woald not 
permit him to serve as an inferior officer, though he offered 
it in a very handsome manner. He died at Paris^ Mareh 
80^ 1707, aged seventy-four. He was a man of bigh 
and independent spirit, of gteat humanity, and entirely 
devoted to the good of his country. As an engineer, he 
carried the art of fortifying, attacking, and defending towns, 
to a degree of perfection unknown before his time. He 
fortified above 300 ancient citadels, erected tnirty-three 
new ones, and had the principal management and direc- 
tion of fift}'-three sieges, and was present at one hundred 
and forty eugagements. But his countrymen tell us that 
it was unnecessary for him to exert his skill in defending 
a fort ; for the enemies of France never attacked those in 
which he was stationed. His works are, a treatise entitled 

1 Le Clerc'f preface.— NSoeron, toI. XXVIJ. 

V A U B A N. S65 

^* LaDismeRoYale/'l 707, 4toand 12mo9 which diaplsyssoiiie 
patriotic principles, but the plan is considered as ioipracti^ 
cable. A vast collection of MS S. in 12 vols, which be calli 
his '* Oisivet^s," contain his ideas, reflections, and projects^ 
for the advantage of France. The three following works 
are also attributed to him, but whether he wrote them, or 
whether they have been compiled from his Memoirs, and 
adapted to bis ideas, is uncertain : *' Maniere de fortifier,** 
Svo and 12mo, printed also at Paris by Michalet, 8vo, un* 
der the title of *^L'Ing6nieur Franfois.** M. Hebert, pro-^ 
fessor of mathematics, and the abb£ du Fay, have written 
notes on this treatise, which is esteemed, and is said to hme 
been revised by the chevalier de Cambrai, and reprinted 
at Amsterdam, 1702 and 1727, 2 vols. 4to ; 2. *^ Nouveau 
Trait6 de TAttaque et de la Defense des Places, suivant le 
Syst£me de M. de Vauban, par M. Desprez de Saint Sa^ 
▼in," 1736, Svo, much esteemed ; 3. '' Essais sur la Forti^^ 
fieation, par M. de Vauban," 1740, 12mo. As to the ^'Po-- 
litical Testament" ascribed to him, it was written by Peter 
le Pesanty sieur de Bo'js Guillebert, lieutenant-general of 
the bailiwic of Rouen, who died 1714. M. de Vauban^i 
second cousin, Anthony de Prestre, known by the namo of 
Puy Vauban, was also a very eminent engineer. He died 
lieutenant-general of the king's forces, and gdvernor of 
Bethune, April 10, 1731, aged seventy-seven.' 

VAUGELAS (Claude Favre dk), an elegant French 
writer^ was born of an ancient family at Chamberry in 
15S5.' His father Antoine Favre, or Antony Faber, was 
first president of the senate of Chamberry, and published 
several learned works upon law-subjects. (See Favre.) 
Vaugelas was sent to the court very young, and there spent 
his whole life. He was gentleman in ordinary, and after- 
wards chamberlain, to the duke of Orleans, whom he at« 
tended in all his retreats out of the kingdom, and was after- 
wards governor to the children of prince Thomas. He had 
a pension from the crown early settled on him ; but it 
never was paid him tilt Cardinal Richelieu employed the 
French acsidemy upon forming a dictionary of the language. 
On that occasion the academy represented to the cardinal, 
that the only way to have one well executed, was to com- 
mit the chief management of it to Vaugelas. Hi^ pension 
was then re-established and punctually paid. But, although 

1 Bloge, by FQntentlle.— Aforeri.«-Dict. Hitt. 

266 V A U G E L A S. 

be had other advantages besides this, and a handsome pa-* 
trimony from his father, and was not a man of luxury or 
extravagance, yet when he died in 1605, he did not leave 
enough to satisfy his creditors. 

He was one of those who first corrected and refined the 
French language to an extraordinary degree of purity. He 
had cultivated it with peculiar care and attention from his 
infancy, and formed liimself chiefly upon Coeffeteau, whose 
writings be held in such esteem, and, above all, bis it Ro- 
man History," that he could hardJy allow any phrases or 
expressions to be pure and genuine but what were to be 
found in that work : which made Balzac say pleasantly, 
(hat, ^' in the judgment of Vaugelas, salvation was uo more 
to be had out of the Roman History than out of the Roman 
church." His principal talent was in prose : for though 
be wrote some verses in Italian that were admired, yet he 
could not succeed in his own language. His most import- 
ant works are, 1. ^' Remarques sur la. Langue Frangoise, 
Paris, 1647," in.4to. Mr. de la Monnoye has observed of 
the preface to this excellent treatise, that it is a master- 
piece of elegance and solidity. 3. " Quint.-Curce de la 
vie & des actions d' Alexandre le Grand, traduit du Latin, 
Paris, 1653," in 4to. Vaugelas spent thirty years in 
translating this author, perpetually altering and correcting 
it, as it was his principal object to make it a model of the 
purest style. Voit^re, who was the intimate friend of .Vau- 
gelas, used to rally him on this fastidious nicety and long 
delay, and told him that it could never be finished ; for 
that, while he was polishing one part, the language 
must needs undergo some revolution, and be would have 
all the rest to do over again : and he applied to him Mar- 
tians epigram uport the barber, who was so long in shaving 
one part of the face, that the beard in the mean time grew 
again upon the other. It is allowed, however, that the 
French language owes much to Vaugelas, and Voltaire 
says his translation of Quintus Curtius was the first good 
book written with purity ; and that there are few of the 
expressions and terms that are yet become obsolete. ' 

V A UGH AN (Henry), an English poet and translator, 
called the SiLURisr, from' being a native of that part of 
Wales whose ancient inhabitants were called Silures, was 
born, in 1621, at Newton St. Bridget, in Brecknockshire. 

' Niceron, vol. XIX. art, Favre. — Diet. Hist. 



V A U G H A N. 267 

After being educatied at home under Matthew Herbert, an 
able grammar-master, he was entered of Jesus college, Ox- 
ford, in 1658, but after two years residence, he departed 
without taking a degree, his father wishing him to study 
law in London. On the breaking out of the rebellion he 
was sent for home, and followed, as Wood says, ** the plea- 
sant paths of poetry and philology,*' but afterwards studied 
and practised physic with reputation. He was, adds Wood, 
" esteemed by scholars an ingenious person, but proud and 
humorous." He died in April 1695, and was buried in the 
parish church of Llansenfreid near Brecknock. His poe- 
tical works are, 1. '^ Olor Iscanus, a collection of some se- 
lect poems,'* Lond.*1650, 8vo. 2. " Silex scintillans, or 
the Bleeding Heart, sacred poems and private ejacula* 
tions," 1650, 1655, 12mo. 3. "The Mount of Olives : or. 
Solitary Devotions," 1652, Sto. 4. "Thalia Rediviva," 
poems, which Woo^ says were ready for the press in 1673(^ 
but knows not whether they were printed. Mr. Ellis has 
given a few specimens from Vaughan's poetry, but with- 
out being able to applaud it much. He translated some 
parts of Plutarch's Morals^ which were printed in a second 
edition of his *' Olor Iscanus ;" Anselm's ** Blessed state of 
JVIan ;" Guevara " On the praise and happiness of the 
Country Life;" the " Life of Paulinus bishop of Nola," 
and a few other articles mentioned by Wood. 

Henry Vaughan had a twin-brother, Thomas Vaughan; 
who styles himself in his strange writings, Ettgenius PhU- 
alethes. He also came to Jesus college at the same time 
with his brother, but remained longer, and took one de- 
gree in arts, and was made fellow. He then entered into 
holy orders, and was made rector of St. 'Bridget, near 
Brecknock, a living conferred upon him by his kinsman, 
sir George Vaughan. But being interrupted in the quiet 
possession of this by the commotions of the times, he re- 
turned to Oxford, and distinguished himself for extrava* 
gant admiration of Cornelius Agrippa, and for many pub- 
lications of the alchymical kind, replete with the grossest 
absurdities. Among these are his ^^ Anthroposophia l^heo- 
magica," dedicated to his brethren the Rosicrucians, Lond. 
1650, 8vo, and his ^* Anima magica abscondita." Dr. 
Henry More, on whom he had reflected, did him the ho- 
nour to answer these publications in some ^^ Observations" 
Published the same year under the name of Alazonomastix 
*hilalethes, and as he had made rather free with Vaughan, 

If6i V A U G H A N. 


Recording to the controversial spirit of the times, and called 
him a Momus, a mimiC| an ape, a fool in a piay, a jack*- 
puddingi &c. Vanghan answered him in a work with a 
suitable title, ^' The Man-Mouse taken in a trap, and tor* 
tured to death for gnawing the margins of Eugenius Phila-» 
Jethes/' More again replied, but was afterwards ashamed 
of the controversy, and suppressed it in the edition of bis 
collected works. Wpod mentions other works, on magic, 
by Vaughan, the titles of which we may be excused tran- 
scribing. He is said to have died in consequence of some 
experiment with mercury, Feb. 27, 1665-6, and was buried 
in Oldbury church, Oxfordshire, at the expenca of bis 
friend and feilow Rosicrucian, sir Robert Moray, or Mur* 
ray, of whom we have given an account in vol. XXII. ^ 

VAUGHAN (John), lord chief justice of thjs coihmon* 
pleas, was born in Cardiganshire, Sept. 14, 1608, and edu* 
cated at Worcester school, whence he entered Christ 
Church, Oxford^ in 1623, but left it without taking a de- 
gree, in 1626^ and went to the Inner ^Temple for the study 
of the law. This, according to Wood, he neglected for 
some time, and was addicted to poetry and philosophy, 
uptil becoming acquainted with Selden, he was advised to 
^pply more diligently to his profession. In this he soon 
mside such a figure as to be returned to the parliament of 
1640^ as member for the town of Cardigan. It is said that 
he was in his heart an enemy to monarchy, but never en* 
gaged in open hostility to Charles I. On the contrary*^ 
when the rebellion broke out he retired to his own country, 
and lived there principally until the restoration. He was 
then elected knight of the shire of Cardigan, in the parlia- 
ment which began in 1661, and was much noticed by 
Charles II. In 1668 his majesty conferred the honour of 
knighthood upon him, and on May 22 of that year he was 
sworn serjeant-at-law, and the day following, lord chief 
justice of the common-pleas. He died Dec. 10, 1674, and 
was buried in the Temple church, near the grave of his 
friend Selden, who had appointed him one of his executors^ 
and whose friendship for him is recorded on sir Jobn^s mo- 

Sir John Vaughan was not only versed in all the know- 
ledge requisite to make a figure in his profession, but was 
also a very considerable master of the politer kinds of learB* 

« Alb. Ox. vol. It. 

V A U G H A N. 26d 


ing ; but his behaviour among the generality of his ac" 
quaintances was haughty^ supercilious, and overbearing; 
hence he was rnuch^ more admired than beloved. The 
worst charge laid to him is that of having joined the enemies 
of lord Clarendon, whp was once his friend, and had made 
him overtures of preferment. ^ 

Sir John Vaughan's '^ Reports and Arguments in the 
Common Pleas, being all of them special cases, and many 
wherein be pronounced the re$olution of the whol'e court 
of common pleas at the time be was chief justice there,'* 
are fully and ably taken, and were first printed in 1677, 
and secondly in 1706, by his son Edward Vaughan, esq. 
with references, to which is added a tract concerning pro^ 
cess out of the courts at Westminster into Wales. ^ 

VAUGHAN (William), a Latin poet and moral writer, 
was the son of Walter Vaughan, of the Golden Grove, in 
Carmarthenshire, esq. and younger bro,ther to sir John 
Vaughan, first earl of Carbery, and patron of bishop J«« 
remy Taylor. He was born at Golden Grove in 1577, and 
became a commoner of Jesus college, Oxford, in 1591^ 
where he took his degrees in arts. The fruits of his scho-* 
lastic attainments began to appear uncommonly early, as 
he was only in his fifteenth year when he prepared for 
printing an easy paraphrase of Persius in English and La- 
tin ; and his publications which appeared in 1597 and 1598 
bespeak a prematurity of genius. After taking his degrees 
in arts, he applied to the study of the law, but before be 
proceeded in that faculty, set out on his travels, and at 
Vienna performed the necessary exercises for adoctor^s 
degree, in which he was incorporated at Oxford in 1605. 
He afterwards appears to have meditated a settlement in 
Oambriol, Newfoundland, where he was living in 1628^ 
but the time of his death is not mentioned. His Latin 
poems ai*e, 1. the ^' Song of Solomon, and some of the 
Psialms," translated, Lond^ 1597. 2. " Varia Poemata d^ 
Sphaerarum ordine," (589, 8vo. 3. '* Poemata continent. 
Encom. Roberti Comitis Essex," 1598, 8vo. 4. ** Cam- 
brensium Caroleia,** &c. a poem on the nuptials of Charles 
L 1625 or 1630, 8vo. His English works are, "The 
Golden Grove, moralized in three books," 1608, 8vo, 
which seenis to have suggested to bishop Taylor the title 

* Alh. Ox. vol. II. — Granger. — Burnet's Own Times.— Bpidgnaan's D&gul 

270 V A U G H A N.' 

of one of his most popular works; a^nd ^' The Golden 
Fleece/' 1626, 4to: both works of the moral kind^ and 
replete with observations on the manners of the times, and 
the principal personages. A particular account of both is 
given in the " Bibliographer," vol. II. by which it appears 
that Vaughan had translated a part of Boccalini's Advices 
from Parnassus, and had published '^ Circles called the 
Spirit of Detraction, conjured and convicted,'" and ^* Com- 
mentaries upon, and paraphrase of, Juvenal and Persins," 
all in early life.^ 


VAUVILLIERS (John Francis), a French writer of 
cbDsiderable talents, was the son of John Vauvilliers, pro- 
fessor of rhetoric in the university of Paris, and of Greek 
in the royal college, who is known to the learned world by 
several Latin dissertations, particularly one *' De praestan- 
tia Graecarum literarum," &c. He was born about 1736, 
aod applied so diligently to his studies that he was able to 
assist his father in his rhetorical lectures. In. 1767 he was' 
appointed assistant to Vatry, the Greek professor in tbe^ 
royal college, and succeeding him, held that office for 
twenty years. On the commencement of the revolution he 
joined the revolutionists, and was for some time president 
of thefirst commune of Paris, and lieutenant to the mayor. 
In this office he bad the care of furnishing Paris- with pro- 
visions, which he performed with great skill and success ; 
but finding the mob gaining the superiority, resigned his 
office, and not only refused to^ sit in the constituent as- 
sembly, to which he was called, but published an opinion 
on the constitution of the clergy, which was so much in 
hostility to the measures then pursuing, that he was obliged, 
for a time to conceal himself. He survived the worst pe- 
riod of the revolution, however, and in 1797 vyas chosen 
a member of the council of 500, but having joined the 
party of Clichy, was sentenced to transportation. On this 
he disappeared again, and found a refuge in St. Peters- 
burgh, where the emperor Paul appointed him a member 
of the academy of sciences. The climate, however, and 
the sufferings he bad been subjected to at home, did not 
permit him a long enjoyment of hi^ present tranquillity. 
He died at St. Petersbucgh, July 23, ISOO, in the sixty- 
fourth year of his age. He is characterised as a man of 

' Ath. Ox. vol. I.— Bibliographer, vol. II. 

V A U V I L L I E R S. 271 

great simplicity of manners, joined to a tolerant and en* 
lightened piety, and a contempt of riches. All his pro- 
perty, when confiscated at Paris, did not produce more 
than 1800 livres, and in Russia he scarcely left enough to 
pay for his funeral. 

. Vauvilliers had been in early life one of the French phi- 
losophcfts, and participated in all the sentiments of that 
sect, but was recalled to a better way of thinking by an 
incident, which is thus related. '^ In 17^6 he had a dream, 
in which he saw himseU' transported to the judgment-seat 
of God ; the book of his life was opened to him, and he 
was so strongly reproached for his conduct and principles, 
that he was deeply impressed by it: he awoke in a violent 
perspiration; his hair turned white; all at once he with- 
drev4' from the world, lived for some time. in retirement, 
and did not appear again till the beginning of the revo- 
lution : from this time religious sentiments took the place of 
philosophical principles in his mind, and he became as 
exemplary in his faith and in his conduct as he had be** 
fore been unbelieving." This anecdote, his biographer 
informs us, he had a pleasure in repeating to his friends. 
His works are, 1. ^^ Essai sur Pindare,'* 1772, 12mo, which, 
as far as it goes, is the best translation tlie French have of 
Pindar, but it is not complete. The notes are very va- 
luable. 2. '^ Extraits de divers auteurs Grecs aTusage de 
I'ecole militaire," 1788, 6 vols. 12mo. 3. ** Lettres sur 
Horace," 12mo. 4. ^'Examen historique du government 
de Sparte," 1769.. This procured him admission into the 
academy of inscriptions. Besides these he completed Ca- 
perronier^s edition of Sophocles, published in 1781, and in 
it displays great diligence, research, and knowledge of the 
Greek language, although we are aware that this edition 
has not given universal satisfaction. He also assisted Bro^ 
tier ip his edition of Amyot's Plutarch. ' 

VAUX (Thomas), Lord Vaux of Harwedon, an Eng- 
lish poet, was the eldest son of Nicholas, the first lord 
Vaux, and was born in 1510. In 1527 he was among the 
attendants in Wolsey's stately embassy, when that prelate 
went to treat of a peace between the emperor Charles V. 
and the kings of England and France; and in January 
1^30, he took his place in parliament as a baron. In 1532 
he waited on the king in his splendid expedition to Calais 

* Diet. Hist.— Biographic Moderne. 


S72 V A U X. 

and Boulogne,^ a little before which time he is said to hare 
had the custody of the persecuted queen Catherine. In 
the following year he was made a knight of the bath, at the 
coronation of Anne Boleyn. He appears to have held uo 
public office but that of the captain of the island of Jersey, 
which h^ surrendered in 153d. He died early in the reign 
of Philip and Mary. 

As a poet, he has long been deprived of his inetit by bi» 
pieces having been attributed to his father^ Nicholas lord 
Vaux, an error which Dr. Percy first detected, and the 
title of Thomas lord Vaux seems now indisputable*. The 
largest collection of his poetry isiu the ^' Paradise of dainty 
Devises," lately reprinted in the " Bibliographer;" and 
Dr. Percy and Mr. Ellis have printed ^* The Assault of Cu« 
pid," and the " Dyttye, or sonet made by the lorde Vaus 
in time of the noble queene Marye, representinge the image 
of Deathe ;'' but the popular notion of lord Vaux's having 
composed this last on his death-bed, seems unfounded. 
From the prose prologue to Sack vi lie's ^Mnduction/' in 
the '^ Mirror for Magistrates," it would seem that lord Yaux 
bad undertaken to pen the history of king £dward's two 
sons cruelly murdered in the Tower of London ; but what 
be performed of his undertaking does not appear. Lord 
Vaux, as a poet, is more distinguished by morality of sen- 
timent than by imagery ; yet even in the laHer, his two 
celebrated ' poems of ''The Assault of Cupid," and the 
" Aged Lover's renunciation of Love," are far from de- 
ficient ; and the sweet and touching simplicity of the ideas, 
and the airy ease of the language, entitle them to high 
commendation. ^ 


VEGA (Lopez de la), or Lope-Felix de Vega Carpio, 
a celebrated Spanish poet, was. born at Madrid, Nov. 25, 
1562. He informs us that his father was a poet, but 
what he was besides, or the time of his death, is net 
known. It appears that he was an orphan when at school, 
about thirteen or fourteen years old, and was then impelled 
by so restless a desire of seeing the world, that he resolved 

^ It mast be remarked, howevf^r, lord Vaux, tnighi fiave been the writer 

ibatih^ late Mr. Ritson, at well as sir of ihese poems. See Poetical Register 

EgertoQ Brydges, intimate a suspicion for 1801, p. 195: 
tliat William, the eldest son of Thomas 

* Bibliographer, vols. I. and 11 1.-r Park's Royal aad Noble Autbors.-^Ath. 
Ox. vol. I. new edit.— Warten's Hiat. of Poetry. 

VEGA. in 

to escape ; and having concerted his project with a school- 
fellow, they actually put it in Ocecution, but were soon 
brought back to Madrid. Before this time, according to 
his own account, he had not only written verses, but com- 
posed dramas in four acts, which, as he tells us, was then 
the custom. Upon his return to Madrid, however, he 
abandoned this mode of composition, and ingratiated him- 
self with the bishop of Avila by several pastorals, and a 
coitaedy in three acts, called ^^ La Pastoral de Jacinto," which 
* is saidto haVe formed an epoch in the annals of the theatre^ 
and a prelude to the reform which Lope was destined to 

He shortly after studied philosophy at Alcala, and ingra- 
tiated himself with the duke of Alva, at whose instance 
he wrote his " Arcadia,^' a mixture of prose and verse, ro- 
mance and poetry, pastoral and heroic, the design of 
which was avowedly taken from Sannazarius, and which 
contains nearly as many deformities as beauties. Soon 
after this he left the duke of Alva's service, and married, 
but; continued to cultivate his favourite studies, until, being 
involved in a duel, he wounded his antagonist so danger- 
ously as to be obliged to leave Madrid, and his newly 
established family. He fixed upon Valencia as the place of 
his retreat, but returned to Madrid in a few years, when 
all apprehensions of evil consequences from his duel were 
allayed. He was probably soothing his imagination with 
prospects of domestic happiness, which his late absence 
had suspended, when he had the misfortune to lose his 
wife. The residence of Madrid, which he had so lately 
regarded as the summit of his wishes, now became insup- 
portable ; and scenes which had long been associated in 
his mind with ideas of present comfof t and future reputa-. 
tion, served only to remind him of their loss. To fly from 
such painful recollections he hastily embarked on board* the 
memorable Armada, which was then fitting out to. invade 
England. The fate of this elcpedition is well known ; and 
Lope, in addition to his share in the difficulties and dan- 
gers of the voyage, saw his brother^ to whose society he 
had run for refuge in his late calamity, expire in his arms. 
During the voyage, however, his muse was not idle, for 
he composed the ** Hermosura de Angelica,^' a poem, 
which professes to take up the story of that princess where 
Ariosto had dropped it. When be published this poem in 
1602, he added another, the ^^ Dragon tea,** an epic on 
Vol. XXX. T 

^7,4 V IC G ^. 

the death of sir Francis fPrak,ey .iyl]o is ^a^q^d ^hy ,&>^ 
'coarse epithet, as inde,ed was.[iis tQ}^' mistress ^li^^fitMr 
whose tyranny, cruelty, and' above a|l, her ^re^, '^^ tfcye 
perpetual objects pf Lope's poetical inye(;l;ive. 

,In 1590 he retuhied a second time to ^atjrid, an^^^pon 
after marritd again. In 159tt, on the canpiiizatiqn pf St. 
"Isidore, a native of Madrid, he entered tbe lists jv^h seye- 
Vat authors, and overpowered them a|i with the nuntber if 
Wt'with the merit of his perforniances. Prices had jh^n 
assigned for every style of poetry, bqt above one could npt 
'Be obtained by the same person. Lope succeeded in the 
'hymns ; but his fertile muse, not content with producing fi 
poem of ten cantos in short verse, as weil as innumerable 
'sonnets and romances, and two comedies on the si^hje<;tj 
celebrated by an actof supererogation both the saint afld the 
poetical competition of the day, in a volume of sprigbUy 
poems under the feigned name of Tome de BurguiHos. 
This success raised him, no doiibt, in the estimatioji of ^e 
public, to whom he was already known by the numl^er j^tid 
excellence of his dramatic writings ; and this was probably 
the most fortunate period of his life, and that in wliiciji he 
derived most satisfaction from his pursuits, ^bout this 
time, however, we must fix the short date of bis doi^estic 
comforts. Of three persons who formed his family, the 
'son died at eight years, and was soon followed, by his jno- 
iher; the daughter alone Joryived our poet. He hijwjre- 
solved to seek consolation in the exercises of devotion i 
and, baying been secretary to* the Inquisition, he sjjofily 
after became a priest, and in 1609 an honorary piembe/r of 
the brotherhood of St. Francis. 

Whatever the devotion of Lope, it did fiot l^r^k iji 

upon bis habits of composition, anq as )ie t>ad al^out t^is 

time acquired sufficient reputation to atti'act the en*/ .9f 

le spared no exertions to maiptajr) ^U^ 

he criticisms of his enemies. Amopg 

entioned tiie formidable names of Gop- 

B. Gongora had introduced an aflected, 

:ure style, which Lope first attac^^d )i| 

and afterwards exposed its absurdities 

1 to an ecloguf on the death of Qoai^a 

._--_. _- _:^...-, in 1621, and this, he performpd wjtli 

ip-ijat candpiir: " As to Lppe'5 dispu^ with Cervantes, it 15 

Fess dis'tinctfy narrated,' and sfepis ip soine me^sui'^ PM- 

tletnatical. ' X^Tiatever ft )faj, posterity has lopg olecijigd 

V -E G A. ■ 27S 

between fceb. '< Ceri^antes,*^ skp lord Hollana^ « Who - 
tms iactunally stari^ing in the sartie sti^eet tvhet^e Lope Was 
living in splendour apdlprosperlty, has been for near tWo 
ciE!nettrtes the delight and admiration of eVery nation in 
Europe; and 'Lope, notwithstanding ihe late edition of his 
works in 22 vdfs. i^ to a great degre'e neglected in his owtl.'* 

Before the death of Cefvantes, the. admiration of'tdpe 
tras become a species erf worship in Spain, and it "was 
hatdJy prudent in any author to withhold incense frfttrtlils 
i^farritHe, moch less to int€rru|I)t the devotion of his atd- 
berents. Nor \vk^ 'he hiiifiself entirely exempt ffofWi the 
imtiibiHty whic'h freqden\ly attends "pOets : he often ^pe^iks 
wiuh peevishness of tits defr&ctor^, and answers th^i'r cVill- 
dsfhs, soiiieftime^ in a queValoufe, arid sometimes iA an in- 
solent tdrie. He eVen co^i'plainb of negle'ct, Ohsctirity, and 
poVeirty, althoi!igh h« was ladet) Vvifch hoitours and pensions, 
cionrr^ by the great, and folldiVed by the crowd. 

We seldom passed k year Without giving sorhe jioetti to 
tile pre«(s ; and scarcely a biO'nth, 6r even a week, without 
|>rodticiog some play upon the stage. Hiis " Pastores dfe 
Belfen," a wodi in prose a'nd Verse on the Nativity, hkd 
confirmed hi* siip^riority in pastoral potems ; and rhymes, 
iiyoilis, and po^ettis without nurtibier on sacrted Subjects, had 
eiHinced his zeal in the profession he ferinbr^ced. Philip ^ 
IV. theigreat patron oif the Spdhish theatre, to which he 
afterwards ii said ito have contributed cothpoi^ittons of hi^ 
omi, ^t the tera of his abctession, found Lope in full pbs- 
S^sioifi of the sta^e, and ih the etercis'e of uitlimited aU- 
thority over the authors, comedians, and audifence. NfeiV 
holhblliri and benefices were immediately hfeajied oh our 
paek^ And in all probability he Vvrote occasionally plays for 
tht^ royal palace. He published abbUt the same time 
^* Lod Tribmphos de laF€;*' *^ LOs Fortunas de Diana;" 
thfee novels In prose (Unsuccessful imitations of fceirvahtes); 
** tihje," an heroic poem, dedicated to this count dtike of 
Olivareis ; and " Philomena," a singular, but tit*esoiu& al- 
legoty, in the second book of which he vindicates hinis^lf 
io the person of the nightingale from the accusation of his 
<6ritics, Who are there represerited by the thrush. 

Such was his reputation that he began to dinstru^t this 
dikicerity of the public, and seems to have suspected thkt 
there was more fashion thain real opinion in the extrava^ 
gflnc6 of theilr applaUse. I'his engaged him in a dangerous 
experiment^ the publication df a poem Vritbout hiif name. 

T 2 



276 VEGA. 

But whether the number of his productions had gradoalty 
formed the public taste to his own standard of excellence, 
, or that his fertile and irregular genius was singularly 
adapted to the times, the result of this trial confirmed the 
former judgment of the public; and his ^' Soliloquies to 
God/' though printed under a feigned name, attracted as 
much notice, and secured as many admirers, as any of his 
foriner productions. Emboldened probably by this success^ 
he dedicated his ^^ Corona Tragica," a poem on the queen 
of Scots, to pope Urban VIII, who had himself composed 
an epigram on the subject. Upon this occasion he re- 
ceived from that pontiff a letter written in his own band, 
and the degree of doctor of theology. Such a flattering 
tribute of admiration sanctioned the rererence in which his 
name was held in Spain, and spread his fame through every 
catholic country* Tl|^ cardinal Barberini followed him 
with veneration in the streets ; the king would stop to gaze 
at such a prodigy ; the people crowded round him where- 
ever be appeared; the learned and the studious thronged 
to Madrid from every part of Spain to see this phoenix of 
their country, this ^^ monster of literature ;'' and even 
Italians, no extravagant admirers in general of poetry that 
is npt their own, made pilgrimages from their country for 
.the sole purpose of conversing with Lope. So associated 
was the idea of excellence with his name, that it gre\y in 
common conversation to signify any thing perfect in its 
kind ; and a Lope diamond, a Lope day, or a Lope wo- 
jnan, became fashionable and familiar modes of expressing 
their good qualities. 

Lope's poetry was as advantageous to his fortune as \fy 
his fame ; the king enriched him with pensions and chap- 
laincies; the pope honoui'ed him with dignities and pre- 
ferments ; and every nobleman at court aspired to the cha- 
racter of his Maecenas, by conferring upon him. frequent 
and valuable presents. His annual income was not less 
than 1500 ducats, exclusive of the price of his plays, which 
Cervantes insinuates that he was neveijf inclined to forego, 
and Montalvan, one of his biogritpbers, estimates at 80^000. 
He received in presents from individuals as much as ,10,500 
more. His application of these sums partook of the spirit' 
of the nation from which be drew them. Improvident and 
Jtidiscriminate charity raif away with these gains, immense 
as they were, and rendered his life unprofitable to his 
h'iends, and uncomfortable to himself. 

VEGA. 277 

He continued to publish plays and poems, and to re- 
ceive every remuneration that adulation and generosity 
could bestow, till 1635, when religious thoughts had ren- 
dered him so hypochondriac, that he could hardly be con- 
sidered as in full possession of his understanding. On^the 
22d of August, which was Friday, he felt himself more 
than tt^ually oppressed in spirits, and weak with age ; but 
be was so much more anxious about the health of his tool 
than of bis body, that he would not avail himself of the pri* 
vilege to which bis infirmities entitled him of eating meat ; 
and even resumed the superstitious flagellation, to which 
be had accustomed himself, with more than usual severity. 
This discipline is supposed tct have hastened his death. 
He became ill on that night, and having passed the neces« 
sary ceremonies with excessive devotion, he expired on 
Monday, Aug. 26, 1635, in the seventy-third year of his age. 

The sensation produced by his death was, if possible, 
more astonishing than the reverence in which he was held 
while living. The splendour of his funeral, which was 
conducted at the charge of the most munificent of his pa- 
trons, the duke of Sesa, the number and language of the 
sermons on that occasion, the competition of poets of all 
countries in celebrating his genius and lamenting his loss, 
are unparalleled in the annals of poetry, and perhaps 
scarcely eq^ualled in those of royalty itself. The ceremo- 
nies attending his interment continued for nine days. His 
biographers, however, have been less careful to convey a 
juat idea of this extraordinary man to posterity, and there 
is little in them that can throw any light upon his character 
as a man, or his history as an author. His intimate friend 
Montalvan praises him in general as a person of a mild and 
amiable disposition, of very temperate habits, of great 
erudition, singular charity, and extreme good breeding. 
His temper, he adds, was never ruiBed but with those who 
took snufF before company j with the grey who dyed their 
locks ; with men who, born of women, spoke ill of the 
sex ; with priests who believed in gypsies ; and with per- 
sons who, without intentions of marriage, asked others their 
age. These antipathies, which are rather quaint sallies of 
vifit, than traits of character, are the only peculiarities which 
bis intimate friend has thought proper to communicate. 
We have already noticed his unreasonable complaints of ill- 
usage, neglect, and even poverty, which appear to have 
constituted the greatest blemish in his character. 

27* VEGA. 

• . * % 

, s 

As^aji anthox, he, is most known, as iudee4 he is^mcyt' 
wopderfql, ' for the prodigious numher of his. writing^, 
TvyjBnty-one million three hundred thousand of his. linef. 
are said to be actually printed; and no l^ss than eig^p-. 
teen hundred plays of his composition to have heen 
acted on the stagre. Lord Holland has calculated that, 
according to these accounts, aliowjng him to begin, bis. 
compositions <it the age of thirteen, we. must bt^lieve^ tha$^ 
upon an average he wrote morp than \i\\w hundred lip^esjaj 
day; a feriiluy of ima;;ination, and a celerity Qf peo^. 
which, wht-n we consider the occupations of. his life as a ^ 
soldier, a secretary^ a master of a family, and a priest; hisj 
acquirements in Latin, Italian, and . Portu^^ucse ; and hisi 
reputation for erudition, becoQ)e not onl\ improbable, bu^- 
absolutely, and, one may.aln^ saj^ pljysically impossible. 
Yet although there does not now exist the fourth part .of* 
the works which he and his admLrers.mention, enough re- - 
mains to render him one of the must; voluminous authprs^. 
that ever put pen to paper. Such was his facility, that he, 
informs us binjself, that mpre than at? hundrej times. hi^. 
cgmposed a play and produced it on, the stage in tv^enty^. 
four hours. To this evidence we may add tins of Montal- 
van, that he wrot6 a comedy in two days, which it would 
not be. very easy for the. most expeditious amauuensis to 
copy, out in the time., At Toledo he, wrote fifteen acts ia 
fifteen d^iySj^ which, Montalvan atids„ make five comedies^ 
He also asserts that Lope. wrote 1800 plays and ^QO autos^^. 
sq^ramentales, a species of dramatic composition resembling: 
our old mysteries. Tjiat in all this there must be soaifs 
e2(£^ggeration^ cannot be doubted* 

Bijt whatever .may have been the original number of 
Lope's prod^uction's, enough yet remain to render aR.e:^'- 
amjnation of them all nearly jcppossible^.* The merit, in*- 
dependent of those intended fpr representation, consisjti^ . 
chiefly in smoothness of versifipation and purity of Ian- , 
guage, and in facility rather than strength of imagination. 
His invention is chiefly shown in his dramas, which, what- 
ever their individual merit, formed upon the whqle the 
school which has produced the greatest dramatic writers of, , 
the continent. On this subject we may refer to lord BsoW 

* IiOpe'i mUcellaneous prose and pristed. at Madrid, Valladolid, &o^ 

yarsfi at« contained in 32 veh. 4to. ' 1609— i64!7> bat it is very difficult to> 

printed at ^adrid, 177jS— ^79 | and pr^eiy^e.tbip eoUffitm <i3fojfi9ie^ 

|iif dramatic works, in 25 voJs. 4to. 


V E G A. 279^ 

lanfl'sV^egarit* arf3 interesting 'narrative, who obsjerves in 
the'cdhclusionTtha^ " it sieems but ah act of justice to pay* 
some honour* to the meniory of men wTiosVlatours have 
promoted iFterature^ and enabled , others to eclipse their 
reputation. Suc& was Lope de Vega j once the pride and 
glory of Spaniards, who in their literary^ as in their politi- 
cal achievements^' have, by^ a' singular .fatatity, discoyefecl 
regions,' and opened mines, to benefit their peiglibours^ 
aAd therr 'rivals, and to enrich every nation of ETurope," bit 
thetf pwn,''[\ 

VEGETlUS*(FLAVius-RENATDs]r, an ancient tatln' wri- 
ter, lived in theTourth century, under theVeign of Valeh- 
tihian, to wfiom he dedicates awork', entitled " Epifbine^ 
iflstitutorum rei militaris." This is a cbmpiUition from 
lalmy authors : yet the subject is treated with much' m'e- 
tbod'and ekactness, and the Latinity, all things considered, 
exceedingly pure. Of the author little is tiiowo ; he prp- 
babiy was a military man, and has the title of Comes, tifis 
work w^ first published without date or place,* supposed 
at Utrecht, about 1473. The best editions since, are th)at 
of'Schwebelius, 1767, 4to; ofValart, Paris, 1762; and of 
Strasbulrgh, 1806, 8vo. It was also publishfed, with otber 
wfi'te^s' upon " Tactics," Frontinus, -^lian, and ^heas/ at 
Leydeh, 1644, in 12mo; and afterwards " Vesali5B*'Cliv6- 
ruiri,"*' 1670, 8vo. There are also extant, under Vegetius's 
name^'if indeed the same Vegetius, of wfiich Fabricius * 
doubts, ff Artis Veterinariae sivfe Mulomedicinae 'libri qua- 
tuoir," Basil, 1524, 4to; and afterwards, 1574, 4to. * ' ^ 

VEGIO (Maffei), or MaJ^Ileus Vegius, a Latin poet'of 
the 'fifteenth century, was burn, at Lodi in 1406. He • 
studied law, in compliance with his futher, but had a 
stronger predilection for poetry. He made, however, such 
proficiency as to be successively chosen professor of both 
in the university of Pavia. He went afterwards to Rome, 
aftd was secretary of the briefs under the popes Eugenius 
IV. Nicholas V. and Pius II. and died there in 1458. He^ 
wiro'fe a great many works in prose, as " Dialogues de mi- 
serfa' et' felTcftate,^' *^ Disputatio inter solemj terram ci 
aurunrt,'*' and others of the ascetic kind, all inserted in the 
Library of the fathers. Dupin and other writers of the Ro- 
fiolsh churchy bestow the highest commendations oh one of 

* Some Account of tbe Life and Writings of Lope ^elix de Yeza Carpio, by 
the right hon. Henry Ricbtrd rord Hblland, 1806, 8to. 
s Fabricii, BibU Lat*— Saxii Onomast. 

280 V E G I O. 

bis treatises *^ De educatione liberormn," in which . he . 
borrows much frpm St. Augustine. Such was his enthu- 
siascn for this saint, that he built a chapel io his church at 
Rome on the right hand of the great altar, and having 
cavised the bones of St. Augustine, and of St. Monica his 
mother, to be placed in a very fine shrine, he removed 
them from Ostia to that chapel. He wrote a poem on the 
death of Astyanaz, four books on the expedition of the 
Argonauts, four on the life of St. Antony, and other poems, 
in which there is more of copiousness than force, and more 
of ease than elegance. But his supplement to Virgil is his 
most remarkable effort. Fancying that the Mneid was im- 
perfect, and wanted a dtiyiauementf he wrote a thirteenth 
book, which has been printed in some editions of Virgil, 
and even translated into Italian and French. In English 
we have likewise a translation, published in 1758, but it is 
of the burlesque kind, in imitation of Cotton.^ 



VELASQUEZ (Don Diego Velasquez de Silva), an 
eminent Spanish history and portrait painter, was 'born at 
Seville in 1594, and was at first the pupil of Francis Her- 
rera, and afterwards of Pacheco, in whose school his pro* 
gress was remarkable, and he soon gave manifest proofs of : 
his abilities. He studied diligently after nature, and 
pointed birds, beasts, fishes, and ^landscapes, as they oc- 
curred, and designed them with such truth and exactness, 
that his performances rose into high esteem. His^most fa- 
vourite subjects, at first, were taverns, kitchens, conversa- 
tions, and persons feasting ; and those he executed with a 
bold pencil, and uncommon tints of colour, in a style pe- 
culiar to himself. But at length the sight of some pictures 
of the Italian masters inspired Velasquez with nobler ideas; 
and being particularly charmed with the colouring of Ca- 
ravaggio, be made him his model, and his success in that 
style answered his most sanguine expectations. 

Having spent five years under Pacheco, he went to Ma* 
drid, where he received great encouragement, and had an 
opi^ortunity of improving himself still more by viewing the 
paintings in that city. There also he procured the patron- 
age of the duke d'Olivarez, favourite of Philip IV.; and 
the portrait which he painted of that grandee obtained him ' 

1 Tiraboschi«-*Gen. Diet.— 'Niceroii, voL XXVL 

V E L.A S Q U E Z. 281 

the i*0|Vt1 favour, in consequence of which he was appointed 
principal painter to the king of Spain, with an honourable 
pension, and an apartment in the palace. While in that 
station, Rubens arrived in Spain ; and having visited Ve- 
lasquez, and considered 'his works, recommended it to him 
to spend some time in Italy. Velasquez, convinced of dpie 
sincerity and probity of Rubens, as well as of bis judg- 
ment, followed his advice, and travelled to Venice and 
Rome : at the former he copied the works of Titikn, Tin- 
toretto, and P. Veronese; and at the latter studied the 
works of Raphael, Buonaroti, and the Caracci^s ; by which 
means he acquired such an improvement of taste, corr^t- 
ness, composition, and colouring as placed him at the 
bead of bis profession. 

At his return to Spajn, he was received with every mark 
of esteem by the king, and applause by the public ; and 
having finished a tioble design of the Crucifixion for the 
convent of St» Placidia, the whole court had an incQntesta- 
ble evidence of his merit, and the improvement he had 
obtained, by studying the finest productions of art and ge- 
nius in Italy. As the king had determined to procure the 
best collection possible of antique statues, and the works 
of the greatest masters of Italy, he commissioned Velas- 
quez to purchase the most curious, and also to copy such 
celebrated paintings as he found unpurchaseable. During 
that progress, he painted the portrait of Innocent X. and 
most of the cardinals and princes at Rome ; and was treated 
with the utmost distinction and honour, as long as he con- 
tinued in that city. He had the happiness to enrich his 
own country with many admirable curiosities of ancient 
and modern artists; and adorned it also with a number of 
his own works, in portrait and history. The compositions 
of Velasquez were remarkable for strong expression, a 
freedom of pencil, a spirited touch, and an admirable tone 
of colour. The most capital performance of this eminent 
master, is the historical representation of the expulsion of 
the Moors by Philip III., which is in the grand saloon at 
Madrid, Velasquez died at Madrid in 1600, and was in- 
terred with great magnificence.^ 

V£L)SZ (Lewis Velez de Guevara), a Spanish comic 
poet and* satirist, was born at Icija, in Andalusia, and 

■ ArgrenTille, vol. II.— Pilkingtoo.— Bot a longer account in Camberland'g 
Anecdotet of Painters in Spain. 


it2 V E L E Z. 

recomttteftded himself at the' cburt of' I*bi!ip' IV.* by his 
humour and pleasantries, so as to obtain the' title' of the' 
Spanish Scarron. ' He is said to have possessed in the' 
highest degree the talent of ridicule. He was the aiithbir 
of several comedies, which wei*e printed at different places 
in Spain ; and of an humorous piece entitled " El diabblo' 
cojuelo, novella de la otra vida," printed at Madrid in 
1641. This Le Sage afterwards imitated in French, and 
his work has been often printed in English under the titFe" 
of the " Devil on Two Sticks," but Le SAge is thought to 
have very much improved on his original. Vel^z died' at 
Madrid in 1646.* 


VELLl (Paul Francis), a French historian, was born'" 
near Frsmes, in Champagne, in 1711. He entered the 
Jesuits' ordeij but quitted it at the end of eleven years, 
was tutor to M. Goguet, counsellor to the parliament, and' 
having finished that gentleman's edacati'on,* devoted him- 
self wholly to the study of French history. He died sud- 
denly at Paris, September 4,* 1759, aged about forty-eight, 
leaving a "History of France,*' written in a simple and 
correct style, and with great candour. Six only,' however,' 
of the eight volumes were pul^lished by hini ; the* seventh, 
which iie had entirely finished, and the'eighth, which was 
nearly completed at the time of his death, havebeeA'pub- 
liihed since by JVT. Villaret, who continued the history'to 
vol. XII. But the complete edition, with Garnier's conti- 
nuation, amounts to 15'vols. 4to, 17tO — 1789. IVf. Velli 
also left a French translation of Dr. Swift's " History' of 
John Bull." * 

VELSERUS (Marcus), a learned civilian, and celebrated ^ 
writer of Germany, was descended of an ancient and Wealthy * 
family, and bom at Augsburg, June '20, 155^.' H^ was 
educated with great car^ ; and, as he discovered a love for ' 
polite litierature, was* sent very young to Home, where he" 
was a pupil of Antony Muretus, in 1575. He joined to* 
the study of antiquity that of the Italian* ton giie, and wrote 
it with great elegance. Upon his return to his dwn coun- 
try he applied himself to the bar in 1589; obtained the* 
dignity of a senator in 1592 ; was advanced to'b^ a m^kUbbr 
of the little council in 1594; and wsCs elected' ^abfbr'in ^ 
11600. He discharged all these offices with great repU'- 

^ Antonio Bibl. Hiip. « D»t Hiit. 

V E L S E R U S. 288 

tation^ and was the ornament of bis conntty, Hft loved 
and patrooized learning and learned men; and never any 
person had more friends in the republic of letters* He 
furnished assistance to several authors ; and particularly 
contributed to the great collection of inscriptions published 
byGruter. He gave the security of a thousand florins, in 
order to procure to Rtttershusius a manuscript of tlie 
epistles of Isodorus P^lusiota^ which was in the library of 
the duke of Bavaria^ and could not be had withoubsuch 
security ; and, what made this act of generosity the greater, 
he did it without RittershusiusV knowledge. He was abo 
the author x)f several work^ of reputauon himself. His 
first essay I according to M^lchior Adam, was a work which' 
he published at Venice in 1594, thus entitled: *' Rerum 
Augustanarum- V4ndeliearum Libri Octo, quibtis a prima 
Rha&torum ae Vindelicornm origine ad annum usque 552 
a N^o Ghristo nobilissimae gentis Historia et Antiquitates^ 
traduntur; ac antiqua monumenta, tam quse AuguttK^' 
qHam quse in agro Asgustano, quia et quto alibi extant 
ad res Augustanas spectaritia sere incisa et notis illustrate - 
exhibentur." In 1602 he published, at Augsburg, "Re-^ 
rum Boicarum libri quinque, Historiam a gentis originead 
Carolum Magnum complexi," containing the. history of 
Bavaria from the year 600, when Sigoves led the Boii from 
Gaul to Germany, to the year 788, when Charlemagne 
dethroned the last Bavarian duke Tassilo 11. and confined 
litm in a. cloister. Velser- intended to continue this work, 
which is reckoned his best, and had already collected ma« 
terials for it, and nearly composed two additional books, 
but was prevented* by death from finishing his task; and 
the two books were a long time supposed to be lost. One 
of these, however, was discovered in 1778, by Lip- 
pert, in the university library at Ingolstadt, and published 
at Augsburgb in that year. Velser published, at" different 
times, the lives of several martyrs at Augsburg. His works 
were collected and reprinted at IJ^uremburg 1682, in folio, 
tiader the inspection and care of Arnoldus, professor th^e, 
who wrote " Prolegomena," in which he iuforms us of 
many particulars concerning him. As Velserus held* a 
great correspondence with the learned of Italy, and several 
other countries, many of his Latin and Italian letters were 
collated and inserted in this edition. < He passed for the 
author of a celebrated piece .called . Sqqittinio della liberts^ 
Veneta,*' which was published in l6l2. Ga^sendi having 

284 V E L S E R U S. 

observed that several ascribed this book to Peiresc, adds^ 
that they were deceived ; and that it was probably written 
by the illustrious Velserus, as he calls him. Velserus^s ge* 
niusy liberality of mind, his fine taste, and bis classical 
diction, enabled bim to communicate bis historical acqui- 
sitions to the public with success and applause. He died 
June 13, 1614, and left po issue by bis marriage. He was^ 
one of those who never would suffer hifis picture to be drawn ; 
yet it was done without his knowledge, as Gassendi informs 
us in his life of Peiresc. * 

VENANTIUS, or Venantius Honorius Clementu- 
Nus FoRTUNATUS, a Christian poet of the sixth century, 
was a native of Italy, and studied at Ravenna. He applied 
himself to grammar, rhetoric, poetry,* and jurisprudence, 
but was most attached to rhetoric and poetry, and was ho- 
noured by Hilduinus, the abbot of St. Denis, with the title 
of SchokLStkissimus. Jt sems uncertain what was the cause 
of his leaving Italy for France, but the step was peculiarly 
fortunate for him, as his poetical genius procured bim the 
most honourable reception. Princes, bishops, and per- 
sons of the highest ranks, became eager to confer on him 
marks of their esteem. He arrived in France during the 
reign of.Sigebert, king of Austra&ia, who received him 
with great respect. This being about the time of the king's 
inarriage with Brunehaut, in the year 566^ Venantius com- 
posed an epithalamium, in which be celebrated the graces 
and perfections of the new queen% It is also said, that he 
gave the king lectures on politics. The following year he 
went to Tours to perform a vow to St. Martin, whose image 
had cured him of a complaint in his eyes. He then went 
to Poictiers, and was invited by St. Radegonda, the foun- 
dress of a monastery there, to reside in the capacity of her 
secretary ; and afterwards, when he became a priest, she 
appointed bim her chaplain and almoner. He resided here 
for some years, employing bis time in study and writing, 
and edifying the church as much by his example as by his 
works. He was much esteemed by Gregory of Tours and 
other prelates, and was at last himself raised to be bishop 
of Poictiers, which dignity, it is said, he did not long* en- 
joy. He died about the commencement of the seventh 
century, some say in the year 609. His works •consist of 
eleven books of poetry, mostly of the elegiac kind, and ge- 

1 Kicaroo, v6l. XXIV.— Qen. Diet.— Blount's Censura.— Saxii Oaomcn. 

V E N A N T I U S,.' 2S5 

nerally short : hymns adapted to the services-of the cburck : 
epitaphs, letters to several bishops, and some to Gregory 
of Tours : courtly verses addressed to queen Radegonda, 
and her sister Agnes, usually sent with presents of flowers, 
fruit, &c. fotir books of the ^^ Life of St Martin,'^ in he- 
roic verse : several lives aof the saints. Editions of bis 
,works were published at Cagliari in 1573, 1574, and 1584, 
and at Cologne in 1600 : but all these are said to be incom- 
plete and incorrect, yet they shew the respect paid to him 
.as the best Latin poet of his time. In 1603 Christopher 
Brower, a German Jesuit, produced a very correct edition, 
.with notes, printed at Fulda, and reprinted at Mentz^ in 
1617, 4to; but this contains only his poems. His other 
works are in iJae ^^ Bibliotheca Patrum,^' of Lyons, 1677, 
The most complete edition is that of Rome, published 
under the title of ** Venantii opera omnia quse extant^ 
post Browerianam editionem nunc recens novis additar 
mentis aucta, not. et scboliis illustr. opera Mich-Ange Lu- 
chi," 1786—87, 2 vols. 4to. * 

VENERONI (John), who has the credit of promcrting 
Italian literature in the last century, particularly in France, 
was a native of Verdun. His name was Vigneron^ but as 
he bad made the Italian language his study, and wished to 
acquire reputation at Paris as a teacher, he Italianized bis 
name, and gave out that he was a native of Florence. 
He published an Italian Grammar and Dictionary ; both of 
which have been repeatedly printed in France and En^ 
Jand, but with modern improvements. He published also 
Tragslations of Bentivoglio's and Loredano's letters, the 
Italian on one side* His grammar,, it is said, was not writ- 
tea by him, but by the famous Roselli, whose adventures 
bave.been printed as a romance. . This latter, passing 
through France, dined with Veneroni, who finding that he 
reasoned very justly upon the Italtin language, engaged' 
hii|i to compose a gramnciar, for which he gave him a hnn- 
' dred franks. Venerdni only made some additions accord- 
iqig to his taste, and publii^hed the book under his own 
^ame. His ^'Translation of the Select Fables,^' is priuted 
with a German version and plates, Augsburg, 1709, .4to. 
We, find no account of his death ; but, from the dates of 
his publications, he ap{)ears to have flourished, if that 

^ Vessiai de Hist Lat. et De Poet. Lat — Fabric. Bib!. Lai. M$d. ^vj..^ 
Morer^^-^lios* V^*^* *^* Fartunat.— Saxii Onomast. 

»M V £ N 'E 2 I A 31 O. 

tphrase be a1lD«ed>le in bU^trOBe, hi'tbereBrly part^tbe k«t 

V'ENEZIANO (Aacffixmo), or tAvaso^iKO c^ MiJSB, 
.a very ecninent engfaver^ was a native of Venice, "^aitiA was 
•theficholar of the celebrated Marc Antonio Raimondi. It 
>is not certain at what period 'be began bis ^todies undenr 
ihat great master, but the fiist dated print by Agostino 
appeared in 1509, at which time, it isfprobable, bis tutor 
<still resided at Venice. After the death of iiaphael, wtribh 
kappened in 1520, Veneziano and Marc de Ravenna, bis 
iellow-pupil, who bad conjointly assi^ed each other, sepa- 
rated, and worked entirely upon thenr own account. When 
the city of Rome was taken and sacsked by the Spa- 
niards in 1527, Veneziano retired to FloiGeiioe, and ap- 
plied for employment to Andrea del Sarto, who was then 
in high repute ; but del Sarto, dissatisfied witb the dead . 
Christ which he had engraved in 1516, after bis design, t>e- 
fused to permit him to engrave any fldore of bis pictures. 
Veneziano afterwards returned to Rome, where he followed 
bis professional pursuits with great success, and where be 
died some time about 1540. * 

He generally marked bis prints with the initials A. V., 
fuMoh were sometimes inscribed on a tablet; He imitated 
tbe style of bis master with great attention, and, as far as^ 
regards manual execution, with const dterabie success : -some- 
times, indeed, be in this respect excelled Marc Antonie ; 
but in point of taste, and in the parity and correctness ef 
his outiine, be fell far short of that disringuished artist. 
Good impressions of the works of Veneziano are now be- 
eoDie extremely scarce, and a complete set is hardly -to bH 
obtained ; aaioo^ them will be found a few, wherein he ha% 
expressed the flesn entirely by means of stippling, in a man«- 
ner which, being imitated by Boulanger, grew by degrees 
into what is now-termed the ^halk manner of engraving.* 

VENIUS, or VAN VEEN, (Otho,) a Dutch painter of 
great eminence, was descended of a considerable family 
in L^den, and born in 1556. He was carefully edn(:ated 
by his parents in the belles lettres, and at the same tim^ 
learned to design of Isaac Nicolas.' In his flfteentb yeat^ 
when the civil wars obliged him to leave his obuntry, he 
retired to Liege, finished his fitudies^ and there g^f^ the 

1 Wet; Hist. . ■ . . t 

* ainitt'i Diet— and Prtfim to toU 1I.<^ Rect'C CfctopMit, Sit Jtolita 

V E N -I U S. '.OK 

jfir^t . prqqfs i)f .bis tjileots. He ji^as p^artifiuUrly -hfHOfirn t;o 
^fjardinalGroo^bjBok, who g?kte him letters of recomoi^nda-' 
ttion yvhen.he went to Rome, where he was entertained by 
J^ardin^l J^/^ducgip. His genius was so active, that he at 
pnce applied himself to philosophy, poetry, nuithematics, 
^^nd paiflting, ..the latter under Frederico Zuchero. He 
agfl[uicefl ftp,pxcellence in all the parts of painting, espe- 
cial^ijy,in the knowledge of the .chiar-qscuro, and he was tb^ 
firj^t vvho^jcplained to the Fl^roi^h artists the .principles of 
lights and sh^d^vvs, which .his .disciple Jlubens,after,w¥^rd^ 
■carried to ,sq groat a. degree of perf^ctipn. I{e lived ibt 
JRoo^e ;$even years, during which lime be exeQUted sei^r^l 
fine pictures; and then, passing into .Germany, wa9 xe- 
ceiijed iptd tj\^ epjperor's service. After this th^ .d.ufce of 
Bavaria and the j^lector of .Cologn .employed 4iiq[i 4 but ott 
theadvantsiges he got fropi the courts of foreign prinpie^ 
cpuld not detain, him thece. He .had a desire to return ii^ 
the Low Gquntiries, qf which ^^lex^nder Famese^ prince (of 
JParfnfk9 was then goKernor., He dr^w ttbe princess picture 
in armour, ^whiqh qqnfira\^(^l his reputation in the N«ltker>- 
landsr A^ter tbe^^^h g^f t^hat paince, Venius rteturi^d^ 
.^n twerp, whore ,he adon;\^d ttie principal churches witfe 
^.is paintiug^. The |i^^dube Albert, who succeeidied tk^ 
jpr^^ce of V»vff^ in .t]^e.goverj>n[ient of the Low Cpu.i|tr:iefi, 
^ent fpt him to j^^ru^els, .^^^ qiad^e ^im master of the mv^% 
a ^lace which took up i;aucb of bis tiojie ; y^t b^ fpiHi4 
fpar^e hours for the ex^rci^^e of his prqfess^qn. He (^iir 
tiie archduke and the infant^, Is^b^lla^s pqr^traits at Wge, 
j^irjbticli were sent to Jai^s L pf QresiLjt ^itjaju : ^nd, to 
shew l)i3 knowledge of polite lefrping, as well as of paint* 
pg, he published s^^;e,ral tr/^at^sies^ wbj^ he enibellbhied 
^}^ .cuts of his own designing. Among jp^se ^e, 1. ^^ Ho* 
^^^l )EmW|ei??iata," Antjyerp, 1607, 4to, often reprifited, b«i 
{]bif jej^ijtiou h^ the best pla|£$. i, ^^ Amoris divini em* 
ble^fi^ta/' Aqtvyerp, I §15, 4to. 3. ** Amoriim etoblemata,'* 
)^}.^, 16Q$, ,4to. it. '^ Batavoruoi cum Jlomanls fa^Uiup, 
^^c.**' i^id. 1612^ 4^0, &c. Venius die4 at Brussels, 1634, 
\\\ Ijis seventy-eighth ;|^ear. He had two brothers ; Gilbert, 
wjtiq w^s an engraver; and Pete;r, a painter; but his great-* 
^ff hQi^qijir was bis having Rubens for a pupil. ' 

y]^]S[N (IJ^N^Y), a pious divine of the; church of Eng* 
{fmdf WAS the son of the rev. Richard Venn, rector of Str 


> Ar^enirille, vol. IIL«i-]>eicb«nips, yoI I.«^'PRktf]^tOQ.-^BulIart*s Acsde- 
de« Scieinces, 

ii» VENN. 


AnthoIin^Sy London, who distinguished himself as a noted 
disputant in his day, particularly in conjunction with bishop 
Gibson, in opposing the promotion of Dr. Rundle to a bi- 
shopric, on account of a conversation in which the doctor 
had expressed sentiments rather favourable to deism. Mr. 
Venn also assisted Dr. Webster in writing the ** Weekly 
Miscellany/* a periodical publication which, under the ve- 
nerable name of Richard Hooker, laboured zealously in 
defence of high church principles. He died in 1740; and 
a volume of bis sermons and tracts was published by his 
widow, the daughter of Mr. Ashton, who bad been executed 
in the reign of William HI. for being concerned in a plot 
to bring .back the Stuart family. 

Mr. Henry Venn was born at Batnes, in the county of 
Surrey,''1725. He was educated, partly under Dr.Pitrtian, 
at Market-street, and partly under the reverend Mr. Cat- 
cott, rector of St. Stephen, Bristol, a Hutchinsonran divine 
•f great ingenuity and learniug^, the author of a curious 
treatise on the deluge, and a volume of sermons. In 1742 
Mr.*Venn was admitted of Jesus college, Cambridge, 
•proceeded to the degree of B.A. in 1745, and to that of 
M.A. in 1749. There being no fellowship, vacant in his 
own college, the fellows of Queen's unanimously elected 
him a member of their society, in which be continued till 
'his marriage in 1757. T^e lady to whom he^ becatae united 
was daughter of Dr. Bishop of Ipswich, author of an Expo- 
silion of the creed, and a volume of Sermons preached at 
Lady Moyer's lecture in 1724. 

At this period Mr. Venn was curate of Olapham, where 
he was greatly beloved by the inhabitants, and contracted 
a dose friendship with those eminently good men, sir John 
Barnard and John Thornton, esq. By way of exhibiting 
his gratitude to his parishioners, be published and dedicated 
to them, in 1759, on his resignation of the curacy, a volume 
of sermons., In the course of that same year he was pre- 
sented to the vicarage of Huddersfield in Yorkshire. While 
here^ he laboured with unwearied assiduity in his voca- 
tion, and his memory will long be cherished with affection 
and veneration in that extensive parish. His zeal, how- 
ever, carried him beyond his strength. By his earnest and 
frequent preaching, in the course of ten years, he had 
materially injured his constitution, and brought on a cough 
afid spitting of blood, which rendered him incapable of 
cfliciiiting any longer in so extensive a sphere. . He there- 

VENN. 289 

fore I^Q^ept^di ia 1770, the rectp^y of Yellifig in H^ii^ing- 
dorvshire, a crown living, which v^af pr^KQted to him by 
hi9 fr«at aod good friend tb^ lord obioCbltron Smytbe, 
%hpn 000 of the commissioners of the gre^t 9691 Puriog 
hi9' n^tdenco ^t HuddersfiQld b^ publi^b^d ^< The Cpoi- 
pjete Duty of Mao,*' which has^ goo9 through s^ven large 
^itioni, jnQludiqg those printed in Ireland and America. 
The great object of %h\^ bpok is to qouiitevaqt certain Ar- 
Dfiinifin principl^i of the ^el^brat^d work which beara a 
^imil^r title, «t(id to; infu$« n^oret pf an ^?»ng^Uc$L apirit 
into tb« mind of tbft reader.: 

He cootinu^d to refid^ af Yelling until tbc) loanth of 
DecenoWr. nP6^ wbeQ, in consequence of a paralytic 
strobe, which t>ot only sho^k bi9 bodily fra^e but bis 
intel)e?ts» be removed to the bouse of Wf ion, the late 
rector pf Qlapb^m, where h^ died in June following, aged 

Mr, Venn wa§ remarkably cb^effu^wd facetious in con- 
▼er9ation, $p that friety, a^ rf^fiommeaded by bim, wa^^ pka- 
«/int and alluring ; and the young and tbe oare^less were 
often struck, in hi3 company, with admiration %% this cir- 
oumptance, His works w»er#,.l. " The Perfect Contrast^ 
or the entire opposition of Popery to the Bcligion of Jesus 
the Son of Ood ; a sermon preachied at Clapbam» Novem- 
ber 5,, 1755,'' 8vo, A secoiid edition was printed in 177«. 
2. " S«rmo99 on various subject?," I7if9, Svc 3. **Tbe Va- 
ria^cf between real ^nd nominal Cbristi^n^ considered, 
Md ^eftu«e of it eiplained/' » sermon, 1759, 8vo. 4. 
"Tb» Duty of a parish priest,*' a sermon preached at 
Vi^akefeld, July a, 1760, 8vo. S. " Cbrin the joy of the 
ChriHiM life, aod death bis gain,*' hl p«rmpn preached at 
Hawortb, on the death of William Grimsbaw, minister of. 
tb^t parislv 17€3, 3vo. 6. " Tbo Complete Duty of Man, 
4Mr a Syftem of doctrinal and Practical Christianity. De- 
signed for the use of families,'' 1764, $vo* 7. ^^ Man a 
i^ondomiied. sinner, and CbrUt the strong bold to save him," 
an asftige mr^m^y 17$9, 8vo. 8. *^ A full an4 free Exami- 
inatipn of ihe rev. Dr, Prieaitley's Addre^ ot) the Lord's 
Sapper, with some sjtrictures. on the treatiite itself," 1769, 
*vOt 9, f * A token of re$peot to the. Memory of the rev. 
Mr. Whit&el^/' preached at tbf^ coun|:e09 of Huntingdon's, 
Bath, 1770, 9vp. JO. << Mistakes in religion expotsed, in 
an essay on the Prophecy of Zachariah,'' 1774, 8vo. 11. 
'< The Conversion of Sinners the greatest charity : a ser- 

Vol. XXX. . U 

290 V E N W- 

thon preaelied befofe the Society for promoting religious 
knowledge/* 1779, 8 vo. 

His son, JoHNi whom we have mentioned as the 'late 
rector of Clapham, was born in that parish March 9, 1759, 
and received the early part of his education under Mr.Shute 
at Leeds. He was tb^n removed to Hippasholme school, 
where he was well grounded in classics by the care oMVIr. 
Sutcliffe. He had afterwards the benefit of the rev. Jo- 
sepb Milner's instruction at the grammar-school at Hull ; 
and of the rev. Thomas Robinson's and the rev. William 
Ludlam's, the last an eminent mathematician at Leicester. 
He was admitted a member of Sidney Sussex college, Cam- 
bridge, . where he took the degree of A. B. in 1781. In 
' September 1782, he was ordained deacon, as eurate to hi» 
father ; he entered into priest's orders in March 1783, and 
two days afterwards was instituted to the living of little 
Dunham, in Norfolk. In Oct. 1789, he married Miss Cn- 
therioe King, of Hull, who died April 15, 1803, leaving a 
faaiily of seven children. In June 1792, on the death of 
sir James Stonehouse (predecessor in the baronetcy to the 
rsir James Stonehouse recorded in our vol. XXVIII.) be 
was instituted to the rectory of Glapbam. In August 1812, 
be married Miss Turton, daughter of John Turton, esq. of 
Clapham> and resided at this place from Che beginning of 
1793, to the day of bis death, July 1, 1813> aged fifty-four. 
Mr. Venn never appeared in the character of an author, nor 
prepared any sermons for the press ; but two volumes have 
since been published, selected from his manus€iipt% and 
may be considered *' as a fair exhibition of his manner, 
sentiments, and doctrine/' They are more polished in 
style than his father's, but there is a perceptible difference 
in their opinions on some points, the father being a more 
decided Calvinist Prefixed to these sermons, is a brief 
account of the author, from which we have extracted the 
above particulars.' 

VENNER (Tobias), a physician of the seventeenth oen<- 
tury, was born of genteel parents at Petherton, near Brtdgc- 
water, in Somersetshire, in 1577, and • ift 1594 became a 
commoner of St. Alban's-^iall, Oxford. After taking a de- 
gree in arts, he studied physic, and practised for a tiojie 
about Oxford. In 1613, he took hitjf doctor's degree, and 
returning to his own country, practised ior many years at 


1 Gent. Mag. vol. LXVlL^-^rmont ai^boTe. 

V E N K E R. 291 

Bridgewater ; but afterwards, at dr near Bath; He was 
highly esteemed in that part of the country for sfkill in his 
profession, and maintained the character of an upright and 
charitable person. He died March 27, 1660^ and was bu- 
ried in St. Petef's chnrcih In Bath, where a monument with 
a large inscription, by. Dr. Pierce of that city, was erected 
to his memory. 

Dr. Venner acquired great popularity by a work on th^ 
subject of diet and regimen, entitled ^'Viardcta ad vitam^ 
longam,*' published in two separate parts, the first in 1620^ 
and the second in 1623, but joined in subsequent editions* 
It i« a plain practical piece, e:ttremely different in manneY 
from Dr. Mousset's *^ Treatise on Foods,'' though similar in 
subject. His account of the several articles treated of, is 
compiled (though without any quotations) from the current 
authors of that time ; and his rules and admonitions, deli- 
vered with all due gravity and authority, are equally trite. 
His style and manner are well calculated for a popular 
work, being plain, grave, and diffuse. To the edition of 
the "Via Recta'* of 1638, were addied, *^ A compendious 
Treatise concerning the nature, use, and ef&cacy of thci 
Bathes at Bath;" <* Advertisement concerning the takjng 
of Physic in the Spring ;" ** Censure concerning tb'i^ water 
of St. Vincent's rocks near Bristol," said to be the first trea«» 
tisft relating to Bristol water; and a*' Brief and accurate 
Treatise concerning the taking of the fume of Tobacco." * ' 

VENNING (RiiLPH), a nonconformist divine, was born 
about 1620, and educated in Emmanuel college, Cam-* 
bridge* He does not appear to have had any preferment 
in the churchy except the lectureship of St. Olave's, South- 
wark, from which he was ejected for nonconformity in 
1662. After this he preached at a dissenting meeting at 
Pewterers*-faall, Lime-»street, as colleague to a Mr. Bragge, 
whd outlived him and preached bis funeral sermon. As 
Mr. Venning was a man of no faction himself, men of dif- 
ferent factipns and sects^were generally disposed to do jus-^ 
tice to bis character, wbich was that of a man^ the object 
of wbos6 labours and writings was to promote piety. He 
was, in his charity sermons, a powerful advocate for the 
poor, among whom he distributed annually some hundred^ 
of pounds. His oratory on this topic is said to have been 
almost irresistible ; as some have gone to church with* a 

1 Ath. Ox. vol. II,— Aikin'0 Bio^. Memoirs of Medicine. 

U 2 


resolution not to give, and have beert insensibly and ihfsh 
luntarily melted into compassion, and bestowed their alms 
with uncommon liberality. He died^ March 10, 1673. He 
was the author of nine practical treatises^ specified by Ca« 
laday, among which the principal are, K *^ Orthodox and 
Miscellaneous Paradoxes,^' 1647, 12mo. 3. *^ Things worth 
thinking on, or helps to piety,'* 12mo, often reprinted. 3« 
'^ His Remains,"' with a portrait by Hollar,'' &c. He was 
also one of the compilers of the English-Greek Lexicon 
published in 1661, 8vo.^ 

VERDI ER (Antoky, Seigneur db Yaufiuvas}, a very 
useful biographer and bibliographer, was born at Mont« 
brison en Forez, Nov. 11^ 1544. He appears ta have 
served the king both in a military and civil capacity, and 
was historiographer and gentlemaif in ordinary to bis ma- 
jesty. He died at Duernoi Sept. 25, 1600. In bis youth 
he had cultivated poetry, but of his poetical efforts he pub- 
lished only some indifferent specimens in his great work. 
He had, according to Scaliger, a fine library of Italian, 
French, Spanish, Greek, and Latin authors, and was con- 
versant in books of all kinds. The fruits of his labours 
were, 1. *^ La Prosopograpbie, ou Description des personnes 
insignes, &c. avec les effigies d'aucuns d'iceux, et braves 
observations de lenr temps, annees, faits, et dits," Lyons, 
1573, 4to. This he reprinted three times with improve- 
ments ; and the last, left also by him for the press, was 
published by his son Claude, who made soirie few additions 
at Paris in 1603, 3 vols, folio. This is a very miscellaneous 
compilation, in whidi, although there are a few particulars 
of the eminent men of his time, it requires some patience 
to find them. 2. ^^ Les Diverses legons d'Antoine Duver- 
^dier, suivaat celles de P. Messie," Lyons, 1576, 8vo. Of 
this there ha,ve been several editions, the most odmplete of 
which is that of Tournon, 1605. These lemons were part of 
Duverdier's extracts, in the course of bis reading, from va« 
rious Greek, 'Latin, and Italian authors. 3. '< Le, Oomp-* 
seutique, ou Traits facetieux," 12ma ; but there are some 
doubts whether this, which did not appear until 1584, was 
not the compilation of another author. 4. ^^ La Biblio* 
theqne d'Ant. DUverdier, contenant le catalogue de tons 
ies auteurs qui ont ecrit ou tradnii en Frahgais, avec le 
ti>pplement Latio, du meme Duverdier, a la bibliotbeque 

1 €ai«Qiy.*^GraAg«r. 

' ' V £ R D I K R. 293 

ie GesneV Lyons, 1585, folio. Crpii: Du Maine's work 
of the same kind bad appeared the year before, and was 
thought to be the best executed of the two; but they have 
both been republished with so many improvements* that, 
like Moreri's, they retain very little of the original authors. 
This improved edition was the production of Rigoley and 
Juvigny, who added the notes of Lamonnoye, the president 
Boubier and Falconet, and published' the wliole in six 
bandsome volumes, 4to, under the title of ^* Les Biblio* 
theques Fran^aises de Lacroix du Maine et de Duverdier,** 
1772. The work is undoubtedly still capable of improve- 
ment^ but, as it is, it forms a very valuable addition to the 
bibliographical library. There is a copy in the king's 
library at Paris, with a vast mass of MS additions and cor- 
rections by A^rcier d^ Saint-Leger. Le Long and some 
others attribute to Du Verdier ^' La Biographic et Proso* 
pographie des rois de France jusqu'a Henri III." Paris, 
1583, and 1586, 8vo. But others have doubted this, be- 
cause he makes no mention of it in a list of bis works which 
be wrote in 1585, and in which he gave^not only what be 
liad published, bt^t what remained in manuscript, such as 
a translation of Seneca, &c. His son, ClaUGX VfiRDl£ft, 
wasl)orn about 1566, and had the ambition to become an, 
author, but turned x>ut to be a bad^poet and a worse critic ; 
ke also spent the property his father left him, and lived an 
obscure and miserable life till about 164^9, which is said to 
have been its period. The worst feature of bis character 
is the disrespectful manner in which he has treated bis fa* 
ther's talents and labours, in a work which he piublished in 
1586, and 1609, 4to, entitled '^ In autores pene omnes ao- 
tiquos potissimum censiones et correctiones." It is a suffi- 
cient character of this work, tbiat he blames Virgil for his 
bad Latin.' 

VERDIER (Gilbert Saulkier dv)^ one of the most 
prolific authors in the French series, deserves some notice 
as having been often mistaken for €laude Du Verdier, and 
eiren for Antony, who was dead long before this Gilbert 
was born. It i^ not known to what part of France he be- 
longed. It appears that he was historiographer of France, 
aad that after all his numerous publications, be was ob- 
liged in 1 696 .to apply for an asylum, fcur himself and his 
wife^ in the hospital of Salpetciere, where he died in I6i§. 

1 Biog. Vm. iii«rt* ]>a«i4Mr..-MM«ri-»llioeroD, t«1. XXJV. 

294 V E R DI E R. 

Bayle has a very superficial article on him. Joty allowa; 
him to have been, the author of the historical -works attri- 
buted to hi in, but doubts whether the romances < udder the 
name of Duverdier are not by anotlier handy and his reason 
is, that It is difhcuit to conceive a man's continuing to write 
and publish tor tne long space of sixty years. This, how- 
ever, is not absolutely decisive. Thirteen historical works 
are ascribed to Diiverdier, all published in 12mo, in one, 
two, or more volumes each, consisting of histories of France, 
Turkey, Spain, England, Rome, and some lives. His ro- 
mances amount to fourteen, but seem to be quite forgotten 
jn.his own country, and will. not easily be revived in this 
by any list we can give. Some of them seem to be trans- 

VERE (Francis), a brave English commander, was se- 
cond son to GeofFroy Vere, who was third son of John Vere, 
earl of Oxford. He was born in 1554, and applying him- 
self early to the military art, became one of the most fa- 
mous generals of his time< He served first among the 
forces sent by queen Elizabeth, under the command of 
the earl of Leicester, to the assistance of the States of 
Holland, where he gave proofs of a warlike genius, and 
undaunted courage. In 1588, he was part of the Eng- 
lish garrison which gallantly defended Bergen - op - Zoom 
against the prince of Paritiat and ^^ that true courage 
might not want its due reward or distinction,'' says Cam- 
den, ** the lord Willoughby, who was general of the En- 
glish after Leicester's departure, conferred the honour of 
knigjithood on sir Francis Vere, whose great fame com- 
menced from this siege." 

In 1589, the town of Bergh, upon the Rhine^ being be« 
sieged by the marquis of Warrenbon, and distressed for 
want of provisions, sir Francis Vere was sent by the States- 
general to count Meurs, governor of Guelderland, with 
nine companies of English, to concert with him measures 
for the. relief of that town. At his coming to Arnheim, 
the governor being greatly hurt by an explosion of gun- 
powder, and the states of the province representing to sir 
Francis the importance of the place; and the great extre- 
mity it was reduced to ; at their earnest desire he hastened ^ 
to its relief; with seven companies of Dutch- foot, and 
twelve troops of horse. With these, and carriages laden 

1 Biog« UaiT. io art. Duwrdier. . 

y E R E. 295 

with provisions, he marched towards Bergh, through a 
heathy and open country, with such diligence, that hav- 
ing surprised the enemy,, who lay dispersed in their forts 
about the town, in full view of them, he put provisions 
into it, and returned without loss. After some days re- 
freshment^ the States, ,who had received advice how mat- 
ters passed at Bergh, ordered a fresh supply of provisions 
for it under the command of sir Francis, When he came 
within two English miles of the town, the way they were 
to take being very i^arrow, and leading by the castle of 
Loo, the enemy from the castle galled his men and horses 
in their passage with such resolution, that sir Francis per^ 
ceived they were not the ordinary garrison. Yet, by his 
military skill and valour, he beat them back to their castle, 
and was no farther interrupted by them in his passage 
through the narrow way : but before he could well form 
his men on an adjoining plain, he was again attacked by 
a fresh body of the enemy. At the first encounter, his 
horse was killed under him by a pike, and falling upon 
him, he could not presently rise, but lay between the two 
armies, receiving a hurt in his leg, and several thrusts 
with pikes through his clothes, till the enemy was forced 
to give way ; and though his forces consisted only of the 
two English troops under his command, and did not ex* 
eeed four hundred men, yet by his valour and conduct 
the enemy was defeated, and lost about eight hundred 
men. He afterwards threw in provisions into Bergh, and 
exchanged the garrison, though count Mansfeldt was near 
with thirteen or fourteen thousand foot, and twelve hun- 
dred horse. 

In 1590, he bravely relieved the castle of Lickenhooven, 
in the fort of Recklinchusen, with the diopese of Cologn, 
in which the States had a garrison that was besieged ; and 
he also recovered the town of Burick in Cleves, and a lit- 
tle fort on that side of the Rhine, which had been sur* 
prized by the enemy. In 1591, he took by stratagem a 
Jott near Zutphen, in order to facilitate the siege of that 
town. The manner in which he made himself master of 
this place is thus related by himself in his ^* Con()men- 
taries :" " I chose," he says, " a good number of lust^ 
and hardy young soldiers, the most of which I apparelled 
like the country-women of those parts, the rest like the 
men : gave to some baskets, to others packs, and such 
burthens as the people usually, carry to the market, with 

296 VERB. 

petals, and short 8w6rd6, and dagg^rl under tb^ir gar* 
n^^nts, willing thtttij by tviro or ibttb ih a ebdipiinjr, by 
break of day^ to be at the ferry of ZutpbM, irhlefa is jaKt 
against the fort, as if they stayed fof the pas^ge-boat tf 
the town ; and bade thein there tb sit and rest themselv^ 
lA the mean time, as near the gate of the fort as they coakl 
for avoiding suspicion, and to seize upon the sailie as Soon 
as it was opened, which took so good effect, that they fioft- 
sessed the entry of the fort, and held the same tilt an o&ttr 
vffiih two hundred soldiers (who was laid in a covert not faf 
off) came to their succour, and so b^ctiaie fully roaster of 
the place. By which tneans the siege of the town after- 
Wards proved the shorter." 

Sir Francis also assisted' count Maurice at the siegfs of 
Deventer, being the chief instrument in the taking that 
place ; and it was also through his conduct and valout, 
that the duke of Parma received a signal defeat before 
Knodsenbnrgh fort, near Nimeguen : which obliged that 
pritice to retire from thence, with more dishonour than in 
^ny action that he had undertaken in those wars. In 1596 
he was recalled from the Low Countries, and employed in 
the expedition against Cadiz, with t|)& title of Lord Mar- 
shal : and in this enterprise he displayed bis usud bou- 
ragb ahd military skill. He returned again to Holland 
the following year, and had a principal share in thie 
action near Turnhout, Where near three thousand of the' 
^emy were killed and taken. Some time after he was 
appointed governor of the Brill, one of the cautionary 
towns in the Low Countries, and was permitted at the 
same time to retain the command of the English troops 
in the service of the States. In 1599, when a new Spanish 
invasion was apprehended, the queen constituted him Lord 
Marshal : and being sent over in all possible haste, he 
embarked on the 22d of August at the Brill, and arrived 
in London the next day, where he remained until all ap» 
prehensions of an invasion were over. He then returned 
back .to the Hague, and had there an audience of the 

In the beginning of 16dO, he had mdch dispute with 
the States about some accounts, and particularly their 
having lessened, in his absence, the companies he com«- 
xnanded for them, from an hundred land fifty to an hun- 
dred and thirteen meti. tie still however corrtintii»l in his 
eontfmand, and about this iVati^ th^ Ibrc^ oFthe Sc%ttes laid 

V E R E. 297 

siege to Ijteaport; but Albert, arciiduke of Austfia, who 
cominanded the Spanish forces, having recovered many 
forts which had been surprized by the troops in the Dutch 
service, and cut off eight hundred Scots who were posted 
as a rear-guard to intercept his passage, came to the re- 
lief of Nieuport, and a battle became unavoidable. The 
army of the States was commanded by prince Maurice, and 
the chief officers under him were sir Francis Yere, who was 
lieutenant-general of the foot, and colonel Lodovick of 
Nassau^ general of the horse. Vere, who commanded 
in the fVont, having occasion to repass a ford, before he 
could come to a couvenient place of action, ordered his 
meti not to strip themselves ; for which be assigned this 
reason, ^^ that they would in a few hours either have better 
clothes, or stand in need of none." A council of war 
beitig then held, prince Maurice was entirely directed by 
Vere^ who was, of opinion, that the army of the States 
ought to wait for 'the enemy. The dispositions for the 
battle were then made by Vere with admirable judgment : 
and the English, who were not above one thousand five 
hundred, were posted upon the eminences of the downs, 
and supported .by a body of Frielland musqueteers. The 
archduke was all this tiiAe advancing : but his horse, the 
foot being left behind, were beat back by Vere« The foot, 
however, coming up, a bloody conflict ensued, in which 
Vere was wounded, receiving one shot through his leg, and 
another through his thigh, whilst his horse was kilit- d under 
bim, and himself almost taken prisoner: but prince Mau« 
ricte advancing with the main body, the l>attle became 
general ; and the Spaniards, by the courage and good con- 
duct of Vere, received a total defeat. 

The last and most signal military exploit performed by 
sir Francis Vere, was his gallant defence ^f Ostend, which 
was besieged by the archduke Albert and a very numerous 
alrmy. Vere had been appointed general of all the army 
of the States in and about Ostend ; and accordingly he 
entered thai city on the 11th of July, 16()1, in order to 
undertake the defence of it, with eight compai)ies of Eng- 
lish, and found in the place thirty companies of Nether- 
landers, making about sixteen or seventeen hundred men. 
Witk chis handful, for no less than four thousand were ne- 
CttiEWary lor a proper defence, be resolutely defended the 
place for a long time against the Spanish army, which was 
C4>inp«ied at tweivtt tbc^imd. men. During the course of 

29S V iE R E. 


the sieg^^be received a reinforcemetit of twelve companies 
of English, and cut out a new harbour at Ostend, which 
proved of great service to him. On Aug. 14, he was 
wounded in the head by the bursting of a cannon, which 
obliged him to remove into Zealand till Sept. 19, when he 
returned to Ostend, and found that in his absence some 
English troops had arrived there to reinforce the garrison. 
On Dec. 4, in the night, the Spaniards fiercely assaulted the 
English trenches, so that sir Francis Vere was called up with- 
out having time to put on his clothes; but by his conduct and 
valour the enemy were repnlsed, and lost about 500 men. 
In the mean time the place began to be much distressed ; 
and' sir Francis, having advice that the besiegers intended 
a general assault, in order to put them off, and gain time, 
he aitfully contrived to enter into treaty with them for the 
surreiider of the place ; but receiving part of the supplies 
which he had long expected from the States, with an as* 
surance of more at hand, he broke off the treaty* The 
archduke, equally surprized and enraged at this conduct, 
wbrch indeed is scarcely to be vindicated, took a resolu- 
tion to revenge himself of those within the town, saying he 
would put them all to th€ sword ; and his officers and sol- 
diers likewise took an oath, that, if they entered, they 
would spare neither man, woman, nor child. They made 
a general assault on Jan. 7, 1602; but sir Francis, with 
only twelve hundred men, kept off the enemy's army of 
10,000, which threw that day above 2,200 shot on the 
town; and had before discharged on it no less than 163,200 
cannon shot, leaving scarcely a whole house standing. Our 
heroic general having acquired immortal honour in the de- 
fence of Osiend for eight mouths together, resigned his 
government March 7, J 602, to Frederic Dorp, who had 
been appointed by the States to succeed him ; and he and 
bis^4>rother, sir Horatio Vere, returned into Holland. 

Soon after his discharge from the government of Ostend, 
sir Francis, at the request of the States, came into Eng- 
land to desire fresh succours, which went over in May, 
and were to be under his command., He accordingly re- 
turned again to Holland; and upon receiving the news of 
queen Elizabeth's death, he proclaimed king James I. at the 
Brill, in April 1603. A few months after he came to Eng- 
land, and his government of the Brill expiring, or he being 
superseded at Elizabeth's death, it was renewed to him by 
king James. But Moder this pacific sovereign/a peace was 

V E R E. 2^0 

concluded with Spain in 1604. Sir Francis survived this 
about four years, and died at home, Aug. 28, 1608, in 
the fifty-fourth year of his age. He was interred in St. 
John's chapel, Westminster-abbey, where a nionument 
was erected to his memory by his lady. Besides tiis other 
preferments, be was governor of Portsmouth. He had three 
$ont and two daughters, who all died before iniu. He 
married Elizabeth, second daughter of John Dent, a ci* 
tizen of London, and she re-married with Patrick Murray> 
a son of John earl of Tuliibardine, in Scotland. 

Sir Francis Vere was a general of the greatest bravery, 
and of equal military talents. Queen Elizabeth had an 
liigh opinion of him, and always treated him with the 
greatest respect, often saying that she '^ held him to be 
the worthiest captain of her time.^' He was a man of let- 
ters, as well as an accomplished general, and wrote an ac- 
count of his principal military transactions, which were 
published from the author's original, .compared with two 
other transcripts, in 1657, by William Dillinj^ham, D D. 
under the title of " The Commentaries of sir Francis Vere, 
.being divers pieces of service, wherein he had command, 
written by himself, in way of commentary," Cambridge, 
foL with portraits of sir Francis, and sir Horace Vere, sir 
John Ogle, and maps and plans, &c. and additions by sir 
John Ogle, Henry Hexham, Isaac Dorislaus, and the 

VERE (Sir Horace), baron of Tilbury, and younger 
brother to the preceding sir Francis Vere, was born at Kir- 
by-hall, in Essex, in 1565. Entering early into a military 
life, .he accompanied, in the twentieth year o^ his age, 
his brother, sir Francis, into the Low Countries, iiere he 
acquired great reputation by his valour and conduct. In 
1600 he had a considerable share in the victory obtained 
by the English and Dutch near Nieuport. He afterwards, 
as well as his brother, signalized himself in tfie defence of 
Ostend. He commanded the forces sent by king James I. 
to the assistance of the. elector Palatine. He was a man of 
a steady ahd sedate courage, and possessed that presence 
of mind in the greatest dangers and emergencies, which 
is the highest qualification of a general. It was owing to 
this quality that he made that glorious retreat from Spinola, 

. » Biog. Brit.— Lloyd's and Puller's Worthies.— Peck's Cromwell Collections, 
p. 32.— -Lodge's llkstrations, vol. IIL 

300 V E R ^. 

the SpafDish general, which was the greatest action of ht$ 
life ; and bis taking of Sluys was attended with difficulties 
which were thought insuperable. 

Upon the accession of king Charles I. sir Horace Vere, 
as a reward for his services, was advanced to the peerage, 
by the title of lord Vere, baron of Tilbury ; being the first 
pfeer created by that monarch. He died the 2d of May, 
1635, and was buried in Westminster-'abbey. He married 
a lady who was then the widow of Mr. John Hoby : she 
was the youngest daughter of sir John Tracy of Dodding- 
ton, or Tuddington, in Gloucestershire. She died in 1671, 
at a great age. The parliament placed the younger chil- 
dren of Charles L under the care of this lady, who was* a 
person of great piety and worth, and in her punnkig epi** 
taph, written by Dr. Simon Ford, is thus addressed, 

'' Nobilitas tibi vera f uit ; prudeniia vera ; 
Vera tibi pietas^ &c." 

Clark has a long account of her in his lives published in 
1684, fol. and so highly was sir Horace esteemed, that at 
his death a volume was published, dedicated to her, con- 
taining " Elegies celebrating the happy memory of sir 
Horatio Vere," &c. Lond. 1642, 8vo. * 

VERE (Edward), seventeenth earl of Oxford, was the 
only son of John the sixteenth earl, who died in 1563, by 
his second wife, Margaret, daughter of John Goldijig, es<|. 
He is supposed to have been born about 1540 or 1541, 
and in his youth travelled in Italy, whence it is said he 
was the first who imported embroidered gloves and per- 
fumes into England, and presenting queen Elizabeth with 
a pair of the fornler, she was so pleased with tb«m, as to 
be drawn with them in one of her portraits. This gives us 
hot an indifferent opinion of his judgment, yet he had ac- 
complishments suited to the times, and made a figure in 
the courtly tournaments so much encouraged in queen Eli- 
zabeth's reign. He once had a rencounter with sir Philip 
Sidney (see Sidney, vol. XXVII. p. 507), which did not 
redound much to his honour. In 1585, Wal pole says he 
was at the head of the nobility that embarked with the earl 
of Leicester for the relief of the States of Holland ; but 
Camden, who gives a list of the principal personages con- 
cerned in that expedition, makes no mention of him« In 
1586 he sat as lord great chamberlain of England on the 

' Biof . Brit.— Bib1io|;rapher, vol. 11.— Lodfpe's lUustntions* 

' Y E R E. V 301 

trial cf MzYj qii«M of 'Sooti. Iti 1588 he hired and Btted 
<mt ships «t bis own charge against the Spanish Arrnada. 
' In 15$B he sat on the trial of Philip Howard^ earl of Arun- 
del ; and in 1^01, on the trials of the earls of Essex and 
Southampton. Oiit of the most remarkable events of his 
life was his eruel usage of his first wife, Anne, daughter 
of the oelebrated William Cecil, lord Burleigh, in revenge 
for the part acled by that statesman against Thomas duke 
of Norfolk^ for whom he had a warm friendship. Camden 
says, that faa^ng^ vainly interceded with bis father»in-law 
for ^be duke's life, he grew so incensed that he vowed re- 
venge against the dfiughter, and *^ not only forsook her 
bed, but sold and consumed that great inheritance tie* 
tended to him from his ancestors ;*' but in answer to this, 
Collins says, that the estate descended to his son. It was 
probably, however, muoh impaired, as Arthur Wilson agrees 
with Camden, and something of the same kind may be in<> 
ferred from a letter in Winwood's Menforials, III. 422. 
The earl was buried, at Hackney, July 6, 1604. 

His character appears to have been marked with baugh<* 
lineSs, vanity, and affectation.. He aped Italian dresses, 
and was called. ;^^ the mirror of Tuscanismo.'* His rank, 
however, and his illustrious family commanded the respect 
of a large portion of the literary world, and among his . 
eulogists were. the contemporary writers, Watson, Lily, 
Golcting, Monday, Greene, Lock, and Spenser. Scattered 
pieces of his poetry, are found in the collections of the 
times, and particularly in the *^ Paradise of dayntie de- 
vitesy" latoly reprinted in the- Bibliographer. In these 
there appMr the sane traits as are said to have been ex- 
hibited iahts character. . They are generally affected, full of 
conceit and antkbeais, and obscure. He is said also to 
have written comedies, and to have been reckoned the best 
writerof comedy in his tkne, but the very names of these 
playa are'lest. His Udy, Anfte, 4ias lately been introduced 
to pabHt <»bservalion, as a poetess, by Mr. George ^tee- 
vens^ the -editor of &hak«peare. Her poetical attempts 
^re to belmind to a collettion of odes and sonnets, entitled 
<^ Diaoa,** published by one John Southern or Sootherii. 
Some account of these, which seem to be below medio- 
ority, is given by Mr. Park as a supplementary article to 
WflJpole*a *^ Royal andNobte Authors/' > 

1 Bios. Brit/-^BU»liiQS^S|i]|er, vaU IIL— Park's. Eoyal jiad Nobk AuUmk. 

302 VERGER. 

MERGER DB Haurane (John du)^ ftbbot of St. Cyran; 
famous in the seventeenth century as a controversial writer^ 
\va« born in 1581, atBayonne, of a good faaiily. : He pur^ 
sued his studies at Louvain,. and formed a strict friendship 
with the celebrated Jansenius, his fellow student. In 1610 
be was made abbot of St. Cyrany on the -resignation of 
Henry Lewis. Cbateignier de la Roche-Posai, bishop of 
Poitiers* The new abbot read the fathers and the councils 
with JanseniuS) and took great pains to impress him witb 
bis sentiments and opinions, as well as a number of divtnea 
with whom he corresponded ; nor did he leave any means 
untried to inspire M. le Mattre, M. Arnauld, M. d*Andilly^ 
aud several more disciples whom he had gained^ with the 
same opinions. This conduct making much noise, cardinal 
Richelieu, who was besides pi<)ued tliat the abbot of 8ti 
Cyran refused to declare himself for the nullity of the mar- 
riage between Gaston, duke of Orleans, the brother of 
Louis the thirteenth, and Margaret of Lorraine, confined 
him at Vincennes, May 11, 1638. After this minister's 
death, the abbot^ regained bis liberty, .but did not enjoy it 
}ong, for he died at Paris, October 18, 1643, aged sixty- 
two, and was buried at St Jacques du Haut*Pas, where 
bis epitaph may be seen oh one side of the high altar. His 
works are, 1. <^ Lettres Spirituelles," 2 vols. 4to, or 8vo,» 
reprinted at Lyons, 167^, 3 vols. i2mo, to whicha fourth 
has been added, containing several small tracts written by 
M% de St. Cyran, and printed separately. ^. *' Questioa 
Royale," iu which he examines in what extremity a subject 
might be obliged to save the life of his prince at the ex- 
pence of his own, 1609, 12mo. This last was much talked 
of, and his enemies drew inferences and consequences 
from it, which neither he nor his. disciples by any m%aD9 
approved. 3. ^^ L*Aum6ne Cbr^tienne, ou Tradition de 
TEgUse touchant la cbarit^ envers les Pauvres,*': 2 vols., 
12mo. The second part of this work is entitled ^^ L*Au- 
m6ne ecclesiastique.^' M. Anthony le Maitre had a greater 
share in the last-mentioned book than the abbot of St. 
Cyran. He j)ublished some other works of a similar cast, 
but his last appears to deserve most notice. It is entitled 
^' Petrus Aurelius,'* and is a defence of the. ecclesiastical 
hierarchy agaiost the Jesuits. He was assisted in this book 
by his nephew, the abb£ de Barcos, and it seems to have 
done him the most honour of all bis works, though it must 
be acknowledged, says the abb6 L'Avocat, that if all the 

V E R G E R. 80S 


mbuse of the Jesuits, and tbe invectives against their' order, 
were taken from this great volume, very little would re- 
main. L*Avocat is also of opinion that M. Hallier^s small 
trace on tbe saipe subject, occasioned by tbe censure of the 
clergy in 1635, is more solid, much deeper, and contains 
-better arguments, than any that are to be found in the 
great volume of " Petrus Aurelius." The first edition of 
this book is the collection of different parts, printed be- 
tween 1632 and 1635, for which the printer Morel was 
paid by the clergy, though it was done without their order. 
The assembly held in 1641 caused an edition to be p<ib- 
lished in 1642, which the Jesuits seized ; but it was never- 
theless dispersed on the remonstrances of the clergy. Thi<s 
edition contains two pieces, '* Confutatio collectioiiis loco- 
rum quos Jesuit» compilarunt, &c/' that are not in the 
third edition, which was also published at the clergy's ex- 
pence in 1646. But to this third edition is prefixed the 
eulogy, written by M. Godeau on the author, by order of 
the clergy, and the verbal process which orders it ; whence 
it appears that their sentiments respecting him, differed 
widely from those of the Jesuits and their adherents* The 
abbot de St. Cyran was a man of much simplicity in his 
manners and practice : he told his beads ; he exorcised 
heretical books before he read them : this simplicity, how- 
ever, concealed a great fund of learning, and great talents 
for persuasioui without which he could never have gained 
.so many illustrious and distinguished disciples, as Mess. 
Ariiattld, le Maitre de Sacy, Arnauld d'Andilly, and tbe 
other literati of Port Royal, who all had the highest vene« 
ration for him, and placed tbe most unbounded confidence 
in him.' * But whatever talents he might have for speaking, . 
•persuading, and directing, he certainly had none for writ- 
ing ; nor are his books answerable to his high reputation.' 

VERGERIUS (Peter Paul), one of the most learned 
men of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, wsl% born in 
1349 at Justinopolis, now Capo d'lstri^, a town situated at 
the extremity of the Adriatic gulph, not far from Trieste. 
Of his preceptors we only know that he learned Greek of 
Chry«>lora8 at Venice, and canon law of Francis de Za- 
barella at Florelice. He is said to have composed the tn^ 
acription on the monument of Chrysoloras in the Dominican 
monastery at Constance, where that eminent scholar died 

* Moreri.— Diet. Hist. » 


in 1415. After visiting SQTeral cities in lialy, where be 
displayed his knowledge of philosophy, civil law, mathe« 
matics, Greek, &c* be assisted at the council of Constance, 
and went thence to Hungary, to which it was thought he 
was invited by the emperor Sigismond. The prince of 
Carrara, then in possession of Padua, chose him for pre- 
ceptor to his children. He is supposed to have died about 
1431 ; Saxius says 1428. In his last days bis faculties ex- 
perienced a total decay, nor did he appear to have any en- 
joyment of bis reason but at short intervals. 

He wrote a history of the princes of Carrara, which is in- 
serted in Muratori^s collection, vol. XVL published at 
Milan 1730, who did not know that it had appeared eight 
years before in the <* Thesaur. Antiqc Ital.^' vol. VI. part 
III. published at Leyden. He wrote also a life of Petraixsh, 
which may be seen in Tomasij»i*s ** Petrarcha Redivivus ;^ 
sin elogium on St. Jerom ; a treatise de ** Republiea Vene- 
ta,'^ published at Rome in 1^26 ; and testified his zeal for 
the honour of classical learning, by publishing an invective 
against Malatesta, who, by a misguided zeal, bad removed 
from the market-place of Mantua a statue of Virgil. On^ 
of bis most celebrated treatises was that ^^ De ingenuis mo- 
ribus,'* composed for the use of the prince of Carrara^s 
children. This, which was so popular as to become a 
school-book, and as such Paul Jovius mentions its being 
put into bis liands when a youth, was first published, with 
other treatises of the same kind, at Milan in 1474, 4tQ, 
and reprinted in 1477!" Bru net, however^ meotioos an 
edition prior to either of these, which he supposes printed 
about 1472, with the title ^'Ad Ubertinum Carariensem 
de ingenuis moribus opus e Magno Basileo, et.eXeno- 
pbpnti de tirannide Leonardi Aretini traductio." Brunet 
also mentions, that the editions of 1474 and 1477 are to be 
found separate from the other treatises ; but it was certainly 
afterwards printed with them, at Venice : for, example in 
1502, with Bonardus and others on the subject of educa- 
tion*; and at Basil in 1541, with Vitruvius Roscius *' de 
docendi studendique modo,'' i&c^ Vergerius translated 
into Latin Arrian's history of the expedition of Alexander 
the Great, and it is said purposely avoided any particular 
elegance of style, lest his royal reader should stand in.need 
of the assistance of an interpreter. If this be true it can* 
not be a matter of much regret that such a translation was 
not printed. Vei^erius is likewise said to have written 


V E R G E R I U S* 305 

poetry, and even a Latin comedy, wbicb is preserred in ma- 
nuscript in the Ambrosian library. It vras ibe production 
of his youth; and is entitled '^ Paulus.^' Sassi, in his ty« 
pographical history of Milan, has printed the prologue. * 

VERGERIUS (Peter Paul), usually called the Younger, 
to distinguish him from the preceding, was born at Justi* 
Aopolis, and of the same family. Where he was educated 
we are not told, but he soon became celebrated for his ac- 
quirements in canon-law and scholastic divinity ; and these 
recommended him to the attention of the pope, Clement 
TIL who employed him as his nuncio at the memorabte 
diet of Augsburgb in 1530, and entrusted him with a very 
aodple commission. He was instructed to use every endea^^ 
vour to prevent the holding of a national council in Ger* 
many, and to induce king Ferdinand, the emperof s bro-« 
ther, to oppose any proposition of that kind. Vergeriusr 
executed this commission with great 2eal, and gave every 
opposition to the Lutherans, by shewing his partiality to 
Eckias, Faber, Cochlseus, and other enemies to the re<^ 
formation ; he also made Eckius a canon of Rattsbonne, si^ 
piece of preferment which, as the pope's legate,' he. could 
confer. Vergerius executed this commission with such 
ability, that he was thought the most proper person to suc^^ 
ceed the superannuated bishop of Rhegio, as the pope's am«' 
bassadbr to Germany. He accordingly was sent, with in* 
structrons, openly' to represent bis holtness^s ardent desire 
to convene a general council, but secretly to take every 
^tep to prevent that measure. Oti the death of Clement 
YII. and the accession of Paul IH. the latter recalled Ver- 
gerius from Germany, in order to be exactly informed 
of the state of religion in that country ; and, says Sleidan, 
he also consulted with the cardinals, as to the prevention 
of a national council, until they shottld, by private and 
unsuspected contrivances, be able to embroil the emperor 
and other princes in a war. As a part of this plan, Paul 
III. resolved at length to send Vergerius back to Germany 
to prefer a general council, and in the mean lime to learn 
what form the Protestants would insist upon as to the qua- 
lifications, votings, and disputations, of such a council;, 
and his object in this was, to be able to impose such rules 
and terms as he was sure they would never accept ; by 

1 Tirabotcbi.-*Gia|ueo6 Hilt. Litt. dUUlie.— Sb«ph«fd*8 Pofy io, p. €0*-^ 
•ftaxii Onomast. 

Vol. XXX. ' X 


V E R G If R I,% a 

Tt^Ucb contrivance the od'mm of not /holding a g^ntral 
90undil would fall upon them. Vergeriu^ was also instructed 
to exasperate the princes of the enipire against the king of 
England, Henry VIII. whose dominion^ the pope had in 
contemplation to bestow upon tjio^e who would conquer 
tbem : and he had also a secret article of instruction to 
tamper with Luther and-Melanpthon, in order to, bring tbem 
over to the cause of Rome. 

, Early in the Spring of 1535, Vergerius setout.on this 
embassy, in which heyvas exceedingly indiistrious, and ne- 
gociated with almost atl the princes of Germany^ At 
Prague he met with John the pious elector of Saxony, with 
whom he dealt very artfully,, and, among other. things, sug- 
gested, that the intended council should be beldat M^ntua» 
pretending the convenience, of its situation 'as to plenty 
and facility of a<?cess, but really because the heads of the 
protestant party being assembled n* Italy would be more in 
the pope's power. ^;Tbis,. however, was easily seen through,, 
^nd objected to. He also went to ,Wittemberg, and bad a 
conference with Lutbev^ which has been variously repre- 
sented. ; It appears, howeyer, both from father Paul and 
Pallavicinp, that he treated Luther with urbanity, but 
tnad^ na impression on the steady mind of that illustnou& 

reformer. ^ ~ ■,. \ "'.;'. : 

In 1556 Vergerius returned to |he.pope, an4 reported, 
as the issue of. his inquiries, that the protestants demanded 
a free council, in a convenient place, w^hin the territories, 
of the empire,, which the emperor had promised tbem ; 
that as to the Lutheran party, there was no remedy but 
absolute force and entire suppression : that the protestaou 
would bear nothing of hostility to the king of England^ 
atid that the rest of the princes had equal repugnance. .The 
only comfortable bint Vergerius communicated was, that 
George duke of Saxony (Luther's greatest enemy) had de- 
clared, that the pope and the emperor . ought to make 
war against the protestants as soon as possible. Catching 
at this, the pope immediately sent Vergerius to Naples,, 
where the emperor then was, in order to propose such a 
war, as the quickest method of settling the controversy; 
The emperor so far listened to this as to take a journey to 
Rome to debate the matter ; and the issue was, that a 
cbuncil was proposed to be helcl at Mantua: but to this,, 
from motives of self-preservation, the protestants eould nOt 



consent*. As a reward, however, for bis services, Vergeriua 
was made bishop of Justinopolis. 

From this time to 1541, Vergerius appeajrs to have re*? 
mained in Italy. In this last mentioned year, he was com- 
missioned to go to the diet at Worms^ where he made a 
speech on the unity and peace pf^ the churchy which he 
printed: and circulated, and in which be. principally in-' 
sisted on the arguments* against a national council. On bis 
return to Rome, the pope intended to have rewarded bis 
servioes with a cardinars hat, but changed his purpose on 
hearing it insinuated that a leaning towards Lutheranism. 
was perceptible in him, from his long residence iu^Ger- 
many. The pope, however, was not more o£Pended than 
Vergerius was surprized at this charge, which he knew to. 
be absolutely groundless ; yet this circumstance, probably 
arising from personal malice or envy, proved ultimately 
the means of Vergerius's conversion. With a view to re*, 
pel the charge of heresy, he now sat down to write a book, 
the title of wfai^h was to be, ^^ Adversus apostatas Germa- 
niae,'' against the appstates of Germany ; but as .this led him» 
to a strict investigation of theprotestant doctrines, a^ found 
in the works of their ablest writers, he found his. attachment 
to popery completely undermined, and rose up from the. 
perusal of the protestant writers with a strong conviction. ' 
that they were in the right. He then Immediaiely went to^ 
confer with his brother, John Baptist Vergerius, bishop of. 
Pola, in Istria, who was exceedingly perplexed at his 
change of sentiment, but on bis repeated entreaties, joined; 
bim in examining the disputed points, particularly the arti- 
cle of justification, and the result was, that t^th. prelates, 
soon preached to tbe people of Istria the doctrines of the, 
reformation, and even dispersed tbe New Testament among, 
them in the fulgar tongue. The Inquisition, as well as tt^e. 
monks, soon became alarmed at this, and Veirgerius wasv 
obliged to seek refuge in Mantua, under the protection of. 
eardinal Hercules Gonzaga, who had been bis intio^t.e. 
friend ; hut Gonzaga was after a short time obliged by re- . 
monstrances from Rome to withdimw bis protection, and he, 
finally went to Padua, and thence to the Grisons, where 
lie preached the gospel for several years, until invited by 
the duke of Wirtemberg to Tubingen, and there be passed, 
the remainder of his days. In the mean time his brother, 
the bishop of Pola, died, and, as suspected, by poison, ad- 
ministered by some of those implacable enemies who were 

X 2 

308 V E R G^ B 1 U a 

also thirsting for Vergerius^s blood. But he was now out; 
of their reach, and died quietly at Tubingen, Oct. 4, 1566. 
Vergerius, after his conversion, wrote a great mdny trea- 
tises, most of them small^ against popery and popish wri- 
ters^ the titles of which are to be found in our authorities^ 
but they are all of rfetre occurrence, owing to their having 
been suppressed or strictly prohibited by his enemies. 
Some are in Italian, and some in Latin. A collection of 
them was begun to be printed at Tubingen in 1563, but- 
one volume only was publishedy under the title of "Pri- 
mus tomus operum Vergerii adversus Papatum," 4to. A 
vaiuable defence of Vergeriiis was published by Schel- 
horn, in 1760, ** Apologia pro P. P.. Vergerio adversus 
loh. Casam. Accedunt Monumenta inedita, et quatuor 
epistolae memorabiles,'' 4to. ' 

VERGIL (Polydore), a writer who did not want either 
genius or learning, was born at Urbino, in Italy, in the fif^ 
teenth .century ; but the year is not named, nor have we 
any account of his early history. Jle was first known in 
the literary world by "A Collection of Proverbs,'* 1498, 
and this being the first work of *tbe kind^ it occasioned ^ome 
jealousy between him and Erasmus. Whenf Erasmus after- 
wards published his ** Adagia,** and did riot take notijce of 
his work, Vergil reproached hitri in terms hot civil, in the 
prefetce to his book " De Rerom Inventoribus.^* Their 
friendship, however, does not seem to have been inter- 
rupted by it ; and Vergil, at the instigation of Erasmus, 
left the passage out in the later editions. These "Adagia'* 
of Polydore Vergil were jjrihted * three or four times in a 
very short space ; and this success encouraged him to un- 
dertake a more difficult work', his book **De Rerum In- 
ventoribus,'* printed in 14^9. At the end of th6 4th edi- 
tion at Basil, 1536, 12mo, is subjoined ^ short commentary 
of his upon the Lord's prayer. After this, he was sent 
into England by pope Alexander VI. to collect the papal 
tribute, called Peter* pence, and was the last collector of 
that oppressive tax. He recommended himself in this 
country so efiectually to the powers in being, and was so 
well pleased with it, that, having obtained the rectory of 
Church Langton in Leicestershire, he resolved to spend the 
remainder of his life in England. In 1507 he wasprer 
sented to the archdeaconry of Wells, and prebend of 

^ Melchior Adam*— G«d* Diet— Nortri.-«S«iii OiiiMiia»t. 


VERGIL. 809 

Nonoington^ in the church of Hereford ; apd was the same 
year collated to the prebend of Scamelsby in the cbarcb 
of Lincoln, which he resigned in 1513 for the prebend of 
Oxgate in that of St. Paqi's, In 1 517 be published at Lon«^ 
don a new edition of his work ** De Rerum Inventoribus,'* 
then consisting of six hooka, with a prefatory address to bis 
brother John Matthew Vergil. About 1521 be undertook 
a considerable work ikt the command of Henry VIIL ; 
upon which he spent above twelve years. It was a ^* His* 
tory of England," which he published and dedicated in 
1533 to hi« royal patron. The purity of his language is 
generally allowed, excelled most of the writers of 
this age for elegance and clearness of style, but bis work 
is chargeable with gi^oat paftiality, and even falsehood, and 
this charge has been advanced by sir Henry Savile and 
Humphrey Lloyd, who reproaches him in very severe terms. 
iCaius, in his book *^ De Antiquitatibus CantabrigisB," men- 
Uons it as a thing <^ not only reported, but even certainly 
known, that Polydore Vergil, to prevent the discovery of 
the faults in his history, most wickedly committed as many 
of. our ancient and manuscript histories to the flames as a 
waggon could hold." For this, however, we have no di- 
rect authority. His greatest fault is, that he gives a very 
unfair account of the reformation, and of the conduct of 
the protestants. Yet his work has been printed several 
times, and very much read ; and is necessary to supply a 
chasm of almost seventy years in our history, including 
particularly the lives of Edward IV. and Edward V^ which 
period is hardly to be found in Latin in any other author. 

In 1526, he published a treatise '< Of Psodigies :" con- 
sisting of dialogues, and attacks' upon divination. He did 
not desire to leave England till 1550, and he would not 
.have desired it then, if old age had not required a warmer 
.and more southern climate^ Bishop Buruet tells' us, that 
*^ having been now aloiost forty years here, growing old, 
he desired leave to go. nearer the sun. It was granted him 
OR the 2d of June : and, in consideration of the public ser- 
vice-be was thought to have done the nation by his His- 
tory> he was permitted to hold his archdeaconry of Wells, 
and his prebend of Nonnington, notwithstanding his ab- 
sence from the kingdom.'' It is said that he died at Ur- 
bino in 1555. Although a zealous papist in some points, 
he approved the marriage of the clergy, and condcfmned 


the worship of images ; nor was he at all disgusted witb 
the aherations that were made in the affairs of England 
under Henry VIII. and Edward VL and it has been ob- 
served that there are several things occasionally dropped 
in his writings, which did not please the adherents of 
his own church. His name of late has been written " Vir- 
gil;" but, before the Bksil edition in 1536 of his book 
" De Kerum Inventoribns/' it is printed <* Vergilius."*» 

VERGNE (Louis Elizabeth de la), count de Tressan, 
a lively French writer, was born arMons, Nov. 4, 1705, of 
a noble family originally from Languedoc, one branch of 
which had been protestants, and fought on that side in the 
civil wars preceding the massacre. He came early in life 
to Paris, and attached himself to Voltaire and Fontenelle, 
who initiated him in the belles lettres, and in those princi- 
ples which afterwards made him be ranked among the phi- 
losophers of France. He served afterwards in the French 
army, and attained the rank of lieutenant-general. In 
1750 he was admitted a free associate of the French acade- 
my, and contributed a memoir on Electricity, a subject then 
not much known, ^nd written with so much ability that it 
was^ supposed he might have acquired no small fame in 
pursuing scientific subjects. This, however, was not agree- 
able to his disposition. After the battle of Fontenoy, in 
1741, in which he served as aide-de-camp to Louis XV. 
he went to the court of Stanislaus, king of Poland, at 
Luneville, where he recommended himself by the sprightii- 
•ness of his temper, and by the freedom of his remarks, 
but at the same time made some enemies by bis satirical 
a:nd epigrammatic productions. On the death of Stanislaus, 
he retired from active life, and- devoted his time to the 
eom|)Osition of a variety of works, particularly romances. 
Some of which were however translations, and others 
abridgments. These fill 12 octavo volumes published in 
1791. His translation of Ariosto seems to have done him 
most credit. A light, trifling spirit never deserted him, 
but still sported even in his grey-hairs, until death put a 
serious end to it, Oct. 31, 1782, in bis seveaty-sev^nth 
year. Almost up to this period he was abridging Amadts 
de .Gaul, and writing tales of chivalry, after having begun 
his career with the grave and abstruse parts of science. 

1 Tiraboschi. — Gen. Diet,— Nichols's Leicestershire. — Nicolson'i Hist. I«i- 
brary;— Ath, Ox. vol. L 

V E? R H E Y E N. 311 

While in this latter employment he was, in 1749j chosen 
a member of our Royal Soei^ty. * 

VERHEYEN (Philip), a physician and anatomist, was 
born in 1643 at Yesbroucky in the county of Waes. He 
was descended of a family who had many years subsisted, 
from the profits arising from the cultivation of the earth ; 
and he had himself worked with the spade to the age of 
twenty •two years ; when the curate of his village, taking 
notice of him, gave him the first rudiments of learning. 
He afterwards obtained a place in the college of the Trinity 
at Louvftin, where he was made professor of anatomy in 
1689, and afterwards doctor in medicine. He died there 
in Feb< 17(0, aged 62. The following epitaph was found 
after his decease, writtea with his own hand : ^' Philippus 
Verheyen Medicince Doctor & Professor, partem sui ma- 
terialem hie in Csemeterio condi voluit, ne Templum de- 
honestaret, aut nocivis halitibus inficeret. Requiescat in 

His << Corporis Hiimani Anatomia," published iu 1693, 
met with a good reception from the public, as containing, 
besides the opinions of the ancients, the modern discove- 
ries, described more at large and more accurately than in 
the bodies of anatomy that were published before. There 
are also many observations, the result of his own experi- 
ments. * 

VERNET (Joseph), a celebrated French marine painter, 
waa born at Avignon in 1712, and received the early part 
of bis education at Rome. While there he contracted an 
acquaintance with Mr. Drake, of Sharlowes, in Bucking- 
hamshire, then on his travels. Mr. Drake employed him 
to paint six pictures, and left the subjects to his own 
choice. They are very capital performances, in the pain- 
ter's best manner, and are now in the drawing-room at 

Having stayed a competent time, eagerly employed in 
the contemplation of the finest models ot antiquity, he re- 
turned to France, and his first designs were views of some 
of the principal sea-ports on the coast. These being shewn 
to bis late majesty of France, procured him the appoint- 
ment of marine painter to the king, with a competent sa- 
lary, and every assistance that he requested to go through 

* Ekkges des Acadecniciens, to]. III.— Diet Hist.-^Month. Rev. IXXVU 
N. S. XlfXV, « Niceron, vol. IV.— Eloy, Diet. Histde Med«(;ia«, 

312 V E R N B T. 

his plan of giving a view of every sea^pori in the IiifigdoiK. 
This he completed, and under royal and national patron-* 
age the views have been engraved ; and the prints wWch 
are m general most exquisitely performed, have bcw dis- 
seminated through* all Europe. . Many of these engiraviogs 
were by Balechon ; one of them, well known to oolkotora 
by the name of " The Storm," was miich admired for tb« 
fluidify of the water, and the spirit of the figures. One 
htindred.of the. prints were consigned to ad epgraver in 
London, and part of them sold ; but some persons object* 
ing to the very clumsy style in which a long, dedication, 
inscribed under the print, was written, Balechon mU he 
would soon remedy that, and with his graver drew a num- 
ber of black lines upon the copper, over the dedication, 
so as m a degree to obliterate the words, apd sent 100 im^ 
pressions to England. These our connoisseurs soon found 
to be " the second impression," and eagerfy bought up 
the first ; but a print with the lines no roan of taste would 
look at. This mortified the English printseller, who wrote 
tb the French engraver, and complained that he could not 
.^11 the second set for half price. " Morbleu !" cries the 
Frenchman, <« How whimsical are these English Virtuosi I 
They must be satisfied, however." To work be sets with 
his punch and hammer,, and, repairing the letters, sends 
out the print, with the inscription apparently in its first 
state. A few of these were sold ; but the imposition was 
soon discovered by the faintness of the impressions; and 
then those who did not possess the first impressions, were 
glad to have the plate in the second, rather than the third 
state ; so that nearly all the third set lay upon the h^ds of 
the printseller. This produced a complaint; and the com-. 
plaisant Frenchman, ever eager to satisfy his English cus- 
tomers, again punched out the liups, and brought the in- 
scription to its second state. 

This Proteus of a print very frequently appears in sales ; 
and the contests of the connoisseurs about the superiority 
of those without lines to those with, aqd wc versa, are in- 
numerable, and sometimes proceed to blows. This little 
history may perhaps induce them to consult their own eves. 
]U preference to black lines. 

After a long and active life, in a manner that did hopouy 
to himself and his country, Vernet began to fear that his 
well-eai^n^ed pension would be stopped by the troubles 
^rismg m France ; and as 8 1 years of age is rather too late 

V^RNET. 313 

\ . 

a period for a man to take a very active part in natiianal 
disputes, be ifoeditated a retreat to England, which was 
put a stop to by his death in 1789. His works will, how- 
ever, live as long as those of any artist of his day. In a 
light and airy management of his landscape, in a deep and 
tender diminution of bis perspective, in the clear transpa- 
rent hue of the sky, liquid appearance of the water, and 
the buoyant air of the vessels which he depicted on it, be 
bad few superiors. In sojall figures employed in dragging 
off a boat, rigging a ship, or carrying goods from the quay 
to a warehouse, or any other employ which required action, 
he displayed most uncommoo knowledge, and gave them 
with sucb spirit (though sometimes a little in the French 
fluttered style), as has never t>een equalled by any man 
except our most excellent Mortimer; and to be the infe* 
rior of Mortimer in that line is no dishonour. It has been 
the lot of every painter who ever lived, and will probably 
be the lot of all who ever will live. He carried that branch: 
of the art to its highest degree of perfection. As a proof 
in what estimation Vernet was held, it may be mentipned 
that two of bis pictures, now in the Luxembourg, were pur- 
chased by madame du Barry for 50,000 livres. It wa^ 
said of him, that bis genius neither knew infancy nor old 
age. * 

VERNEUIL, or VERNULIUS (John), a French re- 
fugee, was born at Bourdeaux in 1583, and educated in 
tbe university of Montauban until be took his master's de* 
gree, when he was obliged to leave his country for the sake 
of his religion, and came to England, and found a friend in 
sir Thomas Leigh. In 1608 he was admitted a member of 
Magdalen college, Oxford, and in 1635 was incorporated 
master of arts, being then second keeper of the Bodleian 
library, in which Wood says, his services were valuable. 
He died at Oxforxl in Sept. 1647, and was buried in the 
church of St. Peter in the East, '^ at which time,*\ says 
Wood, ^< our library lost an honest and Useful servant, and 
bis children a* good father.*' 

He wrote, for tbe use of bis students, 1. ^^ Catalogus In* 
terpretum S« Scripturse, juxta numerorum ordinem, qui 
extant in Bibl. Bodl." Oxon. 1635, 4to, the second edition* 
This was first begun by Dr. Thomas James. To it is added 
ait '^ Elencbus auctorum, tarn reoentium quam antiquorumji^ 

1 Diet. Hist.— Gent. Mag. vol. LIX. 

814 V E R N E U I L. 

qui in quatuor libros sententiarum et Thomas Aquiiiatis suai<* 
mas, &c. scripserunt.*' 2. ^^ Nomenclator of such tracts and 
sermons as liave been printed,, or translated into Englisk 
upon any place or book of Scripture, now to be bad in Bod- 
ley^s library/* Oxon. 1637, and enlarged in 1642, l6mo. 
He also translated from French into English, principal 
Cameron^s " Tract of the sovereign judge of controversies," 
Oxon. 1628, 4to^ and /from English into Latin, Daniel Dyke 
** On the deceitfulness of man's heart." This was printed 
at Geneva, 1634, 8vo.' 

.-VERNEY (GuiCHARD Joseph du), an eminent French 
anatbmist, was born Aug. 15, 1648, at Feurs en ForSs, 
where his father was a physician. He studied medicine for 
five years at Avignon, and soon acquired fame for skill in 
anatomy, on which subject he read lectures with great ac- 
curacy and perspicuity. In 1676 he became a member of 
the royal academy of sciences at Paris, and was appointed 
to give lessons on anatomy to the dauphin. Li 1679 he 
was appointed professor of anatomy, and attracted a great 
concourse gf pupils, especially from foreign countries. He 
died Sept. 10, 1730, aged eighty-two^ ahd had continued 
to the last his anatomical pursuits. He published in bis 
life-time only one work, "Traits de Torgane de Touie,** 
but which is said to have been enough for his fame. This 
appeared Brst in 1683, and was soon reprinted and trans- 
lated into Latin and German. From his manuscripts was 
published in 1751, <^Trait6 des maladies des os," and pub- 
lished in English in 1762; and bis '* Oeuvres anatomiques," 
in 2 vols. 4to, edited by his pupil Senac. He contributed 
a great many observations to the Memoirs of the Academy, 
and the Journal des Savans.^ 

VERNON (Edward), esq. an admiral of distinguished 
bravery, was despended from an ancient family in Statford- 
sbire, and born at Westminster on the I2tb of November, 
1684. His father, who was secretary of state to king Wil- 
liam and queen Mary, gave him a good education, but 
never intended him for the sea-service: bur, as the youth 
became desirous of entering on that employment, bis fa- 
ther at last consented, and he pursued those studies which 
had a relation to navigation and gunnery with surprising 
alacrity and success. His first expedition at sea was under 

» Ath. Ox. vol. II. 

« Biog. Univ. art. Duverney.— £loy, Diet Hist, iclc Medccine. 

VERNON, 315 

mdmii^al Hopson, when the French fleet and Spanish gal- 
leons were destroyed at Vigo. In 1702^ he senred in an 
expedition to the West Indies under commodore Walker ; 
and, in 1704, on board the fleet commanded by sir George 
Kooke, which conToyed the king of Spain tp Lisbon, when 
Mr. Vernon received a hundred guineas and a ring from 
that monarch's own hand. He was also at the famous bat- 
tle of Malaga, the same year. In January 1705, he waa 
appointed commander of the Dolphin ; and, in 1707, com- 
manded the Royal Oak; one of the ships sent to convoy the 
Lisbon fleet, which falling in with the French, tbr^e of our 
men of war were taken, and a fourth blown up. In 1708^ 
Mr. Vernon commanded the Jersey, and was sent to the 
West Indies as rear-admiral under sir Charles Wager, 
.where he took many valuable prizes, and greatly inter-> 
rupted the trade of the enemy. In 1715, he commanded 
the Assistance, a ship of fifty guns, under sir John Norris, 
in an expedition to the Baltic; and, in 1726, the Grafton 
of seventy guns, under sir Charles Wager, in the same seas. 

On the accession of his late ma.jesty George II. in 1727, ^ 
Mr. Vernon was chosen member for Penryn, in Cornwall, 
and soon after was sent,- to Gibraltar, as commander of the 
Gra&on, to join sir Charles Wager. The next expedition 
in which he was engaged was that which immortalized his 
name. This was in 1739 : he was sWping in his bed at 
Chatham when the courier arrived with the news at about 
two in the morning ; and, being informed that dispatches 
of the utmost importance were arrived from London, he 
arose. On opening the packet, he found a coounission ap- 
pointing him vice-admiral of the blue, and commander in 
chief of a squadron fitting oat. for destroying the settie- 
.tyients of the Spaniards in the West Indies, with a letter 
from bis majesty, requiring his immediate attendance on 
him. Having received his instructions, he weighed anchor 
from Spithead on the 23d of July ; and, on the 20th of No<> 
yember, arrived in sight of Porto Bello, with only six ships 
under bis command. The next day he began the attack 
of that town ; When, after . a furious engagement on both 
sides, it was taken on the 22nd, together with a considera- 
ble number of cannon, mortars, and ammunition, and also 
.two Spanish men of war. Ife then blew up the fortifiea^ 
tions, and left the place for want of land forces sufficient 
to keep it; but first distributed 10,000 dollars, which had 
been sent to Porto-Bello for paying the Spanish troops, 

316 VERNON. 

among the forces for their encoarageoietit. In 1741, be 
made an unsuccessful attempt upon Cartbagena in coii-*> 
junction with general Wentwortb. After bis return b6me> 
the rebellion in 1745 breaking out, be was employed in 
guarding the coasts of Kent and Sussex ; when be stationed 
a squadron of men of war in so happy a manner as to block 
up the French ports in the channel. But, soon after, com* 
plaints being made against him for superseding the orders 
of the lords of the admiralty, in appointing a gunner in op« 
position to one recommended by themselves, and for exact- 
ing too severe doty from bis men, be was struck off the list 
of admirals ^ on which he retired from all public business, 
except attending tbe House of Commons as member- for 
Ipswich in Suffolk. He died suddenly at his seat at Nactoa 
in Suffolk, on the 29tb of October, 1757, in the seventy^ 
third year of bis age. 

It was the misfortune of this brave man, that too much 
of temper and political ambition made his life turbulent 
and unhappy. '^ Of all men/* says tbe candid Charnock^ 
^ who have been fortunate enough to obtain celebrity as 
naval commanders, few appear to have taken greater pains 
to sully their public fame by giving full scope to all their 
private feelings ; yet probably, for this very uncommon 
reason, he rose the greater favourite of fortune, in tbe 
miuds of the people, to that pinnacle of popularity, tbe 
height of which was indeed great enough to dazzle and dis« 
tract the firmest minds ; so that to tbe infirnnity of human 
nature may, in some measure, be ascribed that extrava- 
gance of conduct which might otherwise be more con- 
demned. To say he was a brave, a gallant mau, woilldl be 
i^ needless repetition of what no person has ever presumed 
to deny him. His judgment, his abilities as a seaman, ace 
unquestioned ; and bis character, as a man of strict inte- 
grity and honour, perfectly unsullied, &c." Admiral Ver- 
non wrote some pamphlets in his own defence, or in defence 
of his peculiar opinions. ' 

VERNON (Thomas), a learned lawyer, of whom our 
accounts are very imperfect, was tbe son and heir of Richard 
Vernon, esq. of Henbory-ball, Worcestershire, and made 
a considerable 'figrore in tbe reigns of queen Anne and 
George I. representing the borough of Whitechurcb, 

1 Cbaraock's Biog. Navalis.— A Life of Admiral Veraon was pablished ia 
1758, io which he is represented as a profound classical sdmlarf 


Haoipsbire, in the parliaments called in 1710, 1713, 1714,' 
and 1722. He had been secretary to the unfortunate duke 
of MonoiDuth. He died at Tmckeaham-park, August 22, 
1726, . Hi« " Law Reports" were printed by order of' the 
court of chancery, in 2 rols. fol. 1726, 1728, under the 
title of the " Reports'* of Thomas Vernon, esq. ** of Casea 
argued' and adjusted in' the high court ofchahceryj fromf 
33 Car. 'II. to 5 Geo. I.*' Among Other emirient authorities; 
the late lord Kenyon took occasion to observe, that it had 
been aa hundred and an hundred times lamented that Ver«' 
non^s Reports were published in a very inaccurate manner; 
there were some private rescsons, said his lordship, assigned' 
for that, which he would not mention. Mr. Vemon^s notes 
were t^en for his own use, and never intended for publi-. 
eation; He was, added lord Kenyon, the ablest man iir 
his profession. There being a dispute after Mr. Vernon's 
death, whether his MSS. should go to his heir-^t-law, or 
pass under the residuary claruse in his will to his legal per- 
sonal representatives, the court of chancery made an order 
for the publication of them, under the direction of Mr. 
Melmoth and Mr. Peere Williams, btit as many of the 
cases have bleen found inaccurate, and to consist of loose 
noteft only, John Raithby, esq. has lately edited and re^ 
published them with great labour, and as he has taken 
pains to examine all the cases with the register's book, they 
cannot fail to be an acceptable offering to the profession. 
Mr. Raitbby's elaborate edition appeared in 1806 and 18^7,* 
2 vols. Svo. * 


VERSCHURING (Henry), a Dutch painter, was the 
son of a captain, and bom at Gorcum in 1727. Having 
discovered an early turn for designing, his father placed 
him at eight years of age with a portrait-painter at Gor- 
eum, bat at the age of thirteen be left this master to learn 
the greater principles of his art at Utrecht. After he ha4 
continued about six years with Both, a painter of good re- 
putation there, he went to Rome, where he frequented the 
academies^ and employed himself in designing after th« 
best models. His genius leading him to paint animals, 
hunting, and buttles, he studied evety thing that might be 
useful to him in those ways« He also designed landscapes, 

1 NobU's Cootioufttiott of Gf«nger.— Bridgnaa's Leg«l Bibliography. 

3.18 V E R S C H U R I N G. 

and the faoious 'buildings, not only in the neighbourhood^ 
of Rome, but all over Italy ; which employment gave him- 
a relish for architecture. After residing ten years in Italy, 
he resolved to return to his own country. He pas9€ct 
through Swttz^riapd into France; and, while he was at 
Paris, met with a young gentleman who was goinf:to make 
the tour of Italy, and was prevailed on to accompany bim, 
after spending three years more, in Italy, he came back to^ 
Holland, arriving at Gorcum in 1662. His taste forbattle-. 
pieces induced him to make a campaign in 1672, in the 
course of whiph he designed ail the circumstauces add ac- 
companiments of war. His genius was fruitful ; there was a: 
great deal of fire in his imagination and in bis* works ) and, 
as he bad studied much after nature, he fqrmed ^ parti- 
cular taste which never degenerated into what is called- 
manner, but comprehended a great variety of objects-, and- 
had more of the Roman than the Flemish in it« Such was. 
the pleasure he took in his profession, that he had always 
a crayon in his hand; and, wherever be. came, designed- 
some object or otbe^r after nature. His best perfomances 
are at the Hague, Amsterdi3im, and Utrecht. 

He was a map of so excellent a character,, that he was 
chosen to be one of the magistrates of the city he lived in; 
and he accepted the office, with the condition that he 
should not be obliged tp quit his profession. He was in 
tlie full career of fame and esteem both as a man and an 
artist, when, happening to undertake a small voyage, he 
was cast away two leagues from Dort, and drowned the 6tti. 
o^ April, 1C90, aged sixty- two. * 

VERSTEGAN (Richard), principally known as an an* 
tiquary, was the grandson of Richard Roland Verstegan, 
of an ancient family in the duchy of Guelderland, who being: 
driven out of his own country by the confusions of war, 
came to England in the time of Henry VII. Here he, 
married, and dying soon after, left an infant son, who was> 
afterwards put apprentice to a cooper, and was father to 
the subject of this article. Richard was born in St Cathe- 
rine's parish, near the Tower of London, and after receiv- 
ing the rudiments of education, was sent to Oxford, where, 
he was generally called Roland. It does not appear what 
qollege be belonged to, or whether he is tp be considered 
as a regular member of any, but he seems .to have diaitin* 

> Argenville, toI. III.— Pilkiogton. 

V E R S T E G A N. 319 

gyished himself in Saxon literature, then vei'y little studied. 
He was, however, a zealous Roman catholic, and finding 
no encouragement in bis studies without taking oaths ad- 
verse to his principles, be quitted the university, and settled 
at Antwerp, and practised drawing and paintipgi About 
1592 he published a work, now very rare, entitled " Thea- 
tru|[|i crudelitatum Hs^reticorum nostri temporis,'Va thin 
quarto, with curipys cuts representing the deaths of the 
Jesuits, and other missionaries who were hanged or other- 
wise put to death for their machinations against the church 
and state. This effort of zeal does not appear to have been 
in all respects agree^^ble to some of his own party ; and 
either bis fears on this a<?coun.t, or. sobiie other causes, in- 
duced him to leave Antwerp fpr P^iris. There being com- 
plaiped of by the English ambassador as a calumniator of 
bis royal mistress, be was thrown into, prison by the French 
king^s Qrders. . Hovv long he was confined is not known, 
but when released he returned to Antwerp, and resumed his 
studiei^, which produced hi$ " Restitution of decayed An- 
tit^uiiies," 1605, 4to, several times reprinted, a work of 
very considerable merit and judicious research ; but, the 
principal subjects on Englisli antiquities having bdeo since 
mpre accurately investigated and treated, Verstegan's worlc 
is rather a curious than a necessary addition to the his- 
torical library. When he published it he seems to have 
been in better humour with England, and dedicated it very 
respectfully to James I. He corresponded much with sir 
Robert Cotton, and other antiquaries of the time. It. is 
UQcertain when he died, but some place that event soon 
after 1634. Verstegan wrote also>* The successive regal 
Governments of England," Antwerp, 1620, in one sheet, 
with cuts ; *^ A Dialogue on Dying well," a translation 
from the Italian ; and a collection of very indifferent poetry, 
entitled ^^Odes; in imitation of the seven penitential 
Psalmes. With sundry other poems and ditties, tending to 
devotion and pietie," imprinted 1601, 8vo, probably at 
Antwerp. * 

VERT (Claude de), a celebrated and learned monk of 
Cluoi, born October 4, 1645, at Paris. He was treasurer 
to the abbey of Cluni, visitor of the order, and vicar-ge^ 
neral, in 1694. in 1695 he obtained the priory of St. 

* Ath. Ox. Tol. T. ; one of the most confuserl of all Anthony Woo(]*s lives. 
— 0odd's Cb. Hist— Biog. 6riU-'Cfnsui:a Lit. vol. II, 

320 VERT. 

Peter^ at Abbeville, an4 died there, May I, 1706. Dd^ 
Vert made the ceremonies ol: the church his particuiaif 
study, and undertook to explain them both* iit^lpaliy aftd 
historicaily in the 4 vols. 8vo (the first two of ) 720, and 3 
and ^ of 1713) which be has left an that subject) .andenthe 
title of ^^ Explications simples, Utt^rtileset bistoriqlies des 
C6r6monies de la Messe,^' &c. This work cbtitsihis many 
curious, and to those of his own persuasion, toany^lnterest-' 
iug particulars, and still continues to be esteemed. He 
was the author of some other works of less note. ^ 

VERTOT D'AuBCEUF (Rene' Aubbrt de), a very pleas-- 
iiig French historian, whose principal works have been 
ti^nslated into English, was born at the 'castte of Bennetot^ 
in Normandy, Nov. 25, 1655, of a good fiamily. Such was 
his application to study, that in his' sl^ vent eent^ year bel 
maintained bis last philosopbfca! theses. Much against his 
father's will he entered among the Capuchins, and took 
the name of brother Zachary, but the austerities of this 
order proving hurtful to his health, he was induced to 
exchange it for one of milder rules. Accordingly, in 1677, 
be entered among the Premonstratenses, Where he became 
successively secretary to the general of the order, curate, 
and at length prior* of the monastery. But with this he 
does not appear to have been satisfied, and after some 
other changes of situation, became a secular ecclesiastic. 
In 1701 he came to Paris in that character^ and was in 
1705 made an associate of the academy of belles lettres. 
His talents soon procured him great patronage. He jiras 
appointed secretary of commands to the duchess of Orleans 
Bade-Baden, and secretary of iangifages to the . duke of 
Orleans. In. 1715 the grand-master of Malta appointed 
him historiographer to that order, with all its privileges!, 
and the honour of wearing the cross. He was afteryirards 
appointed to the commandery of Santery, and would, but 
for some particular reasons, not specifi:ed, have been in« 
trusted with the education of Louis XV. His last years 
were passed in much bodily in6rmity, from which he was 
released June 15, 1735. His literary career has in it some- 
what remarkable. He was bordering on his forty-fifth yeai^ 
when be wrote his first history, and had passed his severi* 
tieth when be bad finished the last, that of Malta. He' 
lived nine years afterwards, but under extreme languor of 


* Moreri.— Diet. Hist 


V E R T XJ T. 31^1 

body and mind. During this, when, from tbe force gf 
habit,' be talked of new projects, of the revolutions of Car- 
thage, and tbe history of Poland, and bis friends would 
represent to him that be was now incapable both of reading 
or writing, his answejr was, that he had read enqugh to 
eompose by mempry, and written enough to dictate with 
fluency. The French regard him as their Quintus Cur- 
tius. His style is pleasing, lively, and elegant, and his 
reflections ahvays just, and often profound. But he yielded 
too much to imagination, wrote much from memory, which 
w^ not always sufiicien^ly retentive, and is often wrong in 
facts, frum dechning the labour of researi h, and despising 
the fa!>tidiousn<^s«i ot accuracy. His works, which it is un- 
necessary to characterise separately, as they have been so 
Jong betore both the French and English public, are, 1. 
Z' Histoiredes Revolutions de Portugal," Paris, i6$9, 12roo. 
2. " Histoire des Revolutions de Suede," 1696, 2 vols. 
.12mo. 3. '* Histoire des Revolutions Romaines," 3 vols. 
12mo. 4. ^' nistoire de Make," 1727, 4 vy^ls. 4to, and 7 
vols. 12mo. 5. "Trait6 de la mouvance de Bretagne.'* 
6. ^^ Histoire critique de Petablissment cles. Bretons dans 
les Gaules," 2 vols. l2mo, a posthumous work, 1743. He 
wrote also some dissertations in the Memoirs of the Aca- 
demy of Belies Lettres, and corresponded much with the 
literati of his time on subjects of history, particularly with 
earl Stanhope, on tbe senate of ancient Rome. His and 
lord Stanhope's Inquiry on this subject were published by 
Hooke, the Roman historian, in 1757, or 1758.' 

VERTUE (George), an eminent engraver and anti- 
quary, was born in the parish of St Martin's-in-the-6elds, 
London, in 16S4. His parents, he says himself, were 
more honest than opulent; but, according .to his biogra- 
pher, '^ if vanity had entered into his composition, he might 
have boasted the antiquity of his race : two of his nam6 
were employed by Henry VIH. in the board of works.'* 
He might have added, that in Ashmole*s ^^ History of the 
Order of tbe Garter," p. 136, a William Vertue is men- 
tioned, as free-mason, 21 Henry VII. and one of the ar- 
chitects of the royal chapel of St. George, at Windsor. 
About the age of thirteen Vertue was placed with a master 
who engraved arms on plate, and had the chief business of 
London ; but who, being extravagant, broke* and returned 

1 Mos^u^Ditit. Hist.— Biog. GalUca. 

Vol. XXX. Y 

S22 V E R T U K. 

to his country, France, after Vertue had served him beiweea 
three and four years. Vertue then studied drawing for 
two years, after which he entered into an agreement with 
Michael Vandergutch for three more, which term he pro- 
tracted to seven, engraving copper-opiates for him. Hav- 
ing in 1709 received instructions and advice from several 
painters, he quitted his master on handsome terms, and 
began to work for himself, and employed his first year in 
drawing and engraving for books. At intervals he prac- 
tised drawing and music, learned French, a little Italian^ 
and Dutch, and was able to read all that was written in 
these languages on his art. 

About this time he acquired the notice of sir Godfrey 
Knelier, which he acknowledges with gratitude, as of great 
-importance to him, for his father had died and left a widow 
and several children to be supported by his labours. His 
words on this occasion do him honour : ** I was the eldest, 
and then the only one that could help them ; which added 
circumspection to my affairs then, as well as industry to 
the end of my life.^* When bis works began to attract at- 
tention he found other patrons. Lord Somers employed 
him to engrave a plate of archbishop Tillotson, and re- 
warded him nobly. This print was the ground-work of his 
reputation ; nothing like it had appeared for some years, 
nor at the hour of its production had he any competitors. 

In 1711 an academy of painting was instituted by sir 
Godfrey Knelier, where Vertue continued to draw for 
some years with great assiduity. Soon after the accession 
of the present royal family, be published a large portrait 
of king George I. from a picture by Knelier. As it was 
the first portrait of that monarch, many thousands were 
soldp though by no means a laborious or valuable perform- 
ance. However, it was shewn at court, and was followed 
by his undertaking to engrave portraits of the prince and 

Vertue had now commenced those biographical and anti- 
quarian researches, in which he has been so eminently suc- 
cessful. In these pursuits he made many journeys to dif- 
ferent parts of our island, and his time was industriously 
employed in making drawings, catalogues, and various me- 
moranda. His thirst after British antiquities soon led him 
to a congenial Maecenas. That munificent collector, Ro^ 
bert Harley, second earl of Oxford, distinguished the me- 
rit and application of Vertue; and the iuvariable gratitude 

V E R T U E. 3X9 

•f the latter, expressed on all occasions^ attests at once 
^e bounty of his patron and his own fanmility. Another, 
of his patrons was Heneage Finch, earl of Winchelsea^* 
whose portrait he painted and engraved, and who, b^ing 
president of the society of antiquaries on its revival in 1 7 1 7, 
appointed Vertue, who was a member, engraver to that 
learned body. Henry Hare, the last lord Coleraine, was. 
also one of his antiquarian benefactors, and the university 
of Oxford employed him for many years to engrave the 
head pieces for their almanacks. 

With lord Orford, lord Coleraine., and Mr. Stephens the 
historiographer, he made several tours to various parts of 
England. For the former he engraved portraits of Mat- 
thew Prior, sir Hugh Middleton, and other distinguished 
men : for the duke of Montague he engraved sir Ralph 
Windwood ; for sir Paul Meihuen, the portraits of Cortez, 
and archbishop Warham from Holbein's original at. Lam- 
beth^ and for lord Burlington, Zucchero^s queen Mary of 
Scotland, a plate which evinces more felicity, and a better 
taste of execution, than most other of his works. In 1727 
he travelled with lord Oxford to Burleigh, Lincoln, WeU 
/beck, Chatfiworth, and York, at which latter place he ob-* 
tained from Francis Place many of those anecdotes of 
Hollar which are inserted in his biography. In the next 
year, the duke of Dorset invited. him to Knowle. From 
the gallery there, he copied the portraits of several of the 
poets, but he was disappointed on an excursion to Penshurst^ 
at. not Ending there any portrait of sir Philip Sidney. 

In 1730 appeared his twelve heads of distinguished 
poets, one of his capital works, which he meant to have 
followed with the portraits of other eminent men, arranged 
in classes, but this scheme was taken out of his hands by 
the Messrs. Knapton ; and there is reason to think that 
Vertue^s rigid regard for veracity, which made him justly 
scrupulous of authenticating the likenesses of deceased 
characters without the clearest proofs, and not the supe« 
xior taste or discernment of the Knaptons, made them en- 
gage the superior talents of Houbraken and Qravelot, ta 
finish a work which our artist had begun, and had himself 
projected • 

His next considerable production was, the portraits of 
king Charles I. and the loyal sufferers in bi| cause, with 
their characters subjoined from Qlareiidon. But this was 
a^jircely finished, before B^pin^s history of England ap«» 

Y 2 

324 V E*R T U Bw 

f^eat-ed, a t^ork which had a prodigious run, insomuch that 
it became all the conversation of the town and coun^try, and 
the noise hfein^^ heightened byxjpposition and party, it was 
proposed to publish it in folio by numbers, of which thou- 
sands wtrc sold every week. The Messrs. Knapton en- 
gaged Vertue to accompany it with efBgies of the kings 
and ether suitable embellishments, an undertaking which 
occupied three years of his life. He presented a copy of 
this work, when finished, richly bound, to the prince of 
Wales, at Kensington* 

He now renewed hi$ topographical journeys, accom- 
panied, sometimes by the earl of Leicester, sometimes by 
}ord Oxford, and sometimes by Roger Gale the antiquary; 
and between 1734 — 38, visited St. Albans, Northampton, 
Oxford, Penshurst, Warwick, Coventry, Stratford, and tra- 
velled through the counties of Kent, Sussex, and Hamp- 
shire, where he made various sketches, drawings, and notes, 
always presenting a duplicate of his observations to his pa- 
tron lord Oxford. In 1739 he travelled eastward with lord 
Coieraine, through the counties of Essex, Suffolk, and 
Norfolk, stopping as usual to make drawings and observa- 
tions at every memorable church, seat, or other- spot con- 
genial to his pursuits. In 1741 he lost hi? noble friend and 
patron the earl of Oxford, who died on the 16th of June. 
But bis merit and modesty still raised him benefactors. 
The countess dowager of Oxford, ev^n, alleviated his*l6ss, 
and the duchess of Portland (their daughter), the duke of 
Ricbmofid, and lord Burlington, did not forget him among 
the artists whom tbey patronized. 

In 174^ be found a yet more' exalted* protector in the 
prince of Wales, whom he often had the honour of attend- 
ing, and to whom he sold many prints, miniature pictures, 
&c. and had now reason to flatter himself with permanent 
fortune; but the death of this prince suddenly blasted the 
hopes of Vertue, and affect<;d him with considerable de- 
jection of spirits, from which he never perfectly recovered. 
He died in 1756, and was buried in the cloisters of West- 
minster-abbey. Lord Orford has given a catalogue of bis 
engravings (amounting to near five hundred!) classed 
under the heads of Roj^al Portraits, Noblemen, Bishops^ 
Poets, Antiquaries, Tombs, Historic Prints, Coins, Medats, 
Frontispiece^ &a &c. &c. 

Valuable as Vertue*s engravings are, he would have had 
more admirers, if bis style had been more. spirited; yet the 

V E R T U E. 3«5 

entiquary and the historian who prefer truth to elegance of 
design, and correctness to bold execution, iiave properly 
appreciated his works, and have placed biin, in point of 
professional industry at least, next to his predecessor Ho]« 
far. But the public owe another obligation to Vertue. 
After his death the late lord Orford purchased the manu^ 
script notes and observations which he had put down, as 
materials for a history of artists, and from theoi published 
that very useful and entertaining work, which he entitled 
** Anecdotes of Painting in Englr id 5 with some account 
ef the principal Artists, and incidental notes on other Afts^ 
eollected by Mr. George Vertue," 1762, 5 vols. 4to; since 
republished in 1782, 5 vols. 8vo. " Vertue," siys Mn 
Walpole, ** bad for several years been collecting materials 
for a work ' upon Painting and Painters f he conversed 
and corresponded with most of the virtuosi in England : he 
was personally acquainted with the oldest performers in the 
science: he minuted down every thing he beard from 
them. He visited every collection of them, attended salea, 
copied every paper he could find relative to the art, 
searched offices, registers of parishes, and registers cf 
wills for births and deaths, turned over all our own authors, 
and translated those of other countries which related to his 
subject. He wrote down every thing he heard, saw, or 
read. His collections amounted to near forty volumes, 
large and small. In one of his pocket-books I foucrd t 
note of hh first intention of compiling sach a work : it was 
in 1715, and he continued it assiduously to his death in 
1757. These MSS. I bought of his widow after his de- 
cease.'' Vertue's private character, it must not be omitted, 
was of the most amiable kind ; friendly, communicative, 
upright in all his dealings, a most dutiful son, and an af« 
fectionatef husband. He laboured almost to the last, soli- 
citous to leave a decent competence to a wife, with whom 
be lived many years in tender harmony, and who died in 
1776, in the seventy-sixth year of her age. He had a 
brother James, who followed the same profession at Bath, 
and died about 1765.^ 

YESALIUS (Andrew), a celebrated anatomist and phy- 
sician, was descended from a family which had abounded 
with physicians. John Vesalius, his great-grandfather, 

1 Wal pile's Aiwcdotet.-^Niebols't Bowyer, where are many \eWix9 to aod 
firom Venue, which present his characttur and induatry in a ff ry pleasing light. 

k26 V £ l§ A L I U S. 

was physician to Mary of Burgundy, first wife of Maximi- 
lian L ; and went and settled at Louvain when he wasold. 
Everard, his grandfather, wrote commentaries upon the 
books of Rhases, and upon Hippocrates's *^ Aphorisms :'' 
and bis father Andrew was apothecary to the emperop 
Charles V. Our Vesalius was born at Brussels, but in 
what year seems to be uncertain ; Vander-Linden finding 
bis birth in 1514, while others place it in 1512. He was 
instructed in the languages and philosophy at Louvain, 
and there gave early tokens of his love for anatomy^ and of 
his future skill in the knowledge of the human body ; for, 
he was often amusing himself with dissecting rats, moles, 
dogs, and cats, and with inspecting their viscera. 

Afterwards he went to Paris, and studied physic under 
James Sylvius; but applied himself chiefly to anatomy, 
which was then a science very little known. For, though 
dissections bad been made formerly, yel they had long 
been discontinued as an unlawful and impious usage ; and 
Charles V, had a consultation of divines at SalamancSj^ to 
know, if, in good' conscience, a human body might be dis-» 
'^ected for the sake of comprehending ics structure. He 
perfected himself in this science very early, as we may 
know from his work *^ De Humani Corporis Fabrica f ^ 
which, though then the best book of anatomy in the world, 
and what justly gave him the title of *Uhe Father of Ana-> 
tomy," was yet composed by him at eighteen years of age* 
Afterwards be went to Louvain, and began to eommunin 
eate the knowledge he had acquired : then he travelled 
into Italy, read lectures, and made anatomical demonstrar 
tions at Pisa, Bologna, and several other cities there. 
About 1537, the republic of Venice made him professor 
in^the university of Padua, where he taught anatomy seven 
years, and was the first anatomist to whom a salary was 
given ; and Charles V. called him to be his physician, as 
be was also to Philip II. king of Spain. He acquired a 
prodigious reputation at those courts by his sagacity and 
skill in his profession, of which Thuanus has recorded this 
very singular proof. He tells us, that Maximilian d' Eg- 
mont, count of Buren^ griind general, and a favourite of the 
emperor, being ill, Vesalius declared to him, that he could 
not recover ; and also told him, that he could nc^ hold out 
beyond such a day and hour. The count, firmly persuaded 
that the evetit would answer the prediction, invited aU hi& 

V E S A L I U S. ' 327 

Criends to a grand eQtertaioment at the time ; after'wliicb 
he made tbem presents, took a final leave of them, and 
then expired precisely at the moment Vesalius had menr 
tioned. If this account be not true, it shews at least the 
▼ast reputation Vesalius must have risen to, where such 
stories were invented to do him honour. 

Vesalius was now at the very height of his reputation, 
when all at once he formed a design of making a journey 
to Palestine. Many reasons have been given, and more 
conjectures formed, about his motive to this strange ad- 
venture; yet nothing certain appears concerning it. Hu« 
bert Languet, in a letter to Gasparus Peucerus, gives this 
account of the affair: ^^ Vesalius, believing a young Spa- 
nisb nobleman, whom he bad attended, to be dead, ob- 
tained leave of his parents to open him, for the sake of in- 
quiring into the real cause of his illness, which he bad not 
rightly comprehended. This was granted ; but he had no 
sootier made an incision into the body, than he perceived 
the symptoms of life, and, opening the breast, saw the heart 
beat. The parents, coming afterwards to the knowledge of 
tliis^ were not satisfied with prosecuting him for murder, 
but accused him of impiety to the inquisition, in hopes that 
he would be punished with greater rigour by the judges 
pf that tribunal than by those of the common law. But 
the king of Spain interposed, and saved him ; on condi- 
tioo^ however, that, by way of' atonement, he should un- 
dertake a pilgrimage to the Holy Land.'' Manget, in his 
^^ Bibliotheca Medicorum,'' states the same ; and the ac- 
count has been generally adopted. In the mean time 
others pretend, that be undertook this journey out of an 
insatiable thirst after riches : but this is a more improbable 
reason than the former ; for, how was a journey to Jerusa- 
lem calculated to make a roan rich ? Swenius ascribes it 
to the querulous and imperious humour of his wife, which 
made home insupportable to him : and Imperialis informs 
us, that the uneasiness arising from the cabals of envy, 
and the hatred of the Galenists, whose master and doctrines 
he censured with great freedom, without allowing any thing 
to inveterate prejudices, so disgusted him with his present 
situation, and perhaps hurt him with his prince, that, in order 
to withdraw from coui:t with the best grace he could, he 
formed this extraordinary resolution. But, whatever was 
the motive, he set out with De Rimini, general of the Ve- 
netian army, Whom he accompanied to Cyprus; whence 

528 V E S A L I U S. 

he passed to Jerusalem. He was returning, at tbe invila- 
tion of tbe senate of Venice, to 611 the physic-cfaair at Pa- 
dua, become vacant in 1563 by the death of Fallopius; bat, 
being shipwrecked and thrown upon the island of Zante, 
perished miserably, Oct. 1564. His body was afterwards 
found, and buried in the church of St. Mary in that island. 

He was the author of several medical works ; the chief 
of which is his ** De Humani Corporis Fabric^' published 
in 1543, a work which occupies a most conspicuous place 
in the annals of science, which freed medicine from the 
trammels Of authority, laid the foundation of genunie ana- 
tomy, and even contained a bold and pretty full outline of 
the science. This work exhibited a regular and minute 
description of the human body, illustrated by excellent 
engravings, and a resolute exposure of the mistakes of Ga« 
Jen, whose ignorance Vesalius is at great pains to poiiu 
out. He has therefore been justly considered as tbe 
restorer of anatomy, in which he was indeed profoundly 
skilled. Thuanus relates a singular proof he gave of bis 
exact knowledge of the human body while be was at Paris ; 
where, with his eyes bound, he undertook to mention any 
the least bone that should be put into his hands, defying 
them to impose upon him ; and actually performed what 
he undertook. Being at Basil in 1542, he presented the 
university there with a human skeleton which be had pre- 
pared himself, and which is still in the lecture-room there, 
with a long inscription over it. The whole of bis works 
were published by Boerhaave and Albinus at Ley den, 
1725, 2 vols. fol. * 

VESLING (John), an able anatomist, was born in 1598,^ 
at Minden, in Westphalia^ and studied the classics, philo- 
sophy, and medicine, at Viemia. After he had applied to 
tbe latter for some time, he undertook a voyage to the Levant, 
in pursuit of natural history, remained a considerable time 
at JSgyptj and finished by going to Jerusalem, where be was 
made a knight of the holy sepulchre. He tiien returned ^o 
Venice-, and in 1608 gave private lectures on anatomy and 
botany, with ^uch success that the regular professors were 
soon deserted. Tbe republic, sensible of tbe services of so 
able a man, made him, in 1632, first professor pf anatomy 
at Padua, a chair which itas then vacant, and which h6 
filled with increasing reputation, although he wds a little 

s Slo^, Diet, ilist de Medeeine.-*«-Manget.«-Ball€r, He 

V E S LIN G. 329 

deaf, aad had impediments of speech which rendered him 
rather dilBcult to be understood. But these defects were 
soon overlooked, and he was also appointed to lecture on 
surgery and botany, until finding so many labours too 
much for his health, he obtained leave, in 163S, to con- 
fine himself to surgery and botany only, with, the care of 
the botanic garden. Here he was in his element, for bo- 
tany had always been his favourite study ; and in order to 
render the garden at Padua the best in £urope, he soli- 
cited permission to pay another visit to the Levant, in 1 648, 
The fatigues of this voyage, however, undermined his con- 
stitution, and soon after his return he died, Aug. 30, 1649. 
His works, all of which were esteemed valuable, are, 1. 
*' Observationes et notee ad Prosperi Alpini librum de 
plantis iSgyptii, cum additamentis aliarum plantarum ejus- 
' dem regionis," Padtia, 1638, 4to. Of this work, Ray availetl 
himself. 2, ** Syntagma Anatomicum," his principal work, 
of which there have been many editions, the best by Bla- 
sius, at Utrecht, 1696, 4to. It was also translated into 
Dutch and German, and into English by Culpepper, 1653, 
fol. 3. ** Caialogus plantarum horti Patavini," Padaa, 1 642, 
]2mo, reprinted with additions in 1644. 4. ** Opobalsami 
veteribus cogniti vindiciae," ibid. 1644, 8vo. 5. "A very 
curious work, compiled from his MSS. after his death, " De 
pullitione iEgyptiorum, et aliae Observationes Anatomical, 
et EpistolsB medicse posthumse," Hafniae, (Copenhagen), 
1664, 8vo. * 

VESPUTIUS (Americus), or Amerigo Vespucci, a 
navigator from>vhose name the largest quarter of the woHd 
has very unjustly been named, was born at Florence, March 
9, 1451, of a distinguished family, and educated by. an 
uncle, a man of learning, who had the care of the educa- 
tion of the Florentine nobility. Vespucci made great pro- 
gress in natural philosophy, astronomy, and cosmography, 
the principal branches in which the Florentiive nobility 
were instructed, because being for the most part destined 
for commerce, it w^s necessary they should become ac-s 
quainted with the sciences connected with navigation. 
Commerce had been the foundation of the grandeur and 
prosperity of the republic, and as each family educated some 
member who was to serve his country in that pursuit, that 
of Vespucci chose Amerigo, or Americus, to follow the ex^ 
ample of their ancestors in this respect. Accordingly ha 

1 Hlox, Diftt HisW dc Medidnf. 

35a * V E S P U T I U S- 

left Florence in 1490, and went to Spain, to be initiated iii 
mercantile life. He is said to have been at Seville in 1492, 
vrhen Columbus was preparing for a new iK)yage9 and the 
rage for new discoveries was at its height. The success of 
that celebrated navigator raised this passion in Americns, 
who. determined to give up the pursuit of trade, in order to 
go and reconnoitre the new world, of whose existence 
£urope had just heard. * 

With this design he began his first voyage on May 10^ 
1497, leaving Cadiz with five ships under the command of 
Ojeda. This fleet sailed towards the Fortunate islands, 
and keeping a Western course, reached the- continent of 
America, in thirty-seven days. They visited the gulph of 
Paria, and the island of St. Marguerite, and sailed along 
the coast for four hundred leagues. After a voyage of 
thirteen months, they returned to Cadiz, Nov. 15, 1498. 
Americus, who by his skill in navigation had very much 
Contributed to the success of this expedition, was extremely 
well received at the court of Seville. In the month of May 
14d9, he left Cadiz for Cape de Verd, passed the Canaries 
within sight, and in forty *four days, after his departure, 
reached an unknown land, situated under the torrid zone,, 
which was the continuation of that which he had discovered 
in his first voyage. After sailing for some time along the 
coast, he returned to the Spanish island of St. Domingo, 
where Ojeda had some disputes with the Europeans, who 
six years. before had come there with Columbus. The fieet 
now directed its course northwards, and discovered several 
islands, the number of which, Americus says, amounted to 
a thousand, a calculation which his panegyrist contents 
himself with considering as a poetical exaggeration. Ojeda 
intended to have continued this route, but the complaints 
of the crew obliged him to return to Europe. On the ar- 
rival of his fieet, Ferdinand and Isabella, to whom Ame- 
ricus presented various productions of the new world, re- 
ceived him in the most flattering manner ; and when his 
discoveries reached theeai'sof the Florentines, they rejoiced 
in having produced so great a man. Seduced, however, 
by the promises of Emanuel, king of Portugal, Anoericus 
quitted the service of Spain, and set sail from Lisbon, May 
10, 1501, with three Portuguese ships. In this fleet he 
arrived at Cape St. Augustine, and coasted almost the 
whole of Brazil to Patagonia, but a succession of tempes* 
liious weather forced him to return to Portugal, where h« 

V E S P U T I U S. 381 

arrived Dec. 7, 1502. The king, very mach pleased with 
this voyage, wished Americus to undertake another ; and 
for. the fourth time, this Florentine navigator embarked 
with a fleet of six ships, May 10, 1505, with the hope of 
discovering, by the West, a new way to Malacca ; but thi« 
expedition was less successful than the preceding. After 
losing one of the vessels,, and encountering the greatest 
dangers, they gained the bay of All Saints, Brazil, and 
Ibst no time in returning to Europe. 

Americus remained in Portugal until 1506, the time of 
Columbus^s death, when the Spanish court wishing to re- 
pair the loss occasioned by that event, recalled Americas 
into their service, who again sailed, in 1507, in a Spanish 
fleet, with the title of 6rst pilot, and it was during thi& 
voyage that the new world took its name from him. Thus, 
aays the abb6 Raynal, the moment America became known 
from the rest of the world, it was distinguished by an act 
of injustice.' Americus lived a considerable time after* 
wards to enjoy this usurped honour, and is said to have 
often visited the continent which bore his name. He died 
in 1515, at which time he was again in the service of Por- 
tugal. Emanuel, in order to do honour to bis memory^ 
caused the remains of his ship to be deposited in the cathe- 
dral of Lisbon, and Florence bestowed honours on his family. 

In 1745, Bandini published in 4to, <* Vitta e Lettere di 
Amerigo Vespucci, &c." a continued panegyric on the Flo- 
rentine adventurer, to whom he does not hesitate to attribute 
the discovery of America. According^ indeed, to the dates 
which he gives of the first two voyages of Americus, and 
which we have followed in the preceding account, it would 
appear that he bad the priority in the discovery ; but the 
Spanish writers have proved that the dates of those voyages 
-are fictitious, and that the first, if it ever took place at all, 
must have been in 1499 instead of 1497. It seems also 
generally agreed that Americus never had the command in 
any expedition, that he acted only as geographer or pilot, 
and that he never undertook any of his voyages until after 
the return of Columbus. By some unaccountable caprice^ 
however, America was at first, and is still, called by his 
name, and succeeding ages, although they may regret^ 
cannot 'Correct the error. 

Americuif left a journal of his four voyages, which was 
printed in Latin at Paris in 1532, and at Bale in 1555, but 
(here are Italic and French translations of the earlier dates 

3S2 V E S P U T I U S. 

of 1519 and 1516. Some of his lettertS \tere printed in a 
' thin 4to, of 22 pages, at Florence in 1516, which are ad* 
dressed to Soderini and Lorenzo de Medici, and are said 
to discover a very superior knowledge of navigation.^ 



VICARS (John), an extraordinary enthusiast in the se- 
venteenth century, was born in London in 1582, descended 
fron) the family of Vicars in Cumberland. He was edu- 
cated in Christ^s hospital, London, and afterwards was a 
member of Queen*s college, Oxford, but whether he took 
his degrees, Wood has npt discovered. After leaving col- 
lege he went to London, and becaoie usher of Christ's hos« 
pital, which place he held till towards the close of his life. 
It does not appear that he was a preacher, although most 
of his writincrs concern the religrious controversies of the 
times Upon the commencement of the rebellion, ^* be 
showed bis great forwardness,** says Wood, ** for presby- 
terianism, hated all people that loved obedience, and af- 
frighted many of the weaker sort, and others, from having 
any agreement with the king's party, by continually incul- 
cating into their beads strange stories of God's wrath against 
the cavaliers. Afterwards, when the independents became 
predominant,, be manifested great enmity against them, 
especially after the king's death." Foulis, in his " History 
of Plots," says that ^^ he could out-scold the boldest face 
in Billingsgate, especially if kings, bishops, organs, or 
maypoles, were to be the objects of his zealous indigna- 
tion." This indeed is a pretty just character of John Vi- 
ears's writings, which form a store-house of the abusive 
epithets and gross personal reflections which passed be- 
tween the lower order of sectaries in that period of confu- 
sion. The title of his work against John Goodwin, will af- 
ford a good specimen of John's language. This was pub- 
lished in 1648, " Coleman-street Conclave visited ; and- 
that grand impostor, the schismatics' cheater-in-chief (who 
hath long slily lurked therein) truly and duly discovered ; 
containing a most palpable and plain display of Mr. John 
Goodwin's self-^conviction (under his own hand-Writing), 
and of the notorious heresies, efrors, malice, pride, and 
hypocrisy, of this most huge Garagantua in falsely pre- 
tended piety, to the lamentable misleadivig of his too cfe- 

^ Biof. Ud'it. art. Amerifo. 


VICARS. 333 

diilous soul-murdered proselytes of Colemair-street, and 
elsewhere } collected principally out of bis own big-brag* 
gadpchio wave-like swelling and swaggering writings, full 
fraught with six^footed terms, and Be^hlie rhetorical phrases; 
far more than solid and sacred truths, and may 6tly serve 
(if ft be the Lord's will) like Belshazzar's band-writing on 
the wall of bis conscience, to strike terror and shame into 
bijs own soul and shameless face, and to undeceive his most 
raiserably cheated, and ii\chanted or be-witched followers." 
This is accompanied by a portrait of Goodwin (the only one 
inentioned by Granger, and of course in great request) 
with a windmill over his head, and a we^^ther*cock upon it; 
the devil is represented blowing the sails; and there are 
other emblems, significant of Goodwin's 'fickleness. Vicars 
died Aug. 12, 1652, in the seventy-second year of his age» 
and was buried in Christ church, Newgate-street. Wood 
bas given a libt oS sixteen of his writings, the most curious 
of which is his " Parliamentary Chronicle." This is still 
esteemed useful, and being scarce, is generally sold at. a 
very high price. It was printed at different times undeir 
the following titles: 1. ^^ God in the Mount; or England's 
Kemembrancer, being the first and second part of a Par- 
liamentary Chronicle," 1644, 4to. 2. " God's Arke over- 
topping the World's waves ; or, a third part of a Parlia- 
mentary Chronicle," 1646. 3. " The Burning-bush not 
consumed ; or the fourth and last part of a Parliamentary 
Chronicle,'* 1646. These were then published together, 
under the title of ^^ Magnalia Dei Anglicana, or, England's 
Parliamentary Chronicle," 1646. Vicars was also a poet, 
and in the ** Censura Literaria," we have an account and 
specimen of a work of this kind entitled '^Mischief's Mys« 
terie; or, Treason's Master- piece; the powder-plot, in- 
vented by hellish malice ; prevented by heavenly mercy ; 
truly related, and from the Latin of the learned and re- 
verend Dr. Herring, translated, and very much dilated by 
John Vicars," 1617. At the end of this are some smaller 

VIGARY (Thomas), of whose personal history we have 
no account, deserves some notice, as the first anatomical 
writer in the English language. He was a citizen of Lon- 
don, Serjeant- surgeon to Henry VIIL Edward VL Mary L 
and Elisabeth ; and chief surgeon of St. Bartholomew's 

* Ath. Ok. vol. H.— Cens. Ltt. toI. I. and HI. 

t84 VICAR T. 

Hospital. His book is entitled ^^ A Treasure for Eiiglisk* 
men ; contayning the Anatomie of Man*s Bodie, 1548';" 
or, as given by Ames, ^^ A profi talkie Treatise of the Ana- 
tomy of Man^s Body ; compiled by T^ Vicary, and pub- 
lished by the Surgeons of St. Bartholomew's Hospitai,*^ 
1577, ISmOy and in 1633 in 4to; together with 8ev«rie|i 
other medical and chirurgical tracts. It is a short piece, 
designed for the use of his more unlearned brethren, 
and taken almost entirely froip Galen and the Ara*- 
bians. Before the latter editions is prefixed a rude figure 
of a skeleton 

VICO, vicUS, orVIGHI (Eneas), a skilful medallist 
of the sixteenth century, was born at Parma, where, hear- 
ing of the reputation which Marc Antonio Raimondi had 
acquired at Rome by his engravings, he went to that city, 
and becam^ his pupil. As an engraver, Strutt thinks that 
Vico was a man of abilities, but does not seem to have 
been endowed with patience enough to pay sufficient at- 
tention to the mechanical part of the execution of his 
plates. He could draw correctly, but seldom exerted 
himself. He is noticed here, however, chiefly for his 
knowledge of medals. lu 1548, he published his *^ Dis- 
courses on the Medals of the Ancients,'' Venice, 4to, suc- 
ceeded by a second edition in 1555. This, which is a trea- 
tise of very considerable intelligence for that period,, treats 
of the metals employed in ancient coinage ; of portraits to 
be found on coins ; of the types on their reverses ;' of their 
legends ; of medallions ; of false medals, and rules for db*- 
cerning them ; dates of history ; forms of edifices ; names 
of magistrates, &c. This he dedicated to one of his pa-, 
trons, the grand duke Cosmo, himself a distinguished 

The following publications of his are also in great re-» 
quest: ^^Monomenta aliquot antiquorum ex gemmis et 
cameis iocisa," Rom. foL '* Omnium Csesaruoi verissim£& 
imagines ex antiquis numismatibus .desumptae," 154'4, 4to;. 
and *' Augustarum imagines formis expressse, vitBS quo-_ 
que earumdem breviter enarrat9," &c. Venice, 1558, 4to, 
the two last edited by P. Manutius. The time of his birth 
or death is not known. * 

VICQ-D'AZIR (Felix), a French physician^ was bom 
at Valognes, in Normandy, April 28,. 1748. His father 

I Aikm*a Biog. Memoirs of Mediciae. 

' Tiraboichi. — Diet. Hist— Piokertoa't Essay on Medals.' 


V I C QiD'AZ I R. 33» 

was a physician, and probably inspired him with a love for 
the same profession, as in his early years he became am- 
bitious of a name in the medical world* At the age of 
jseventeen he (^ame to Paris, and soon was distinguished 
for some essays on anatomy and physiology^ written in a 
pure and correct style. He became one of the principal 
founders of the medical society of Paris, and it was long 
his office to pronounce the eloges of deceased men of 
eminence in the profession^ which were so much admired 
that, in 1788, the French academy elected him a member 
in the room of Buffon. He had been before a member of 
the academy of sciences. He was in the height of fame 
and usefulness when his constitution, which had long suf- 
fered by a weakness of the chest, became sensibly affected 
by the horrors of the revolutionary victims daily presented to 
his eyes. He died June 20, 1794. His works, including 
his eloges, were collected by J. L, Moreau de la Sarthe, % 
physician, and published in 6 vols. 8vo, and one in 4to of 
plates, 4804. To this is preBxed a life of Vicq-d*Azir, 
which is said to be interesting ; but it haa not fallen in oar 
wajr. ' 


VICTOR (Sextus AuBELius), a Roman historian, lived 
in the fourth century, probably in the reigns of Constautius 
and Tbeodosius, as may be collected from some dates in his. 
history. He was the son of very obscure parents, and had 
pot the benefit of education. He was probably a native of 
Africa, as he makes very honourable mention of that couar 
try in his writings, calling it the glory otf the world. In 
spite, however, of the meanness of his extraction, he had 
talents which raised him to the highest honours. In the 
year 361, Julian appointed him prefect of Pannonia ; and^ 
as a recompense of his services, he was honoured with a ' 
statue of brass. A considerable time afterwards, he was 
prefect of Rome, and in the year 369 consul with Va<* 
leotinian. He obtained this last dignity probably under the 
reign of Tbeodosius ; for there is an inscription extant, 
which Sextus Aurelius Victor, prefect of the city, caused 
to be engraved on a monument in honour of Tbeodosius. 
If all this belongs to the same Sextus Aurelius Victor, as 
js not unlikely, he filled, under various emperors, posts of 
great distinction, and appears to have lived till towards thf 
end of the fourth century. 

1^ Diet. Hist. 

336 V J c t o a- 

There tre some works extaot uoder bis name ; ). '^Origo 
gentis Romanse." This history should extend, as its title 
imports, from the uncertain times of Janus to the tenth con* 
sulate of Constantius ; but what remains comes no lower 
down than the first year from the foundation of Rome. 

2. "De viris illustribus urbis Romoe." This was often 
reprinted in the sixteenth centurj', under the names of the 
younger Pliny, of Suetoniiis, or Emilius Probus. It has 
also been attributed to Cornelius Nepos. The series of il- 
lustrious men begins with Phocas, and ends with Pompey. 

3. '*De Csesaribus historia, ab AugU8to Octavio, id est, a fitie 
Titi Livii usque ad toosulatum deoimum Constantii Au- 
gust! et Juliani Cspsaris teriiuin." 4. " De vita et mori- 
bus imperatorum lioroanorum ex(;erpta, e Csesare Augusto 
usque ad Fheodosium imperatorem.'* The third of these 
works, *' De Csesaribus historia,'* is, perhaps, the otily 
one that can be ascribed with certainty to Aurelius. The 
first edition of Aurelius Victoi^ was printed at Antwerp, 
1579, 8vo, with notes by SchottHis, who was the first re- 
storer of the text. The other good editions are the "Vari- 
orum,'' by Pitiscus, 1696, 8vo; that by Arntzenius, Amst. 
1733, 4to; by Gruner, 1757, 8vo; and the Bipont. 

VICTORIUS, orVETTORI (Peter), an eminent Ita- 
lian scholar, was born at Florence, in tjie month of July, 
149d. In very early life he began his studies in philoso- 
phy, mathematics, jurisprudence, and particularly Greek 
and Latin. In 1522, he went to Spain with Paul V^ttorij 
^ relation, who was general of the gallies, and- appointed to 
accompany the new pope, Adrian VI. into Italy. Our 
author stopt at Catalonia, and travelled over that and the 
neighbouring parts in quest of the remains of Roman anti- 
quities, of which he took copies. He also afterwards con- 
tinued this research at Rome, when he went there to con- 
gratulate Clement VII. on his accession to the popedom. 
This pope had been a nobleman of Florence, and of bis 
own standing. When the revolt took place at Florence 
Vettori sided with the republican party, and, during the 
prevalence of the Medici family, retired to the country, 
and devoted himself to study, with the firm resolution to 
meddle no more with public affairs. When the duke 
Alexander was killed, and the senators and patricians were 

1 Voisiu9 de Hfst. Lat — Fabric Bibl. Lat.— Blasinl*s Ceuaura»— Btog. Unir. 
\m art. A.ureliu8.-^Saxii Onomaft. 

y I C T O R I U 9. 337 

assembled to coosider of a new form of government^ 
they invited Vettpri to take part iu tbeir deliberations ; 
bat ioBtead of complying, he went to Rome, and left bis 
duM:ordaDt and tumultuous countrymen to determine among 
tbemtfelves whether they would be freemen or slaves. << My 
country/' he used to say, <^is in the same situation as Rome 
formerly ; it will neither tolerate liberty nor slavery. Richer 
bave pifoduced pride, and pride, ambition. The laws have 
na longer any force ; every day they are repealing old lawii 
and making new ones, and no more respect is paid to the 
new than to the old. In the present state of my country, I 
clearly see that it must have a sovereign, but I will not aid 
iu giving it a sovereign, for fear of giving it a tyrant.'* 

With suob arguments he always answered those who by 
letter or in person pressed him to return to Florence, and 
affected even to consider his refusal as criminal. He bad 
the wisdom to abandon politics, and dedicate his whole 
time and attention to the acquisition of knowledge. And 
in 9uch esteem was he held on account of his learning, that 
Cosmo I. who could not love him on account of b^ hos- 
tility to the Medici family, yet sent him an invitation to 
Jbecome Greek and Latin professor in tbe university of 
Florence. This was a noble sacrifice of prejudice on tbe 
part of the duke, and Yettori executed the duties of his 
/offioe for more than forty years with the highest reputation, 
and formed many distinguished scholars both Italians and 
foreigners. Whetbier we consider the utility of his lee* 
tures or his public works, it wiU appear that literature was 
:as highly indebted to him as to almost any scholar of his 
time* Had be done nothing, but collate and correct the 
(editions of the Greek and Latin authors which had appeared 
fipm the invention of printing to bis own time, his labours 
would have been of infinite service in that comparatively 
dark period ; but we are indebted to his industry also for 
the collation of a vast number of manuscripts, and selecting 
the best for the press, in which be shewed great judgment, 
and assigned his reasons with critical precision. But his 
aervices did not end even here, for he furnished the learned 
world with notes and commentaries, which gave superiority 
to many editions of the classics, as various parts of Aris- 
lotle^s works* Terence, Varvo, Saliust, £uripides^ Por- 
tpbyry, Plato, Xenopbon, &c. ; but of all bis editions, that 
of Cicero, printed in 1534-^37, four vols, folio, has justly 
received the encomiums of the literary world evet since his 
Vol. XXX. Z 

S38 V I C T O R I U 8. 

time. He has been called *^ Verus Ciceronis' sospttator,^ 
and Graevius is of opinion that Cicero is more indebted 16 
him thaa to Ikll the other critics and commentators. Besides 
these and his ** Varise iectiones/' of which there have been 
several editions, and which discover great critical know- 
ledge, he was the author of some Latin poetry and orations; 
of letters both in Latin and Italian, and an Italidn treatise 
on the culture of olives. Men of learning of all cauntrie^ 
were happy in his acquaintance and correspondence, and 
prinb^s and other great personages not only attended hi^ 
lectures, but expressed their veneration of his talents and 
worth, by diplomas, titles, and presents. He died in the 
eighty-sixth year of his age^ in 1585, and was interred 
with great solemnity at the public expence in tlie church 
of th^ Holy Spirit, where is a marble monument arkl in^ 
scription to his memory. It is said that hiis private virtues; 
as well as his talents, inade his death the subject of ani« 
Tersal regret.* 

YIDA (MARCtJS Hl£RONYMUS), an elegant modern La- 
tin poet and critic, was a native of Cremona, and was bom, 
!as is generally thought, about 1470, but with more pi^oba- 
bility about 1480. * His parents were not wealthy, yet ena- 
bled to give him ar good education. After having made 
considerable proficiency in philosophy, theology, and pd^ 
litical science, he came to Rome in the latter part of the 
pontificate of Julius IL and appears to have mixed in the 
literary societies of the place ; and his poem on the game of 
chess, ^< Scacchis Ludus,^* introduced him to the favour of 
Leo X. who received him witb particular distinction and 
kindness, admitted him as nn attendant at court, and re- 
warded him with honours and emoluments. But that upon 
which the poet appears chiefly to have congratulated him- 
self was, that 'his works were read and approved by the pon- 
tiflF himself. It was at the sugg^tion of Leo that he began 
bis celebrated ^^ Christiad,** which he afterwards completed 
in six books, but Leo did not live to see it finished. It 
was, however, published under the patronage of Clement 
VII. in 1535. In the mean time Clement bad already 
raised Vida to the rank of apostolical secretary, and in 
1532, conferred on him the bishopric of Alba. Soon after 
the de^th of that pontiff, Vida retired to his diocese, and 

was present at its defence against the attiick of the French 

■•.<-. - , , 

I TiriVoichi.— Moreri.-^Bttlburi's i9QiMleini« to Seitaces, 

y I D A. 339 

in 1542, where his exhortations and example animated the 
inhabitants successfully to oppose the enemy. After hav- 
ing attended in his episcopal character at the council of 
Trent, and taken an active part in the ecclesiastical and 
political transactions of the times, he died at his see at 
Alba, Sept. 27, 1566, more respected for his talents, inte- 
grity, and strict attention to his pastoral duties, than for 
the wealth which he had amassed from his preferments. 

Mr. Roscoe, whom we hire hitherto principally followed, 
observes, that of all the writers of Latin poetry at the per 
riod in which he lived,. Vida has been the most generally 
Inown beyond the limits of Italy. This i;s to be attributed, 
Mr. Roscoe adds, not only to the fortunate chpice of hid 
subjects, but to his admirable talent of uniting a consi- 
derable portion of elegance, and often of dignity, with th^ 
utmost facility and clearness of style ; insomuch that the 
most complex descriptions or abstruse illustrations are reiir 
dered by him perfectly easy and familiar to the reader. 
Dr. Warton is of opinion that the merits of Vida seem not 
to have been, particularly attended to. in England, till Pope 
introduced him in these lines : 

'' Immortal Vkia : on whoas honour*d brow 
The poet*s bays and critic's ivfigrow.*' 

The first specimen of the talents of Vida in Latin poetry 
stppeared in a collection of pieces on the death of the poet 
Aquila, which happened in 1500, towards, which he coa- 
tcibut^ two pieces, which were published in thaf coUepr Bologna^ in 1504. His whole works were first 
printed at Rom^ in 1527 and 153^, in 2 yols. 4to, but he 
published, a more complete edition at Cremona,- 155p, g 
vols. 3vo. The first cootaiins, *' Hymni de rebus divinis,^* 
and " Christia^os libri sex j'' the second ^^ De Arte Poetica 
libri tres ;*' << De Bombyce libri duo ;*' Scacchise Ludus ;" 
<< Bucolica ;'' ** Eclogse, et Carmina diversi generis.'* B«i- 
sides the poems comprehended in these two volumes, otbecs 
are ascribed to hiA, as ** Italorum Pugilum cum totidem. 
Gallis certamen ;*' << Carmen Pastorale in Obitum Julii IL 
Pontificis Maximi ;*' *^ Epicedion in Funera Oliyerii Car- 
dioalis Cai'aphas ;" but these he disavowed in a postscript 
to the above edition of his pof^ms. He was also the author 
of some pieces in prose, aa *^ jpbtogi de Republics Dig- 
nitate ;" <^ Orationes tres Cremonensiam adversus Papien- 
aes in Controversia Principatus ;** and^'Constitutiones Sy- 
nodales Civitati Albs et Drmceai prescripts.*' 

Z 2 

MO V I I> A. 

Of such of these works, as his repatation as a Latin poet 
is at this day founded on, his three books " De Arte Pofetica'' 
were probably the first produced; and these were sooh 
* afterwards followed by the ** Bombyx,'* and by his " Scac- 
chisB Ludus," which, as we noticed, introduced hitti to Leo 
*X. The " Bombyx," or silk-worm, is written with classi- 
cal purity, and with a just mixture of the styles of Lucre- 
tius and Virgil. Dr. Warton says it was a happy choice to 
write a poem on " Chess ;" nor is the execution less hap- 
py. ** The various stratagiems and manifold intricacies of 
this ingenious game, so difficult to be described in Latin, 
are here expressed with the greatest perspicuity and ele- 
gance ; so that, perhaps, the game nnight be learned fh>nfi 
this description.*' Of tbe " Christiad," the same excellent 
critic observes, that amidst many prosaic flatnesses, there 
are many fine strokes in this poem ; particularly bis angeh, 
'with respect to their persons and insignia, are drawYi with 
that dignity which we so much admire in Miltoa, ^bo 
sieeips to have had his eye on those passages. The "Poetics,'* 
however, iare perhaps the most perfect of his compositions ; 
he had formed himself upon Virgil, who is therefore bis 
hero, and hehbs too much depreciated Homer. He is, ia 
truth, so much an hnitator of Virgil as to be'very defective 
in originality. Although his precepts principally regard 
"^pifc poetry, yet many t>f tb^m lare applicable to every 
ispecies of composition. This poem has the praise of heiifg 
'oiie of the first, if nbt th6 very first' piece of crtticistn, that 
afopeared in Italy since the revival of learning ; for* it was 
'finished, its is evident from a short advertisement prefixed 
to '% in 1520. Vi^e faaVe an excellent tran^lfition of thla 
poem by Pitt, and one mor^ recent, with notes; by Mr. 
^Hampson. . There are, if we lAistake hot; English trdnsia* 
'tions also of the " Game of Chess,*' and Ah6 " Bombyx." 
*Of his original works, the "best recent editions are that of 
Oxford, by li'riitraifa, 1 7^212, ^ wis. SvO, with elegfent platet ; 
ihat of the Viilpii (inclddiVig the prose worte) Padua, 1731, 
fi vols. 4to. ^ 

' VIEL (Charles Maria ©e), a learned converted Jew, 
6f Metz in Lorrain, was originally educatlftd in thftt reli- 
'^ibn, tbe rites and customs of which, it appears by b)s 
"wrl^iag^, he well understood'; but by perusiing thfe'|)ropbe- 
tical parts of th^' OMTestatnent, and c^ompaHng Kreih 

1 TinlJ69obi.-*ItOM;o^sLeoJC.,-7^Wa{toa'tf B88»yQ^^^^ 

V I E L. 341 

viith the New* he became epnTiDced that Christ waA the 
true Messiah, and embraced Christianity^ according to the 
Koinax^ Catholic form. * His abilities recommended him tq 
considerable promotion, and to the degree qf D. D. fron^ 
one of the French universities. In 1672 he published a 
*' Commentary on the Gospels of St. Mark and St. Luke,'* 
in which, besides a literal exposition of the text, collected 
froi^ the monuments of the ancients, he took an opportu* 
niiy to defend the doctrines of the church of Rome, whict) 
so. advanced his reputation, that he was requested to write 
against the protestants, and much was expected from ^, 
man of his Jearniiig and an able reasoner. This, however, 
only led to another change; for, in examining the contro* 
versies between the papists and protestants, he became 
satisfied that truth was on the side of the latter. France 
was of course no longer a safe residence, and be imme- 
diately went to Holland, s^bjured the errors of popery, and 
soon after came over to England. Here he became ac- 
quainted with Stillingfleet, Sharp, l^illotson, Patrick, Lloyd, 
and other eminent Epglish divines, and particularly with 
Compton bishop of London. Und^r this patronage, be was 
admitted into orders iq the English church, and became 
chaplain to a nobleman, and tutor to his children. 

In 1673 he revised his Commentary on St. Matthew and 
Mark, omitting what was in favour or the Romish church, 
and improving it in other respects. In 1679 he published 
his literal ** Explication of Solomon's Song," dedicated to 
sir Joseph Williamson. This was so well received, that 
juany of the most eminent of the clergy of England, and of 
the foreign reformed churches, encouraged him to proceed 
to a farther translation of the sacred writings. Accordingly 
in 1680 he published his '^ Literal Exposition of the minor 
Prophets." But his principles were still ^unsettled, and 
meeting, in the bishop of London's library, to which he 
had At all times access, with the writings of the English 
baptist^, he l^ecsune convinced that there was no founda- 
tion for infant baptism, and leaving the church, joined a 
small baptist, congregation in Gracechurch-street, where 
be was publicly baptised. This is said to have lost him all 
bis powerful friends, except Tillotson, who still preserved 
a respect for his talents. He now published an << Expo- 
sition of the Acts of the Apostles" in English, in which he 
endeavoured to defend his baptist sentiments. He preached 
also among that sect, but was not very popular, as be could 

342 V I E L. 

not speak English fluently. His flock, however, raised him 
a salary, which he enjoyed till his death. He also prac- 
tised physic for his tnaintenance. He is supposed to have 
died about the commencement of the last century. 
' There was another Lewis pe Compiegne de Viel, also 
a converted Jew, and born at Metz, who published many 
learned pieces, particularly in 1679, in Hebrew, with a 
Latin version bv himself, *^ Catechismus Judaeorum in 
disputatione & dialogo magistri & discipuli, scriptu^ a R. 
Abrahamo Jagel, monte Siiicis oriundo,'' with a dedica- 
tion to Dr. Compton, bishop of London : this book was 
reprinted at Franeker, in 1690, in 8vo. He gave the pub- 
lic likewise a Latin translation of, and notes upon, rabbi 
Moses Maimonides's book ^* De Sacrificiis,** and his tract 
** De Consecratione & de Ratione intercalandi,'' and Abar- 
banel's << Exordium sive prooemium in Leviticum/' printed 
at London, in 1683, in 4to. He had published also at 
Paris, in 1678, the eighth. book of Maimonides <' De cuitu 
divino,*' with a Latin version, just before he left France, 
where he was the king's interpreter for the Oriental lan- 
guages. He was born a Jew, but afterwards embraced the 
Popish religion, which he at last renounced for the Protes- 
tant, and entered into the communion of the Church of 
England, whither h^ retired about 1679.^ 

VIETA (Francis), a very celebrated French mathe- 
matician, was born in 1 540, at Fontenai, or Fontenai-le- 
Comt^, in Lower Poitou, a province of France. He was 
master of requests at Paris, where he died in 1 603, in the 
sixty-third year of his age. Among other branches of 
learningin which he excelled, he was one of the most respect- 
able mathematicians of the sixteenth century, or indeed 
of any age. His writings abound with marks of great origi- 
nality and genius, as well as intense application. His ap- 
plication was such, that he has sometimes remained in bis 
study for three days together, without eating or sleeping. 
His inventions and improvements in all parts of the ma- 
thematics were very considerable. He was in a manner 
the inventor and introducer of Specious Algebra, in which 
letters are used instead of numbers, as well as of many 
beautiful theorems in that science. He made also con- 
siderable improvements in geometry and trigonometry. 
His angular sections are a very ingenious and masteiriy 

} Crosby'i Hist of the Baptists,— Birch*! Life «f TflloUoo. 

VI ETA- 343 

^performance : by these be was enabled to resolve the pro- 
Uem of Adrian Roman, proposed to all matheonaticians^ 
. amouotiDg to an equation of the 45th degree. Rom^nus 
was so struck with his sagacity, that he immediately quitted 
his residence of Wirtzbourg in Franconia, and came to 
Fraiice to visit him, and solicit his friendship. His '^ Apol- 
lonius Gallus,'' being a restoration of. Apollonius^s tract 
on Taogencies, and many other geometrical pieces to be, 
found in bis works, shew the finest taste and genius for 
true geometrical speculations. He gave some masterly 
tracts on Trigonometry, both pla^ne and spherical, which 
may be found in the collection of his works, published 
at Leyden in 1646, by Schooten, besides another large 
and separate volume in folio, published in the author's 
lifertime at Paris 1579, containing extensive trigonome- 
trical tables, with the construction, and use of the same, 
which are particularly described. in the introduction to Dr. 
Mutton's Logarithms, p. 4, &c. To this complete trea- 
tise on Trigonometry, plane and spherical, are subjoined 
several miscellaneous problems and observations, such as, 
the quadrature of the circle, the, duplication of the cube, &C4 
Vieta having observed that there were many faults ii) 
the Gregorian Calendar, as it then existed, he composed 
a new form of it, to which he added perpetual ca- 
nons, and an iexplicaMon of it, with remarks and objec- 
tions against Clavius., whom be accused of having de- 
formed the true Lelian reformatioi^j by not rightly un- 
derstanding it. Besides those, it seems, a work greatly 
esteemed, and the loss of which cannot be sufficiently de« 
plored, was his .** Harmonicon Cceleste,^' which, being 
Qpmmunicated to father Mers^nne, was, by some perfidi- 
ous acquaintance of that honest- minded person, surrep- 
titiously taken from him, and irrecoverably lost, or sup- 
pressed, to the great detriment of the learned world. 
There were also, it is said, other works of an astronomi- 
.cal kind, that have been buried in the ruins of time. Vieta 
was also a profound decypherer, an accomplishment that 
firoyed very useful to his country. As the differeixt 
parts of the Spanish monarchy lay very distant from one 
another, when they had occasion to communicate any se- 
xreit. designs, they wrote them in cyphers and unknown 
characters, during the disorders of the league: the cy- 
pher was composed of more than five hundred different 
4:jbaract«r8, which yielded their hidden contents to the 

$44 V I E T A. 

peuetrating genius of Vieta alone. His skill so dtscon* 
carted the Spanish councils for two years, that they re« 
ported at Rome, and other parts of Europe, that the 
French king had only discovered iheir cyphers by meanfl 
of magic. ' 

VIEUSSENS (Raymond), a physician and anatomist, 
was born in 1641, at the village of Rovergue, and after 
studying and taking his degrees in medicine at MontpeU 
lier, settled there as a practitioner. In 1671, he was ap« 
pointed physician to the hospital of St. Eloy, where from 
frequent opportunities of anatomical dissection, he was 
led to pay particular attention to the subject of nenro- 
logy? which, notwithstanding what the celebrated I>« 
Willis had published, was a part of the animal economy 
very little known. After ten years study of the nerves, 
he published the work which has redounded most to his 
honour, '^ Neurologia universalis, hoc est, omnium hu- 
man! corporis nervorum, simul ac cerebri, meduliflM]ue 
spinalis, descriptio anatomica,'' Leyden, 1685, f<A. Even 
of this work, however, the anatomical part is the most va- 
luable, for what respects the physiology, which forms a 
Considerable part of the volume, deferves very little regard, 
as being founded on wrong principles. He afterwards pub- 
lished other anatomical works, but does not appear to have 
advanced his reputation by them. Astruc and Senac. have 
given a very unfavourable account of his genius and judg- 
ment, yet neither can deny that his anatomical researches 
have been of service. In 1690 he was sent for to be phy- 
sician to mademoiselle de Montpensier, but at her deatk 
returned to Montpellier, where he died in 1716. * 

VIGNIER (Nicholas), king's physician, and historio* 
grapher of France, was born in 1530, of ^ good family, at 
Troyes, in Champagne. He became very celebrated by his 
practice, and died at Paris, 1596, aged sixty-six, after hav- 
ing abjured protestantism, in which be was brought up. His 
principal works are, 1. ^' Les Fastes des anciens H^breux, 
Grecs, et Remains,'* 4to. 2. ** Bibliotheque Historiale," 
4 vols. fol. 3. A collection of "Church History,*' fol. but 
Jittle valued. 4. An excellent treatise "On the state an4 
origin of the ancient French," fol. and 4to. 5. '^Sommaire 
de I'Histoire des Frangois," fol. 6. "Trait6 de I'ancien 

> Mont«icU>s Hist. Malb. vol. I.— .Hutton's Diet.— Saxii Ooomast. 
* £loy, Diet. Hist, de Medecine. — Haller. 

V I G N I E R. 34S 

etat de la petite Brefcagne/* 4tOy and other works on French 
faislory, which are said to be useful for consultation'. His 
son, Nicholas Vignier, was minister at Blois at the begia^p 
ntng of the seventeenth century, but adopted the seofiU 
medts of the Catholic church after the year 16S1, and 
left several controversial works. ' 

VIGNIER (Jerome), grandson of the preceding histo- 
rian, was born in 1606, at Blois. He was bred a protestant^ 
and becAoie bailiff of Baugency ; but having afterwards ab«* 
jured the Protestant religion, he entered the congregation 
of the Oratory, in which he distinguished himself by his 
learning. He understood Greek, Hebrew, and .Chaldee, 
cultivated the belles lettres with success, and had a talent 
for Latin poetry, as appears from his paraphrases of some 
Psalms. He died November 14, 1661, at Paris, aged fifty* 
ai^. He left several worics : ^mong the principal are, << La 
G^n^alogie des Seigneurs d* Alsace,*' 1649, fol. ; a very 
useful supplement to St. Augustine's works, of which he 
found some MSS. at Ciairvaux that had never been pub- 
lished. ^' A Harmony of the Gospels,'' in French ; ^' Stem^p 
ma Austriacum," 1650, fol.; and ''La G6n£alogie des 
Comtes de Champagne." He meant to have published a 
treatise, written by St. Fulgentius against Faustus, but was 
prevented by death, nor is it known what became of this 
treatise. Vignier found an ancient MS. at Metz, contain*- 
ing a relation of events in that city, and in which there was 
a long account of the famous Joan d' Arc, better known by 
the name of the Maid of Orleans. According to this it ap- 
peared that she had been married to the Sire des Amboises, 
-or D'Hermoises, descended from an illustrious house, and 
of the ancient knighthood. He also found in the treasury 
of Messrs. des Amboises, the contract of the above mar^ 
• jrtage, which imports '' that in 14S6, Robert des Amboises 
jnarried Joan >d'Arc, called the Maid of Orleans." But 
this fact is very generally doubted. ^ 

VIGNOLA (James Barozzio de), an eminent architect 
and writer on the subject, was the son of Clement Baroz- 
.zio, of one of the best families of Milan, but who being 
ruined by the civil wars, iretired to Vignola, a small town 
in the marquisate of that name, situated in the territory of 
Bt)logfia. It was there that his son, the subject of this arti- 
cle, was born, Oct. 1, 1507, and became afterwards gene- 

1 Pict HisUt^Momi.— Thttftni HUtoria. « MorMi.--*I)ict. Hitt. 

U6 V I G N O L A. 

nlly known by the name of his native place. His father 
dying when be was almost in bis infancy, and leaving bini 
little provision, be wished to have recourse to painting; and 
having some knowledge of the first principles of the art, he 
went^o Bologna to be farther instructed, but soon changed 
his mind, and determined to confine himself to architect 
ture and perspective. He was no sooner known in this 
profession, than several persons applied to him for designs 
for buildings, and he executed some for the ^venior of 
Bologna, which were very much admired. On such occa- 
sions, in order to see the effect of what he laid down, be 
bad models made in wood by Damien de Bergamo, a Do- 
minican, who excelled in that species of ingenuity, and 
used to express, by means of coloured woods, every kind 
of material to be used in the building. 

In order to acquire a greater knowledge of the princi(^t 
of architecture^, Vignola went to Rome, and at first returned 
to painting for a maintenance; but not reaping much profit, 
abandoned that art a second time, and. procured employ- 
•ment as a draughtsman from Melighini, of Ferrara, then 
architect to pope Paul HI. and who had established a school 
of architecture at Rome., Vignola was afterwards employed 
4o make drawings, for the use of this academy, of the ancient 
edifices of the city, from which he derived great advantage 
in his studies. While here, about 1 537, or 1 540, be met with 
Primaticcio, who was employed by Francis I. king of France, 
to purchase antiques (See Primaticcio) ; and Vignola was 
of so much service in making casts for him, that Primatiecio 
.engaged him to go with him to France. There Vignola 
assisted that celebrated artist in all his works, and particu- 
larly in making the bronze casts which are at Fontaine*- 
bleau. He also made various architectural designs for the 
king, who was prevented from having them executed, by the 
wars in which France was then involved. After a residence 
of about two years, he was invited to Bologna, to undertake 
the new church of St. Petronius, and bis design was allowed 
the preference, and highly approved by Julio Romano, the 
celebrated painter, and Christopher Lombard, the architect. 
At Minerbio, near Bologna, he built a magnificent palace 
for count Isolani, and in Bologna the house of Achilles Boc- 
ehi. The portico of the exchange in that city is also of bis 
designing, but it was not built until 1562, in the pontic 
ficate of Pius IV. His most useful work at Bologna was 
the canal of Navilioj which he constructed with great skill 

V I G N L A. $47 

for the space of a league. But happening to be ill rewarded 
for this undertakings he went to Placentia, where be gave 
a design for the duke of Parma's palace, whicb was exe« 
cuted by bis son Hyacinth, who was now able to assist hint 
in bis various works. He afterwards built several churches 
and chapels in various parts of Italy, whi^h it is unneces^ 
sary to specify. These, it is supposed, he had finished be* 
fore his return to Rome in 1550, where Vasari presented 
him to pope Julius III. who appointed him his architect. 
While at Rome, he was employed in various works, both of 
grandeur and utility, the last of which, and reckoned bis 
finest work, was the magnificent palace or castle of Capra- 
rola, BO well described and illustrated by plates in his works. 
• In bis latter days, he succeeded Michael Angeio as archi* 
tect of St. Peter's, and was strongly solicited- by Philip 11. 
to assist in building the Escurial ; but his age, and his nu- 
merous employments, prevented his accepting the offer. 
The only interval between this and his death, was employed 
in a commission from Gregory XIII. to settle the limits be- 
tween the territories of the church, and those of the duke 
t>f Tuscany ; on his return be was seized with a fever, which 
proved fatal, July 7, 1575, in his sixty^sixth year. He was 
solemnly interred in the church of St. Mary of the Rotunda. 
Vignola's fame as an architectural author, is scarcely less 
than that of a practical artist. He published the ^* Regola 
delli cinque ordini d*architettura," fol. no date, with thirty* 
two fine plates, which bast often been reprinted with addic- 
tions and comments. The best is probably that printed at 
-Amst. in 1631, or 1642, fol« << con la nuova aggiunta de 
Michael Angeio Buonaroti.^* The French have . several 
good editions, with improvements, particularly the '^ Cours 
^d'architecture qui comprend les ordres de Vignole, avec 
•des commentaires, les figures, et descriptions de ses plus 
beaux batimens, et de ceux de Michel Ange/' by Daviler : 
-the third edition, now before us, is dated 1699, but there 
SHre others of 1738 and 1760, large 4 to* Jombert published 
at Paris in 8vo, ^* Regies des cinq orders dVrchitecture,** 
translated from the Italian of Vignola, with remarks, &c. • 
" VIGNOLES (AtPHONSO des), a learned chronologUt, 
-was born Oct«29, 1649, at the castle of Aubats, in Langoe- 
doc, of a very ancient family, and received a liberal edu- 

^ Life bjr D'AvHer prcfiied tofie « Coors d*Architecture."— TirabQto^.-- 

9i9 V I O N O L E S. 

cation, Hisprepari^ory studies bmtig finbbed, be paisse4 
a year at Genevay and beard a course pf lectures on divU 
m^y. His (atber bad intendecl bim for tb^ argiy, but vra^ 
unwilliug to put any restraint uppn bU inclinations, and 
tber^fore permitted bim to go to Saumur^ and afterwards 
to England, to complete bis divinity studies* In 1675 be 
returned to Aubais,, and was appointed minister of tbat 
icburcb, wbicb he afterwards resigned for that of Cailar, 
and while be performed the functions of bis order with 
great zeal, found leisure at the same time to indulge bis 
taste for chronologkal researches. On the revopation of 
ibe edict of Nantz be returned to Geneva, and afterwards 
to Berlin^ where he was appointed pastor of the oburcb of 
Schwedt. When bis merit became better known, he bad 
the choice of many churches of more emolument, but gave 
the preference to that of Braudenburgh, on account of its 
vicinity to the metropolis, where be might enjoy oppor*- 
tunities of study. Jn the mean time be began to form an 
intimacy with nmny eminent men, as Lenfant, LaCroze, 
Kirck, &c. and distinguished himself by some learned pa* 
pers inserted io the literary journals. When the royal sqt 
ciety of Serlin was founded in 1701, he was chosen one of 
the members, and at the suggestion of Leibnits was invited 
ko settle in Berlin, ihat the new soci/ety might profit by his 
icommnnications. With this he appears to have complied, 
and on the formation of the society of the Anonyml was 
chosen their secretary. In 1 7 11 be became one of the 
editors of the ^^ Bibliotheque Germanique,^' which be en- 
iricbed with many valuable criticisms, and analyses of books* 
Amidst all these employments he did not neglect the duties 
of bis profession, but was a very frequent preacher, and 
having obtained the cure of Copeoick, near Berlin, he 
passed his summers there, and there composed bis great 
:chroQological work, the plan of which he published in 
1721, but the whole did not appear until some years after- 
wards* Its success did not answer the expectation of the 
author, or of his friends, and although one of the best 
which had appeared on the subject, sold so slowly, tbat 
the bookseller was obliged more thai)- once to have recourse 
4x> the trick of a new title-page. YignQles, however, aa- 
tjafied with a moderate competency, a stranger to worldly 
ambition and passions, lived quietly and happily among 
his books, with the occasional conversation of a few agrei^- 
able and steady friends« His wife died in child-bed, and 


V I G N O L £ 6. 849 

lione of the cbildren the brought survived him. He w««, 
iA his old age, on the f»oint of losing his sight by two oata- 
Iracts, the one of which was dbsipated naturaliyy and the 
Tither i*emoved by «n o)>erationy the pafticulars of which he 
^published in the *' Miscellanfea Berolinensia," vol. IV. Ttie 
king and queen shewed him many 'marks of kindneeMv The 
latter, it appears 'from the dedication of .his chronology, 
had at one time ordered the eve of bis birtb-^day to be kept 
by an entertainment^ at which lier prox!y ex^pressed bet 
royal wishes for^tbe continuance of bis life. I^e died at 
Berlin, July 24, 1744, aged upwards^ of Rinety*fbiir. His 
principal ttrdrk, already noticed, was published under the 
titie of <* Ghroeologie'de L'histolrie saiate et des histoires 
%trang^r^s depuis la sortie d'Egypte jusqu'a la captivity 
tie Babylbne^'^ Beilin, 173^, 2 volsw4t0| a work unqaes- 
eionably of vast labour ahd textesiit, aind eonse^uently cili» 
tidt b^ supposed altogetber free from imrp^feeUons, ' 
- VtULALPANDO (J6fiN BAPrrisj) i» le^trned Spanish 
Jesuit^' Was ^bom- at Cordova in \66U^ ^nd entered the sok 
'eie^ of the Jesuits in the twefity<-«^th year of bis a(g<^. 
*We have very few partioubirs, ^ven by AntoniO) of hi^ 
^Ts6i¥iit history^ xrnless that, lie was: distinguished for his 
HS^tMsive theol6^ical andf tnatbematieal knowledge^ and 
fbf" some tinKs- v^s asaociated with Jerome Prado ia a coaar 
lOfMtiity on ElseWiel. . it SvoniUl appear that Viilalpando 
-hadlbe king's bnlers for this undertakinig, as fares re- 
•ipected the deMMripttmi c^ the Tem}>le, and city of Jeru^ 
^^m ; «(ti<l Pra4o, dying before ^be work was finished, 
Villalpando has the sole repatation of the whole. It was 
^blisfaed under die title of ** Explanationes in Eae- 
'efaielem,*' Rome, 1596-*^ 1^04, 3 vols. fol. As acommen- 
•<taiy, the eatholic writfers^ Dupin, &c. assure us that it is 
'one of the most learned* His skill in architecture gave 
•him grei't advantages in endeavouring to trace the figure 
tatid dimensions of the temple of Solomon, butunfortu- 
natety he* employed a sort of theory which was guided 
vDore'by hnaginatioh than judgment. Having laid it down 
as>a first prineiple, that the model of the temple, having 
^been giv^en by God himself, must be perfect, he therefore 
-exbmusted all the powers of conjecture and fiincy to4e- 
4lcribe•aa edifice that should answer that character. This 

* Chaufepie.»*Bibl. CleraiMiiqii*> vol. II.*»BiQg. Uoiv. art. DesTigiiolei,— 
Etoge by Fomiejr. *" 

%6t) V I L L A L P A N DO. 

led hinii among other errors, to iiitrociuce many embeUi»b«- 
ments and additions not mentioned in the. sacred text ; 
instead of three courts, for example, be has described no 
less than eleven. But the reader who is curious in the in^ 
quiry, may consult Calmet^s Dictionary, where there are^ 
engravings as well as a description, from Vilhilpanda He 
edited abo a work of Su Remi, ^^Remigii Rhemensis in 
Epistolas S. Pauli tractatus,'' Mentz, which was not^ 
however, published until ^after his death, as the. date is 
1614, fol. He died at Rome, May 23, 1608. ^ 

VILLANI (John), a Florentine historian of the fouf^ 
teenth century, was the son of a native of that place, and 
is supposed to have been born about the end of the thir« 
teenth century, as he was somewhat older than an infant in 
ISOO, when he informs us he went to Some to see the Ju« 
bilee, and young as he was, first formed, on that occasion^ 
the design of writing his *< Chronicle." Before^ however^ 
be began this work, he visited various parts of Italy^ 
France, and the Netherlands, and having collected much 
information, began to compile his bistory as soon at be 
returned home. His first intention was to write only the 
bistory of Florence, a erty wbicb he imagined would riae 
in splendour and prosperity as Rome declined, but he waa 
induced to extend his plan to the events of other countriea 
wherever they could be introduced.. In the mean time 
the public employments to which his merit raised him, de^ 
lay ed the completion of his history for many years. Thrice, 
1316, 1317, and 1321, be was one of tbe priors of Flo- 
rence; he bad also some office in the-mint, and at various 
times was employed in the service of the republic. He 
died of the plague in 1348. He had written his history op 
to this period, and his brother Matthew Villaiii made a 
continuation till the year 1 363, when he also died of the 
plague. The work then fell into the handa of Philip Vi).. 
lani, son to Matthew, who made a still longer addition to 
the labours of bis father and uncle. The first edition was 
printed at Florence by the Junti in 1 537, fol. and was often 
repHnted. The last, corrected from three MS copies^ 
was printed at Milan in 1729, 2 vols. fol. The origtnid 
part by John Villani, is, like most chronicles, mere com<p 
pilatton of fabulous history, until be comes to hb own times, 

^ Antonio Bi^U ilbp.^CaliBet'i DieUoBary.-«>IHi|pui» 

V I L L A N I. 351 

when he is allowed to be accurate and useful, and tbf .saoi^ 
praise is due to his successors. 

Philip Viilani also composed the ^^ Lives of the illustrioua 
Men of Florence/' which Mazzuchelli published for the 
first time in 1747, not, however, the original text, whicM 
is Latin, but an ancient Italian translation, with copious 
and learned notes. Philip was appointed, in 1401, to give 
lectures on Dante in the chair which Bocc;accio had filled* 
He was again appointed to the same office in 1404, and it 
is supposed he died soon after. He was the first author of 
a local literary history, and much u$e has since been made 
of his Lives of the celebrated Florentines. ^ 

VILLAR8 (Louis Hector, Duke of), marshal of France^ 
was born at Moulins in Bourbonnais in 1653. His father 
Imd served with ability and courage, both in the civil i^nd 
military capacity, and the son very early shewed a zeul to 
excel in arms. He served first as aid -de- camp to hi« 
cousin, the marshal de Bellefons, and signalized himself 
in several sieges and erigagemeats, till 1702, when having 
'defeated the prince of Baden at the battle of Friedlingen, 
be was appointed marechal of France, October 22, the same y 
year. The following year he took the fortress of Kell, ' 
won a battle at Hochstet, 1703, and subdued the insurgents 
in the Cevennes, by negociating with their leader in a 
manner that did credit to his humanity; for these servicen 
he was raised to tbe title of duke of Villarsin 1706. His next 
considerable action was forcing the lines at Stolhoffen, 
1707, and obtaining more than eighteen millions in con^r 
tributions from the enemy. It was thought that he would 
haTe gained the battle of Malplaquet, in 1709, had he npt 
been dangerously wounded before the action finished. 
Such at least was bis own opinion, to which historians seem 
not disposed to accede. But it is less doubtful that he 
afterward^ acquired great glory from the stratagem by which 
he forced the entrenchments of Denain on tbe Scbelde, 
July 24, 1712. This success was followed by the capture 
of Marchiennes, Douay, Bouchain, Landau, Friburg, &c. 
and by a peace concluded at Radstadt, between the em** 
peror and France, May 6, 1714. Marechal de Villars^ 
who had been plenipotentiary at the treaty of Badst^d^ 
was made president of the council of war in 1715, and 
afterwards counselloi: to the regency and minister of state. 

1 Tiraboichl.— Gioguea^ Hi»t, Lit d'ltalie.— -Saxii Onomast. 

55a V I L LA R S. 

la 1 75S he went into Italy as commander under the king 
of Sardinia, and bis majesty declared him marshal general 
of his camps and armies ; a title granted to no one, since 
the death of marecbal de Turenne, who appears to have 
been the first person honoured with it. M. de Viliars took 
PMghkona, Milan, Novarra, and Tortona ; bnt after hav- 
ing opened the following campaign, he fell sick and died 
at Turin, on his retnrn to France, June 17, 1734i, aged 
eighty-two, regretted as one of the greatest and most for^ 
tnnate generals of France. He had been admitted into the 
French academy, June 23, 1714« M. the abb6 Seguy 
spoke bis funeral oration, wfaicb was printed iu 1735. H« 
was a man of undoubted courage, but he was vain and un- 
^scconunodating, and never beloved. ^* The Memoirs of 
M. de Viliars'' were published in Dutch, in 1734 — 36, 
3 vols. 12mo; but the first volume only was written by 
himself. Another life was published by M. Anquetil in 
1784, 4 vols. 12mo, which is said to contain more ara|^ 
information and historical documents. ^ 
• VILLARS (MONFAUCON DE), a French abb6, related to 
^le celebrated Montfaucon the antiquary, appears to hOTe 
been a native, or to have b^en educated at Toulouse, 
whence he came to Paris, in hopes of recommending him- 
ielf by his talents in the pulpit, which were of no mean 
kind, and by his lively conversation, which perhaps fully aft 
inuch contributed to procure him friends. He aisp enter- 
tained the public with his pen, and published various works 
of imagination and criticism, written in a peculiar style of 
humour, one of which at least entitles him to the notice df 
the English reader. , This, which was first published at 
Paris in 1^70, was entitled '* Le comte de Gabalis, ou en*- 
tretiens sur les sciences secrettes,'' with an addition entitled 
^ Les genies assistans et les gnomes irreconciliables.*' 
D*Argonne, in his " Melanges d^Histoire et de Litterature," 
gives the following account of this singular woi^k, as quoted 
hy Dr. Warton : " The five dialogues of which it consists, 
«re the result of those gay conversations in which the abb£ 
vftLS engaged with a small circle of men, of fine wit and 
•humour, like himself. When the book first appeared, it 
<was universally read as innocent and amusing. But at 
length its consequences were pei'ceived, and reckoned 
•dangerous, at a time when this sort of curiosities began to 

> Diet Hist— Moreri. 

V I L L A R S. UZ 

g»iQ credit. Our devout preacher ivas denied the pu]|tttV 
and his book forbidden to be read. It was not clear whe- 
ther the author intended to be ironical, or spoke all seri- 
ously. The second Tolume, which he promised, would 
hare decided the question ; but the unfortunate abbi6 was 
soon afterwards assassinated by ruffians on the road ta 
Lyons. The laughers gave out, that the gnomes and 
sylphs, disguised like ruffians, had shot him, as a punish- 
ment for revealing the secrets of the Cabala; a crime not 
to be pardoned by those jealous spirits, as Villars himself 
has declared in his book." It was from this book that 
Pope took the machinery of the sylphs, of ^hich he has 
made such admirable use in his *^ Rape of the Lock,^' al- 
though it does not appear that he borrowed any particular 
circiKnstances relating to those spirits, but merely the 
general idea of their existence. The abb6 was killed io 
1675, and it is said that the fatal shot came from one of 
his relations. * 

VILLEFORE (Joseph Francis Bourgoin de), a French 
biographer, was born December 24, 1652, at Paris, and 
was the son of James Bourgoin, king^s counsellor, and 
hereditary judge and warden of the mint in that city. He 
spent some years in the community of gentlemen esta- 
blished in. the parish of St. Sulpice, with a view of conceal^ 
ing himself from the world, and having more leisure for 
study ; but his merit discovered him, and he was admitted 
into the academy of inscriptions in 1706. In 1708, how- 
ever, he voluntarily withdrew from this academy, al- 
leging, as an excuse, that his health would not permit him 
to perform the duties of it. He retired afterwards to a 
small apartment in the cloisters of the Metropolitan church, 
and there passed the rest of his life, contented with a lit- 
tle, free from ambition, employed in study and prayer, 
and enjoying the society of a small number of select 
friends. He continued a layman, but neither married, nor 
held any office in the state. He died December 2, 1737, 
aged eighty-five, leaving a great number of biographical 
works, translations, and small pieces. His biographical 
productions are, " The Life of St. Bernard," 4to ; ** The 
Lives of the Holy Fathers of the Deserts in the East and 
West," 5 vols. 12roo; "The Life of St. Theresa," with 
^< Select Letters" of the same Saint, 4to, and 2 vols. 12mo; 

1 Diet. Hist. — ^Moreri.— WartoB^f Essay ob Pop€. v 

Vol. XXX. A a 

$5* V I L L E F O R"E. 

^/ Anecdotes and secret Memoirs concerning the constitu-r 
tion Unigenitus/' .3 vols. 12mo; but this work was sup-i- 
pressed by a decree of council, as well as the "Refutation" 
of it, written by M. Peter Francis Lafitau, bishop of Siste* 
ron ; ** The Life of Anne Genevieve d^ Bourbon, duchess 
de Longueville," the best edition of which is Amsterdam, 
1739, 2 torn, 8vo. M. de Villefore's translations are, seve- 
ral of St, Augustine's, St. Bernard's, and Cicero's works, 
all said to be faithfully executed.* 

VILLIERS (George), duke of Buckingham, and me* 
morable in English story for having been the favourite of 
two kings, was born Aug. 20, 1592, at Brookesby in Lei- 
cestershire, and was the son of sir George Villiers, by a 
second wife of the ancient family of Beaumont. At an 
early age be was sent to a private school in that county, 
but never discovered any genius for letters ; so that more 
regard was bad in the course of his education to the accom- 
plishnients of a gentleman than those of a scholar. About 
eighteen, he travelled into France, where he made himself 
familiar with the French language, and with all the exer- 
cises of the noblesse; ^uch as fencing and dancing, in 
wh\ch last he particularly excelled. Soon after his return 
to England, which was at the end of three years, his mo- 
ther, who was a sagacious and enterprising woman, intro- 
duced him at court; concluding probably, and not without 
good reason, that a young gentleman of his fine p6rson and 
accomplishments could not fail of making his fortune under 
such a monarch as James L The king, about March 
1614-15, went according to his custom to take his hunting- 
pleasures at Newmarket; and the Cambridge scholars, who 
^newthe king's humour, invited him to a. pTay, called " Ig- 
noramus.'* At this play it was contrived, that Villiers 
should- appear with every advantage of dress and person ; 
and the king no sooner cast his eyes upon him than he be- 
came confounded with admiration ; for, says lord Claren- 
don, " though he was a prince of more learning and know- 
ledge than any other of that age, and really delighted 
more in books and in the conversation of learned men, yet, 
of all wise men living, he was the most delighted and taken 
^ith handsome persons and fine cloaths." Thus he con- 
ceived such a liking to the person of Villiers,. that he ** re-r 
l^olved, as sir Henry Wottou says, to make him a master- 

} Diat I|ist.«"Morcri. 

V I L L I E R S. • $55 

piece ; and to mould him, as it were, Platonically to his 
own idea.^^ 

The king began to be weary of his favourite, the earl of 
Somerset ; and many of the courtiers were sufficiently 
angry and incensed against him, for being what they them- 
selves desired to be. These, therefore, were pleased with 
t(ie prospect of a new favourite ; and, out of their zeal to 
displace Somerset, did all they could to promote Villiers. 
Their endeavours, concurring with the inclinations of the 
king, made the promotion of Villiers advance so rapidly, 
that in a few days after his first appearance at court, be was 
made cnp-bearer to the king. Soon after he was made a 
gentleman of the bed-chamber, and knight of the order of 
the garter. In a short time, " very short," says lord Cla- 
rendon, ^^ for such a prodigious ascent,^' he was made a 
baroD, a viscount, an earl, a marquis; he became lord high 
admiral of England, lord warden of the Cinque-ports, mas- 
ter of the horse; and entirely disposed of the favours of 
the king, in conferring all the honours and all the offices of 
the three kingdoms without a rival. In this he shewed the 
usual partiahties of personal and family ambition, and raised 
almost all of his own numerous family and dependents, 
without any other merit than their alliance to him ; which 
equally offended the ancient nobility and people of all con- 
ditions, who saw the flowers of the crown every day fading 
and withered, while the revenues of it were sacrificed to 
the aggrandizement of a private family. 

In 1620, the marquis of Buckingham married the only 
daughter of the earl of Rutland, who was the richest heiress 
in the kin^rcjom. Some have said that he debauched her 
first, and that the earl of Rutland threatened him into the 
marriage : but this may reasonably be ranked with many 
other imputations of perhaps doubtful authority, which now 
began to be accumulated against him'. In 1623, the mar- 
quis persuaded Charles prince of Wales to make a journey 
into Spain, and bring home his mistress the Infanta ; by 
representing to him, how gallant and brave a thing it would 
be, and bow soon it would put an end to those formalities, 
which, though all substantial matters were already deter- 
mined, might yet retard her voyage into England many 
months. The king was greatly enraged at the proposal, 
and the event shewed that he had sufficient reason ; but 
the solicitation of the prince and the impetuosity of the 
marqiiis prevailed. The marquis attended the prince, and 

A A 2 


was made a duke in his absence: yet it is certain, says 
lord Clarendon, that the king was never well pleased with 
the duke after this journey into Spain, which was totally 
against his will, and contrived wholly by the duke out of 
envy, lest the earl of Bristol should have the sole manage** 
ment of so great an affair. Many were of opinion, there- 
fore, that king James, before his death, was become weary 
of this favourite, and that, if he had lived, he would have 
deprived him at least of his large and unlimited power; but 
it did not openly appear that the king^s affection towards 
him was at all lessened. 

Charles succeeded to the throne in 1625 ; and the du|^ 
continued in the same degree of favour at the least with 
the son which he had enjoyed so many years under the fa- 
ther. This greatly disappointed certain courtiers, who, re- 
collecting the great jealousy and indignation which the 
prince had heretofore conceived against the duke, for hav- 
ing been once very near striking him, expected that he 
would now take revenge. But, on the contrary, the new 
king, from the death of the old, even to the death of the 
duke himself, discovered the most entire confidence in, 
and even friendship to, him. AH preferments in church 
and state were given by him ; all his kindred and friends 
promoted to the degree in honour, or riches, or offices, 
that he thought fit ; and all his enemies and enviers dis- 
countenanced, as he appointed. But, whatever interest 
he might have in the prince, he had now none with the 
parliament and people. The parliament, which had so 
rashly advanced the war with Spain upon the breaking of 
the match with the Infanta, and so passionately adhered to 
his person, was now no more ; and the attachment which 
the major part had for the duke, was changed now into 
prejudice and animosity. AH the actions of his life were 
scrutinized, and every unfavourable representation given 
of what he had said and done. Votes and remonstrs»|ces 
passed against him as an enemy to the nation ; and his 
misconduct was made the ground of the refusal to give the 
king a supply. This kind of treatment, however, had no 
effect in taming the duke's great spirit, who expressed the 
utmost indignation upon finding, that they who flattered 
him most before, mentioned him now with the greatest bit- 
terness and acrimony ; and that the same men, who called 
hiin ^^ our Saviour'* for bringing the prince safe out of 
Spain^ called him now ^^ corrupter of the king, and be* 

y I L L I E R S. 


trayer of the liberties of the people/* without bein^ able 
to impute to him the least crime, committed since the time 
of that exalted adulation. He ventured therefore to mani- 
fest a greater contempt pf them than he should have done; 
for he caused this and the next parliament to be quickly 
dissolved, and, upon every dissolution, had such as had 
given any offence, imprisoned or disgraced. He caused 
new projects to be every day set on foot for raising'money ; 
and bad defiance to temperate and conciliatory measures. 

In this fatal conjuncture, and while the war with Spain 
was yet kept up, a new war was precipitately declared against 
France ; for which no reasonable cause could ever be as« 
signed. It has been said, that'the king was hurried into this 
war, purely from a private motive of resentment in the 
duke of Buckingham, who, having been in France to 
bring over the queen, had the confidence to make over- 
tures of love to Anne of Austria, the consort of Lewis 
XIIL ; and that his high spirit was so fired at the repulse 
be met with on this extraordinary occasion, as to be ap- 
peased with nothing less than a war between the two na- 
tions. Whatever was the cause, the fleet, which had been 
designed to have surprised Cadiz, was no sooner returned 
without success and with much damage^ than it was re* 
paired, and the army reinforced for the invasion of France* 
Here the duke was general himself, and made that unfor- 
tunate descent upon the Isle of Rhee, ii| which the flower 
of the army was lost. Having returned to England, and 
repaired the fleet and the army, he was about to sail to 
the relief of Kochelle, which was then closely besieged by 
the cardinal Richelieu ; s^nd to relieve which the duke was 
the more obliged, because at the Isle of Rhee he had re- 
ceived great supplies of victuals and some men from that 
town, the want of both which he laboured under at this 
time. He was at Portsmouth for this purpose, when he was 
assassinated by one Felton, on the 23d of August, 1628^ 
in the thirty-sixth year of his age. The particulars of this 
assassination are well known, being related at large by lord 
CiarendoUj to whom we refer the reader ; but we may sub- 
join another account, as being circumstantial and curious, 
and less known. This is given by sir Simonds D^Ewes, io 
a manuscript life of himself: '^ August the 2$d, being Sa- 
turday, the duk^ having eaten his breakfast between eight 
and nine o'clock in the morning, in one Mr. Mason's house 
ia Portsmouth, he was then hasting away to the king, who 

35S V I L L I E R S. 

lay at Reswicke, about five miles distant, to have some 
speedy conference with him. Being come to the farther 
part of tlie entry leading out of the parlour into the hall of 
the house, he bad there some conference with sir Thomas 
Frier, a colonel ; and stooping down in taking his leave of 
him, John Felton, gentleman, having watched his oppor- 
tunity, thrust a long knife, with a white helft, he had se- 
cretly about him, with great strength and violence, into his 
breast, under his left pap, cutting the diaphragma and 
lungs, and piercing the very heart itself. The duke having 
received the stroke, and instantly clapping his right-hand 
on his sword-hilt, cried out ^ God^s wounds ! the villain 
hath killed me.* Some repoft his last words otherwise, lit-^ 
tie differing for substance from these ; and it might have 
been wished, that his end had not been so sudden, nor his 
last words mixed with so impious an expression. He was 
attended by many noblemen and leaders, yet none could 
see to prevent the stroke. His duchess, and the countess 
of Anglesey (the wife of Christopher Villiers, earl of Angle- 
sey, his younger brother), being in an upper room, and 
hearing a noise in the hall, into which they had carried the 
duke, ran presently iato a gallery, that looked down into it ; 
and there beholding the duke's blood gush out abundantly 
from his breast, nose, and mouth (with which his speech, 
after those his first words, had been immediately stopped), 
they brake into pitiful outcries, and raised p^eat lamenta- 
tion. He pulled out the knife himself; and being carried 
by his servants unto the table, that stood in the same 
hall, having struggled with death near upon a quarter of 
an hour, at length he gave up the ghost, about ten 
o'clock, and lay a long time after he was dead upon the 
table." / 

As to the character of this great man. Clarendon says, 
he was ^^ of a noble and generous disposition, and of such 
other endowments as made him very capable of being a 
great favourite with a great king. He understood the arts 
of a court, and all the learning that is possessed there, ex- 
actly well. By long practice in business, under a master 
that discoursed excellently, and surely knew all things won- 
derfully, and took much delight in indoctrinating bis 
young unexperienced favourite, who (he knew) would aU 
ways be looked upon as the workmanship of his own hands^ 
he had obtained a quick conception and apprehension of 
business^ and had the habit of speaking very gracefully and 

V I L L I E R S. ass 

pertinently. He was of a most flowing courtesy and affa- 
bility to ail men who made any address to liim, and so de- 
sirous to oblige them that ho did not enough consider the 
value of the obligation^ or the merit of the person he chose 
to oblige ; from which much of his misfortune resulted. He 
was of a courage not to be daunted, which was manifesteid 
in all his actions, and in his contests with particular persons 
of the greatest reputation ; and especially in his whole de- 
meanour at the Isle of Rhee^ both at the landing and upon 
the retreat; in both which no roan was. more fearless, or 
more ready to expose himself to the highest dangers. His 
kindness and affection to his friends was so vehement, that 
they were as so many marr^ges for better or worse, and 
so many leagues offensive and defensive : as if he thought 
himself obliged to love all his friends,^ and to make war 
upon all they were angry with, let the cause be what it 
would. And it cannot be denied, that he was an, enemy in 
the same excess ^ and prosecuted those he looked upon as 
enemies with the utmost rigour and animosity, and was not 
easily induced to a reconciliation. His single misfortune 
was, which was indeed productive of many greater, that 
be had never made a noble and a worthy friendship with a 
man so near his equal, that he would frankly advise him for 
his honour and true interest against the current, or rather 
the torrent) of his passions ; — ^and it may reasonably be be* 
lieved, that, if he.had been blessed with one faithful friend^ 
who had been qualified with wisdom and integrity, he wjOuLd 
have committed as few faultsi and done as transcendant 
worthy actions, as any man who shined in such a sphere in 
that age in Europe ; for he was of an excellent disposition, 
and of a mind very capable of advice and counsel ; he was 
in his nature just and candid, liberal, generous, and boun- 
tiful ; nor was it ever known, that the temptation of money 
swayed him to do an unjust or unkind thing. . If he had an 
immoderate ambition, with which he was charged, ittdeth 
not appear that it was in his nature, or that he brought it 
with him to the court, but rather found it there. He needed 
BO ambitioui who was so seated in the hearts of two such 
masters." This is the character which the earl of Claren- 
don has thought fit to give the duke ; and if other historians 
have not drawn him in colours quite so favourable^ yet they 
have not .varied from him in the principal features. ; 

The story of George Villiers, the duke's father, ap- 
pearing to an officer in the king's wardrobe at Windsor 


S<0 VtLtlERS. 

•astte, and predicting the duke^s^ death, is so Tery «fell 
known, that it does not seem necessary to enter into any 
detail about it. If the reader thinks it worthy of any credit, 
and is curious to examine farther into it, he may find 
it at large in the Brst book of Clarendon's ^^ History of the 
Rebellion.'* » 

VILLIERS (George), duke ofBuckingham, and a v^eiy 
distinguished personage in the reign of Charles II. was the 
son of the preceding, by his wife Jady Catherine Manners, 
and iwas born at Wallingford-house, in the parish of St. 
Martin in the Fields, January SO, 1627, which being but 
the year befoi^e the fatal catastrophe of his father's death, 
the young duke was, left a perfect infant, a circumstance 
which is frequently prejudicial to the morals of men borji 
to high rank and adBSuence. The early parts of his educa- 
tion he received from various domestic tutors ; after which 
he was sent to the university of Cambridge, where having 
completed a course of studies, he, with his brother lord 
Francis, went abroad, under the care of one Mr. Ayles- 
bury. Upon his retfirn, which was not till after the break- 
ing-out of the rebellion, the king being at Oxford, his 
grace repaired thither, was presented to his majesty, and 
entered of Christ-church college. Upon the decline of 
the king's cause, he attended prince Charles into Scotland, 
end was with him at the battle of Worcester in 1651 ; afiter 
which, making his escape beyond sea, he again joined 
him, and was soon after, as a reward for his attachment, 
made kpight of the Garter. Desirous, however, of re- 
trieving his affairs, he came privately to England, and in 
1657 married Mary, the daughter and sole heiress of Tho» 
mas lord Fairfax, through whose interest he recovered the 
greatest part of the estate he had lost, and the assurance 
of succeeding to an accumulation of wealth in the right of 
his wife. We do not find, however, that this step lost him 
the royal favour ; for, after the restoration, at which time 
he is said to have possessed an estate of 20,000/. per annum, 
he was made one of the lords of the bed-chamber, called 
to the privy«council, and appointed lord-lieutenant of 
Yorkshire, and master of the horse. All these high oflfees^ 
however, he lost again in 1666; for, having been refused 
the post of president of the North, he became disaffected 
to the king, and it was discovered that be had carried oa a 

1 Biog. Brit,<«-Wottsa'f Remaias,— CJartiMlon.— Hiitf^jr of Enstaa^ 

V I L L I E K s. aei 

•ecret correspondence by letters and other transactioot 
with one Dr. Heydon (a man of no kind of conseqaence^ 
but a useful tool), tending to raise mutinies among his ma- 
jesty's forces, particularly in the navy, to stir up sedition 
among the people, and even to engage persons in a con- 
spiracy for the seizing the Tower of London. Nay, to 
such base lengths had he proceeded, as even to have given 
money to villains to put on jackets, and, personating sea- 
men, to go about the country begging, and exclaiming for 
want of pay, while the people oppressed with taxes were 
cheated of their money by the great officers of the crown* 
Matters were ripe for execution, and an insurrection, at 
the head of which the duke was openly to have appeared^ 
on the very eve of breaking-out, when it was discovered by 
ineans of some agents whom Heydon had employed to 
carry letters to the duke. The detection of this affair so 
^asperated the king, who knew Buckingham^ to be capa- 
ble ef the blackest designs, that he immediatisly ordered 
him to be seized; but the duke finding means, having de- 
fended his house for some time by force, to make his 
escape, bis majesty struck him out of all his commissions, 
and issued out a proclamation, requiring his surrender by 
a certain day. This storm, however, did not long haiig 
over his head ; for, on his making an humble submission, 
king Charles, who was far from being of an implacable 
temper, took him again into favour, and the very next 
year restored him both to the privy-council and bed"-ctnim<- 
ber. But the duke's disposition for intrigue and machina^- 
tion was not lessened ; for, having conceived a resentment 
against the duke of Ormond, becaiisf he had acted witk 
some severity against him in the last-mentioned affair, he^ 
in 1670, was supposed to be concerned in an attempt 
made on that nobleman's life, by the same Blood who after- 
wards endeavoured to steal the crown. Their design was 
to. have conveyed the duke to Tyburn, -and there hav)^ 
hanged him ; and so far did they proceed towards the put- 
ting it in execution, that Blood and his son had actually 
forced the duke out of his coach in St. James*s-street, and 
carried him away beyond Devonshire-house, Piccadilly^ 
before he was rescued from them. That there must have 
been the strongeist reasons for suspecting the duke of Buck« 
ipghao^ of having been a p^rty in this villainoug project, is 
apparent from a story Mr. Carte relates from the best au- 
thority, in his *^ Life of the duke of Ormond/' of the public 

362 V I L L I E R S. 

resentment and open menaces thrown out to the duke on 
the occasion^ by the earl of Ossory^ the duke of OrmondV 
son, even in the presence of the king himself. But as 
Charles II. was more sensible of injuries done to himself 
than others/ it does not appear that this transaction hurt 
the duke's interest at court; for in 1671 he was installed 
cliancellor of the university of Cambridge, and sent am* 
bassador to France, where he was very nobly entertained 
by Lewis XIV. and presented by that monarch at his de- 
parture with a sword and belt set with jewels, to the value 
of forty thousand pistoles ; and the next year he was em«* 
ployed in a second embassy to that king at Utrecht. How- 
ever, in June 1674, he resigned the chancdlorship of 
Cambridge, and about tlie same time became a zealous 
partizan and favourer of the nonconformists. On February 
16, 1676, his grace, with the earls of Salisbury and 
Shaftesbury, and lord Wharton, were committed to the 
Tower, by order of the House of Lords, for a contempt, 
in refusing to retract the purport of a speech which the 
duke had made concerning a dissolution of the parliament; 
but upon a petition to the king, he was discharged thence 
in May following. In 1680, having sold Wallingfbrd** 
house in the Strand, he purchased a house at Dowgate, 
and resided there, joining with the earl of Shaftesbury in 
all the violences of opposition. About the time of king 
Charles's death, his health became affected, and he went 
into the country to his own manor of Helmisley, in York- 
shire, where he generally passed his time in bunting and 
entertaining his friends. This he continued until a fort- 
night before his death, an event which happened at a te- 
nant's house, at Kirkby Moorside, April 16; 1688, after 
three days illness, of an ague and fever, arising from a 
cold which he caught by sitting on the ground after fox- 
hunting. The day before his death, he sent to his old ser- 
vant Mn Brian Fairfax, to provide him a bed at his own 
house, at Bishophill, in Yorkshire ; but the next morning 
the same man returned with the news that his life was de- 
ibpaired of. Mr. Fairfax came ; the duke knew him, looked 
earnestly at him, but could not speak. Mr. Fairfax aske<) 
a gentleman there present, a justice of peace, and a wor- 
thy, discreet man in the neighbourhood, what he had said 
or done before he became speechless : who told him, that 
some questions had been asked him about his estate, to 
which he gave no answer. This occasioned another ques- 

V I L L I E R S. 363 

tion to be proposed, if^he would have a Popish priest; 
but he replied with great vehemence, No, no ! repeat- 
ing the words, be would have nothing to do with them. 
The same gentleman then asked him again, if he would 
bave the minister sent for ; and he calmly said, ^^ Yes, pray 
send for him." The minister accordingly came, and did 
the office enjoined by the church, the duke devoutly at- 
tending it, and received the sacrament. In about an hour 
after, he became speechless, and died on the same night*. 
His body was buried in Westminster-abbey. As to his 
personal character, it is impossible to say any thing in its 
vindication ; for though his severest enemies acknowledge 
him to have possessed great vivacity and a quickness of parts 
peculiarly adapted to the purposes of ridicule, yet his 
warmest advocates have never attributed to him a singrle 
virtue. His generosity was profuseness, his wit malevo- 
lence, the gratiBcation of his passions his sole aim through 
life, his very talents caprice, and even his gallantry the 
mere love of pleasure. But it is impossible to draw his 
character with equal beauty, or with piore justice, than in 
that given of him by Dryden, in his ^^ Absalom and Achito- 
phel," under the name of Zimri, to which we shall refer 
our readers. If he appears inferior to his father as a states- 
man, he was certainly superior to him as a wit^ and wanted 
only application and steadiness to have made as conspicuous 
a figure in the senate and the cabinet as he did in the draw- 
ing-room. But his love of pleasure wa^ so immoderate, 
and his eagerness in the pursuit of it so ungovernable^ that 
they were perpetual bars against the execution of even any 
plan he might have Formed solid or praise-worthy. In con- 
sequence of which, with the possession of a fortune that 
might have enabled him to render himself an object of 
almost adoration, we do not find him on record for any one 
deservedly generous action. A^ he had lived a profligate, 
he died a beggar ; and as he had raised no friend in his life, 
he found none to lament him at his death. As a writer, 
however, he has very considerable merit. His poems, in- 
deed$ are very indifferent, but his memory will owe much 
to his celebrated comedy of ^'The Rehiearsal," 1672, which 
is a master-piece of wit, and every way an original 

Besides ^< The Rehearsal," the duke was the author of 

* These and other particulars respecting the wretched end of the duke of 
Buckingham* may be seen in a letter from lord Arran, printed in Maty's Re>- 
▼iew, VQl IVl p, 435. 



464 V I L L I E R S. 

tOQie other dramatic pieces ; as ^^ The Chances/' a comedy 
altered from Fletcher ; ^* The Restauration, or Right will 
lake place/' a tragi-comedy ; ^ The Battle of Sedgmpor/* 
a farce ; << The Militant Couple, or the Husband may thank 
hiniself/' a fragment. He was the author of some prose 
pieces, among which were ^' An Essay upon Reason and 
Religion/' in a letter to Nevile Pain, esq. ; ^^ On Human 
Reason/' addressed to Martin Clifford, esq.; ^^An account 
of a Conference between the duke and father Fitzgerald, 
whom king James sent to convert his grace in his sickness /' 
and, ^^ A short Discourse upon the reasonableness of men's 
having a religion or worship of God." Th,is last was printed 
in 1685, and passed through three editions. The duke 
wrote also several small poems complimentary and satirical. 
One is entitled *^The lost mistress, a complaint against the 

countess of ^" Shrewsbury, as is supposed ; whose 

lord he killed in a duel on her account, and who is satd to 
have held the duke's horse, disguised like a page, during 
the combat. The loves of this tender pair are touched by 
Pope, in some well-known lines. Pope informed Spence, 
<' that the duke's duel with lord Shrewsbury was concerted 
between him and lady Shre^Vsbury. All that morning she 
was trembling for her gallant, and wishing for the death of 
her husband ; and after his fall, 'tis said the duke lay with 
her in his bloody shirt." The following account of this in* 
famous affair; which Mr. Malone copied from a MS lettef 
dated Whitehall, Jan. 10, 1673*4, affords but a sorry idea 
of the profligate reign in which such a tragedy could be 
acted with impunity. 

*^ Upon Wednesday the Tth^ the two Houses met. In 
the Lords' House, immediately upon his majesty's recess^ 
the earl of Westmoreland brought in a petition against the 
duke of Bucks, in the name of the young earl of Shrews* 
bury, tiesiring justice against him, for murthering his father, 
making his mother a whore, and keeping her now as an in* 
famous strumpet. To this {he duke replied, — 'tis true he 
bad the hard fortune to kill the earl of Shrewsbury, but it 
was upon the greatest provocations in the world: that he 
bad fought him twice before, and had as often given him 
bis life ; that be had threatened to pistdl him, wheresoever 
be (should) meet him, if he could not fight him : — that for 
these reasons the king had givei> him his pardon. To the 
other part of the petition concerning the lady Shrewsbury, 
he said, he knew not how far his conversation with that lady 


was cognizable by that House ; but if that bad given offence, 
she was now gone to a retirement.*^— A day was, Appointed 
for considering the merits of the petition ; but the parlia*' 
ment 'being prorogued on Feb. 25, nothing more appears 
to have been done in the business. Three days before the 
duke was pardoned for killing lord Shrewsbury (Feb. 25, 
1667-S), that nobleman's second, sir John Talbot, received 
a pardon for killing the duke's second, Mr. William Jenkins; 
for at that time the seconds in duels regularly engaged, as 
well as the principals. Andrew Marvell says, in one of his 
letters, that the duke had a son by lady Shrewsbury, whg 
died young, and whom he erroneously calls earl of Co- 
ventry. The duke had no heirs by his duchess. What the 
duke meant by lady Shrewsbury's going to a retirement^ 
we know no^. She afterwards married George Rodi>ey 
Bridges, second son of sir Thomas Bridges of Keynsham 
in Somersetshire, knt, and died April 20, 1702.' 

VILLOISON (John Baptist Gaspard D'Ansse de), a 
very learned Frenchman, member of the Institute, and of 
all the academies and learned societies of Europe, was born 
at Corbeille-sur- Seine, March 5, 1750. His- family was 
originally of Sps^n, but had settled in France in the early 
part of the seventeenth century. His father, as well as 
others of his ancestors, had served in the aMiy. He began 
his studies at a very early age at the college of Lisieux^ 
from which he removed to that of Du Plessis, and in both 
was distinguished by a decided taste for the ancient ]an«^ 
guages, especially the Greek, for the sake of which be 
again removed to the college of Des Grassis, that he migbt^ 
attend the Greek lectures of M. le Beau. Under his tuition 
be distanced all his fellow-students, and gained all the 
prizes destined to those who proved the superiority of their 
taste in Homer. He afterwards attended the lectures of 
Capperonier, Greek professor in the royal college of France^ 
which were adapted to a more advanced state of proficiency, 
and soon made such progress as to need no other instructor 
than bis own study. And such was the extent of his appli- 
cation, that he had already, although scarcely fifteen yea^ 
of age, perused almost all the writers of antiquity, poetS| 
orators, historians, philosophers, and grammarians. Hav« 
ing thus exhausted the usual stores of printed works, he 

1 Biog. Brit. — Biog. Dram. «— Gibber's Lives. — Park's edttion of the Royal 
and Noble A ulhors. 

366 V I L L O I S O N. 

sought new trea;sures in manuscripts ; and having found iri 
the library of St. Gerniain-des-Pres, a collection of in- ', 
elited Greek lexicons, among which was that of Homer by 
ApoUoniuSy be formed the design of publishing this lastj» 
which accordingly appeared in 1773, preceded by ample 
prolegomena, and accompanied by notes and observations, 
the extensive and profound erudition of which appeared 
very extraordinary in a young man of only twenty-two. 
The acadfiiy of inscriptions and belles lettres, to which 
Villoison submitted his work before it was printed, had ad- 
mitted him a member during the preceding year, after hav- 
ing obtained a diiipensaMon on account of his age, without 
which be could itot be elected- The reason assigned was 
extremely honourable to him : " that having anticipated 
the age of profound knowledge, it was just that he should 
enjoy its advantages earlier than other men ; and that he 
should outstri]> them in a career of honours, as he had in 
that of learning." 

The fame he ha4 so justly acquired involved him now in 
a literary correspondence with the most eminent men of his 
time, who were desirous of his communications, and he 
soon became an authority in what regarded the Greek lan- 
guage. This, however, he did not permit to give any se- 
rious interrupticm to his studies; and the value Jbe set on 
his time and labour appeared in the offence he took at the 
conduct of the academy. He had communicated several 
memoirs, of which they published only extracts, and there- 
fore he desisted foir several years from making any farther 
communications. His next publicatioti was an edition of 
the pastoral of Longus, which appeared in 1778, and would 
have been an enormous volume if one of his learned friends 
hdd not prevailed on him to retrench half of his remarks, 
^nd even then its ** superfluity of erudition" was objected 
to ;** a charge," says his biographer, ** which did no injury 
to that species of reputation of which* M. de Villoison was 

He was ^ot however fully satisfied with its success, and 
thought with reason that he might be more usefully em- 
ployed in publishing sqme valuable work, not before given 
to the world. He had examined the libraries of France for 
this purpose ineffectually, and formed a project of going to 
Venice, to search the library of St. Mark, to which he knew 
that cardina) Bessarion had left his numerous manuscripts. 
He accordingly set out in nsi, under the patronage of the 

V I L L O I S O N. ^ 367 

king, who appointed that the expenses of bis journey and 
residence (to which no limits were fixed) should be defrayed 
by the government. His researches were not fruitless. In 
that depository, he soon discovered several inedited works 
of the rhetoricians and philosophers, and especially gram^ 
mariaus, which he deemed worthy of publication, either en- 
tire or in extracts; and these form the celebrated collection 
which was printed the same year, in 2 vols. 4to, under the 
title of " Anecdota Gragca e regia Parisiensi et e Veneta S. 
Marx:i bibliptheca deprompta," Venice. Of this some co- 
pies were taken off in folio, and two on vellum. It was how- 
ever unfortunate that publication followed so hastily on dis- 
covery, for Villoison soon found, but found too late, that a con- 
siderable proportion of the first volume of these **Anecdota'* 
had already been given to the public. . He made however 
a very important discovery in the library of Mark, of a MS. 
gf Homer, which he judged to be of the 10th century, and 
consequently anterior by two centuries to the commentator 
Eustatbius. This precious volume, which does not appear 
to have been before examined, contained the whole Iliad, ' 
enriched with the scholia of the most eminent grammatians 
of antiquity. The margins also were filled with various 
niarks by which these grammarians distinguished the verses 
of Homer, which they judged to be supposititious, corrupted, 
or transposed, from those whose genuineness was univer- 
sally recognized. He immediately prepared an edition of 
this valuable treasure, which was published in 1788, -foL 
accompanied by learned prolegomena, and was regarded as 
one of the most valuable presents made to the literary world 
during the last century, and every scholar hastened with his 
congratulations. But, says his biographer, " the satisfac- 
tion which this brilliant success must have given to M. de 
Villoisonr was not long unmixed. He could not see, with- 
out sentiments of pain, the spirit of system abusing his dis- 
coveries to attack the glory of the father of poetry: and 
perverting the critical marks affixed to' a great number of 
verses in the Iliad, in support of the darling position, that 
parts of this poem, even entire books; were the work of an- 
cient rhapsodists, and the first editors, &c. — and the idea 
that he had unintentionally furnished the basis on which 
these conjectures were constructed, and the weapons by 
which their authors pretended to defend them, troubled him 
so much) that he almosc repented of having published his 

368 V I L L O I S O N. 



He bad iidvanced but a little way in printing the lUad) 
when he yielded to the invitation of the duke and ductless 
of Saxe- Weimar, who honoured him with their parciculsur 
esteem, and quitting Venice, repaired to their capital. While 
here, he formed the collection of critical letters, printed al 
Zurich in J 783, under the title of ^^ EpistolsB Vinarienses^ 
in quihus multa GrsBCorum scriptorum loca emendantur o^ 
librorum Ducalis bibliothecae,'' 4to. Having found in the 
library of St. Mark a very liberal translation of part of the 
Old Testament, made by a Jew in the ninth century, he 
laboured, during bis stay at Weimar, to put it into a state 
fit for publication ; and on bis return to France in 1784, he 
remained some time at Strasburgh for the purpose of hav- 
ing it printed there under his own inspection. He soon after 
set out for Greece, in quest of other ancient MSS. ; but 
aftena tour of two years, found nothing of that, description. 
He had made, however, many observations, and intended, 
with the aid of these, to have composed a history of ancient 
add modern Greece. For the same purpose he determined 
on a fresh perusal of all the Greek and Latin authors extanty 
and as Paris had now become the scene of the revolution, 
and all its enormities, he removed to Orleans, in the public 
library of which he executed his extensive plan of rea^ling, 
and its fruits were fifteen targe quarto volumes of extracts 
and observations, which were to contribute to his history of 
Greece. He al^o prepared during his retreat at Orleans, 
materials for a new edition of Mont&ucon^s <^ Palaeographia' 
Gra^ca,'' all of which are now in the royal library. 

After the last storms of the revolution, he returned to 
Paris, with his treasures ; and his property of other kinds 
having been lost in the general confusion, he endeavoured 
to supply his wants by a course of lectures on the Greek 
language, but either had few scholars, or was unable to 
level himself to their capacities. A professdrsbip of modern 
Greek had just been founded, which was bestowed on him, 
but 30on suppressed by Bonaparte, who, however, created 
for him a professorship of ancient and modern Greek in the 
college of France. On this *he scarcely entered, when a 
malady, which at first he regarded as very slight, but the- 
force of which was aggravated by degrees, piit an end to' 
his life, April 26, 1805. 

'^ Nature," says his biographer, *^ had gifted VilloiBOn 
with a quick and penettating mind, but his memory, which 
was, in truth^ a prodigy, and wh^cb he had perhaps exer* 

V I L L O I S O N. 369 


dised too exclusively, appears in some degree to have: 
checked the developement of bis other intellectual faculties, 
and to have prevented them from reaching their perfect 
growth. Insatiably desirous of knowledge, he had never 
too much time for reading, and he rarely appropriated any 
to thought and reflection ; hence the incoherence, the 
sudden digressions, the want of proportion and integrity 
which are to be remarked in some of his works ; hence the 
want of consistency and steadiness in conduct and conver- 
sation of which he sometimes incurred the charge. But 
these imperfections (adds his biographer) disappear before 
the splendour of his great and useful qualities : if he always 
remained young in judgment, taste, and sense of propriety, 
in erudition he condensed the acquisition of centuries, with 
ail the vigour of mi^nly age; i^nd learned societies might 
esteem themselves happy if they possessed many members 
possessed of similar excellence, though mingled with si- 
milar alloy." * 

VINCENT (of Beauvais), a Dominican of the thir- 
teenth century, was reader to St. Louis, king of France, 
and tutor to his children. He compiled a summary of va- 
rious knowledge, called the ** Speculum Majus," contain- 
ing natters of a natural, doctrinal, moral, and historical 
kind, which contains the opinions of authors that are not 
now extant, and on that account is an object of some cu- 
riosity. In other respects it serves only to shew the igno- 
rance and superstition of the age. It was first printed at 
Strasburgh in 1476, and has often been reprinted, as low 
as the beginning of the seventeenth century. Vincent died 
in 1264, as some assert, but, according to Dupin, this is a 
matter of great doubt. He left spme other works. * 

VINCENT (of Lerins), a saint of the fifth century, was 
a native of France, and originally a soldier; but determin- 
ing to forsake the world, retired to the monastery of Le- 
rins in Provence, and became a priest. The time of his 
death is uncertain,' but after that event he was canonized^ 
He wrote a work to Which he is supposed to have owed this 
honour, entitled *^ Commooitorium adversus Hsereticos,'' 
in which he proposes to confute heretics by two authorities: 
first, that of the Holy Scriptures ; and secondly, that of the 
church, and be advances many arguments that have at least 
the appearance of ingeniiity. There have been many edi- 

1 Eloge, by Dacier, secretary «f the National Institate. * Dupin. 

Vol. XXX. Bb 


tioiis of this work abroad, and one at Cambridgei in 16.87, 
12cno. Mosheim calls it an excellent treatise,, but hU 
translator says he sees nothing in it but that blind venera- 
tion for ancient opinions, which is so fatal to th^ discovery 
and progress of truth, and an attempt to. prove tha^ nothing 
but the voice of tradition is tp be consulted in fixing the 
sense of-the holy scriptures. * 


VINCENT (Thomas), a nonconformist divine of great 
popularity, courage, and piety, was born in the month of 
May 1634, in Hertford. He was the eldest son of the rev, 
John Vincent, who died possessed of the valuable living of 
Sedgfield in the county of Durham, but. who was so often 
troubled on account of his. nonconformity, that although 
he bad a numerous family, . it is said that not two of bis 
cbil|dren were born in the same county. This son, .Thoma«, 
was. educated at Westminster-school, whence he was, in 
1647, elected to Christ Church, Oxford. Tliere he made 
such proficiency, that, after taking bis degree of M. A. in 
J 654, the dean. Dr. Owen, chose him cateehist, an office 
which. Wood says, usually belongs to a senior master^ On 
leaving Oxford he became chaplain to Robert, earl of Lei- 
cester, and afterwards suc<;eeded to the living of St. Mary 
Magdalen, MUk^street, London, from which he wasejected 
for nonconformity in 1662. He then taught school for 
some time with another famous nonconformist, the rev. 
Thomas Doolittle, at Islington, and occasionally preached 
when it could be dojne with safety, in 1665 the memorable 
and last plague with which this kingdom was visited, broke 
out in the metropolis with uncommon fury, and Mr. Viu- 
cent informed his colleague that he now thought it bis 
duty to relinquish his present eoiployment, and devote 
himself to the service of the sufferers in this great calamity. 
Doolittle endeavoured in vain to. dissuade him, and Mr. 
Vincent, that he might not seem obstinate, agreed to refer 
the case to the city ministers, who, after hearing his rea- 
sons, and admiring his courage and humanity, gave all the 
approbation that such an act of self-devotion CQuld adroit, 
and Mr. Vincent came to lodge in the city, and throughout 
the whole continuance of the plague preached constautly 
every Sunday in some parish church. Thi^ was not ouly 
connived at by government, biit he was followed by persons 

1 DupiD. — Morcri. 

• 1 


of dW ranks. He also visited the sick whenever called upon, 
and yet •ontinued in perfect heaUh during the \vhole time, 
although seven persons died of the plague in the* house 
where he resided. This remarkable instance of courage 
and humanity probably reconciled many to him who dis- 
approved of his nonconfoi'mity ; for although he preached 
afterwards at a dissenting meeting at Hoxton, and was the 
founder of another at Hand> alley, Bishopsgate-street, we 
do not find that he was molested. He died Oct. 15, 167S, 
in the forty-fourth year of his age. He was the author of 
several pious tracts, which went through njany editions in 
his life-time, and afterwards ; and had some controversy 
with Penn the qiiaker, and with Dr. William Sherlock. 
The most popular of his tracts were his " Explanation of 
the Assemblies Cat6chism,'* which still continues to be 
printed;, and his *' God's terrible voice to the city by 
Plague and Fire," in which are some remarkable accounts 
of both these fatal events. This work, which was first 
printed in 1667, 12mo, went through thirteen editions be- 
fore 167L. He published a work of the same kind, occa- 
sioned by an eruption of Mount Etna, entitled **Fire and 
Brimstone," &c. 1 670, 8vo. He had a brother, NaTHanael, 
also educated at Christ Ghiirch, who was ejected from the 
living of Langley-marcb, in Buckinghamshire^ in 1662, 
and afterwards was frequently prosecuted for preaching in 
conventicles. He was also imprisoned, as being concerned 
in Monmouth's expedition, but nothing was proved against 
him. He died in 1697, and left several pi'acticai treatises, 
and funeral sermons. Wood attributes to him more *« brisk 
and florid parts" ihan belong to hh fraternity, and adds, 
that he was " of a facetious and jolly humour,"^' which cer- 
tainly does not correspond with the other characters given 
of him. " 

VINCENT (William), the late learned dean of West- 
minster, was born in London, Nov. 2, 1739. His father 
was a citizen of London, in commercial business, first as a 
packer, and afterwards as a Portugal merchant, in which 
last concern he acquired opulence, but was impoverished 
by the failures consequent upon the great earthquake at 
Lisbon, in 1755. He lost also his second son, 'Giles, in. 
that terrible catastrophe. He was for twenty-seven years 
deputy of Lime-street Ward, London. His eldest son, 

1 Ath. Ox. vol. II.^CaUmy. 
B B 2 


FraDciSy continued the business of apaok^r, Bpd;pros|](gred 
in it ; and by bim William was assisted in bis expenses at 
college. His school education, excepting a mere infantine 
initiation at Cavendish, in Su(Fq1I^, was received entirely 
at Westminster ; and from fourteen years old, <wbeo be 
entered the school, to the day of his death, he was never 
unconnected with that seminary, nor long personally ab- 
sent from its precincts, except for the five years in which 
he was pursuing bis academical studies. Passing through 
every gradation in the school, and collegiate foundation, 
be was thence elected scholar of Trinity college* Caoa- 
bridge, in 1757. In 1761 he took bis first degree in ^rts, 
and was chosen a fellow of his college ; soon after which 
(1762), be returned to Westminster, as usher, or assist* 
ant in the school. In that capacity be proceeded from the 
lowest to the highest situation, so justly approved, in all 
respects, by the patrons of the school, that, on the resig- 
nation of Dr. Lloyd, the veteran second master in 177 r, he 
was appointed to that office. In the same year he was no- 
minated one of the chaplains in ordinary to bis majesty. 

The place of second master at Westminster school is a 
situation of much labour and responsibility. Besides the 
daily business of the school, which, if not arduouit^ is at 
least fatiguing, the person who holds that office has the. 
whole care and superintendence of the scholars on the 
foundation when out of school ; that is, of forty boys, ra- 
pidly growing up into men, and yearly drafted off, by elecr 
tions of from eight to ten, to the two universities. Yet in 
this much occupied situation it was, that Mr. Vincent was 
prosecuting those studies which gradually established his 
reputation at home as a scholar, and a man of research ; 
and finally extended his celebrity over the whole continent 
of EuropCi. What is much to his honour, he studied under. 
a natura,l disadvantage, which to a less ardent and per- 
severing spirit would have served as an excuse for idleness. 
From an early period of life he was subject to a weakness 
of the eyes, attended with pain and inflammation, wbjcb 
never suflPered him to read or write with impunity by arti- 
ficial light. These attacks were so severe, that, to avoid 
yet more formidable consequences, be found himself com- 
pelled altogether to relinqubh evening studies. But zeal 
can always find resources. As be could not read at nighi 
he formed the habit of rising very early. Before the hours 
of schooli in the intervals between morning and evening 


^tendance, and after both, when the length of the days 
pei*mitted, he was generally employed in his study. Of 
exercise, properly so called, he took very little, but his 
constitution was robust; and of a man who completed 
seventy-six years, we can hardly say that his days were 
shortened by his habits of life^ of whatever kind they 
might be. 

He had three principal objects of pursuit ; theology, 
classical learning, and history in all its branches. Histori- 
cal research was his peculiar delight, including geography^ 
navigation, commerce, and even the military art, as illus-^ 
trating the history of men, and connecting the memorials 
of remote periods. To this taste, perseveringly indt^lged, 
we owe his various works, particularly those on ancient 
commerce and navigation, on which his reputation chiefly 
rests. Yet he Was no impatient candidate for fame. Du- 
ring the whole period of his being under-master, which 
Was no less than seventeen years, he published nothing that 
was at all considerable. One small publication was a let- 
ter to Dr. Watson, then professor of divinity at Cambridge 
(afterwards bishop of Llandaff) on the subject of a sermoa 
preached by him in 1780; a production neither then nor 
afterwards publicly avowed ; though far from being unwor- 
thy of his principles or talents, being a very clear and able 
argunient against such theories as tend to overturn govern- 
ments, and against the spirit of opposition in those times. 
The other tract was entitled ^* Considerations on Parochial 
Music" (1787); not written as pretending to any know- 
ledge of the science, or talent for' it, which he had not; 
but by way of iniproving its rational and devotional effects 
in i3arish churches. He had then become a parish priest, 
and it was natural for him to attend to every thing relating 
to that office. 

It was apparently on becoming second master of West- 
minster, that he thought himself authorised to marry ; 
and obtained the hand of miss Hannah Wyatt of that city. 
This union proved uniformly happy ; and was productive 
of two sons ; the rev. W. St. Andrew Vincent, now rector 
of Allhallows; and George Giles Vincent, esq. chapter 
clerk of Westminster; who became bis effectual comforters, 
when their mother w&s at length taken from him^ in 1 807. 
But from bis appointment in 1771, he remained without 
clerical preferment till 1778, when be obtained the vica- 
rage of Longdon> in Worcestershire, by the gift of die 


dean and chapter of Westminster. This living he re- 
signed in about six months, on being collated, by the 
archbishop of Canterbury, to the rectory of Allhallows 
the Great and Less, in Thames-street, London. 

No man could be better qualified to enjoy and to promote 
domestic happiness. Easy of access, friendly, social, with- 
out any of the reserve of a student, or any of the pride of 
wisdom, real or assumed, be was always ready to take an 
active part in the innocent gratifications of society. With 
the learned, equally ready to inquire and to communicate, 
but never ostentatious of knowledge ; with the ignorant and 
even the weak, so very indulgent that they hardly suspected 
their inferiority ; certainly were never made to feel it pain- 
fully. Never ashamed to ask for information, when he 
found he wanted it ; and most frankly ready to confess igno- 
rance, if consulted upon any subject to which his mind had 
not been particularly applied. Never, perhaps, was *' I 
know nothing of it," so often said by one who kneiv so 
much. His entire contempt for every species of affectation 
produced these sometimes too sweeping declaratioQS, in 
which he was hardly just to himself. 

But neither his amusements nor his studies were ever 
suffered to interfere with his public or professional duties. 
In the church, in the school^ among bis parishioners, or 
among his boys, he was always active and assiduous: fully 
prepared for the task of the day, whether to preach or teach j 
to illustrate the classirs, or expound the Scriptures. His 
mode of instructing the boys on the ifoundation at West- 
minster, is admirably described by a well-informed writer 
in the Gent. Mag. 1 8 15. ** The under-master,'* he says, 
" has the care of the college ; and in his hands are the pre- 
servation of its discipline, the guardianship of its morals, 
and the change of its religious instruction. With a steadi- 
ness and fidelity rarely equalled Dr. Vincent discharged 
these difficult functions ; but perhaps there never existed a 
man who rivalled him in the art of attracting from boys 
attention to his lectures. Four times a year, each week pre- 
paratory to receiving the sacrament, Dr. V. explained the 
nature of that religious rite ; its institution, its importance, 
and its benefits. And we believe, such was bis happy 
mode of imparting instruction, that there never was kuowa 
^n instance of any boy treating the disquisition with levity, 
or not shewing an eagerness to be present at, and to profit 
by, the lesson. A clear sonorous voice, a fluent, easy, yet 


correct delivery, an expression at once familiar and impres- 
sive, rendered bioi a delightful speaker. These advahtages 
be possessed in common conversatioii, but be displayed 
tbem more especially on public occasions, and never to 
greater advantage than